Tumorigenesis and cell evolution.


:All kinds of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Up until now, we have not had any generally acknowledged model that helps us understand the process. In this paper, I propose a dynamic model of how tumor cells escape the supervision of the immune system; I also examine the possibility that tumorigenesis is a two-stage process. Finally, I suggest that our understanding of the molecular level of tumorigenesis be reappraised.


Med Hypotheses


Medical hypotheses


Cai DW




Has Abstract


1995-05-01 00:00:00














  • Gallstones, the choledochoduodenal junction and initiation of acute pancreatitis: are two stones the culprits rather than one stone?

    abstract::Reflux of biliary secretions into the pancreatic duct following gallstone obstruction of the common biliary pancreatic ampulla has been implicated as a cause of acute pancreatitis. However, the pancreatic duct pressure is higher than the biliary pressure and, therefore, the simple obstruction of the choledochoduodenal...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arendt T,Mönig H,Stüber E,Katsoulis S,Fölsch UR

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Myosin regulatory light chain as a critical substrate of cell death: a hypothesis.

    abstract::As known, gamma-interferon-induced cell death in HeLa cells can be mediated via the recently identified protein kinase, death associated protein (DAP) kinase which is localized to the microfilament system of the cytoskeleton. However, the downstream or upstream effectors of DAP kinase remain uncertain. In the present ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gerashchenko BI,Murata-Hori M,Hosoya H

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis--rational diagnosis and treatment predicated and disordered prostaglandin metabolism.

    abstract::We suggest that polymyalgia rheumatica with giant cell arteritis (PR-GCA) is an arachidonic acid metabolites mediated disease which can be diagnosed more accurately and monitored more precisely for therapeutic benefits by the serial determinations of the major urinary prostaglandin F, serum urinary lysozymes, serum ac...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nalbandian RM,Henry RL,Williams GA,Fleischman JA,O'Donnell FE Jr,Reeser FH

    更新日期:1981-09-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic oxidative stress after irradiation: An unproven hypothesis.

    abstract::Injury and organ failure after irradiation of late-responding tissues is a substantial problem in radiation oncology and a major threat after accidental or belligerent exposures. The mechanisms of injury may include death of clonogens, vascular injury, activation of cytokine networks, and/or chronic oxidative stress. ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cohen SR,Cohen EP

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Mental retardation in Down syndrome: Two ways to treat.

    abstract::Mental retardation is a progressive condition in Down syndrome: intelligence starts to decline linearly within the first year. This phenomenon could be related to the overproduction of a toxic compound, hydrogen sulfide. Indeed, a gene located on chromosome 21 controls the production of cystathionine-β-synthase, an en...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kamoun PP

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • The role of cartilage-derived antigens, pro-coagulant activity and fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.

    abstract::Superficial fraying, splitting and fibrillation of articular cartilage as a consequence of ageing or mechanical injury is not always associated with joint pain. However, similar cartilage lesions accompanied by synovitis and engorgement of the subchondral vasculature generally is; the disorder being known as osteoarth...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ghosh P,Smith M

    更新日期:1993-08-01 00:00:00

  • A new concept of renal hemodynamics.

    abstract::Observations which show that urine output can vary with changes in the contour of the pulse cure, that it can even increase while the mean blood pressure falls during counterpulsation, that the well known hypertensive effect of a renal artery stenosis can also be produced by an aneurysm of the renal artery, cannot be ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gatzek WJ

    更新日期:1978-05-01 00:00:00

  • A unifying multiple sclerosis etiology linking virus infection, sunlight, and vitamin D, through viral interleukin-10.

    abstract::Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease of uncertain etiology. In MS, neurodegeneration is thought to be secondary to autoimmune-mediated damage. However, no cohesive explanation yet exists as to how environmental factors interact to induce a neurodegenerative autoimmune response. Insufficient sunlight ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayes CE,Donald Acheson E

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • 'Prognostic -Omic Clusters' (POCs): a novel approach to health and disease.

    abstract::The concept of disease is central to modern medicine and society's concept of health and illness. Its recognition and nomenclature are based on correlating clinical syndromes, underlying morbid pathologies and pathophysiologies. This conceptualization is being challenged by the advances in the field of "-omics" (e.g. ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jayasinghe S

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • A new therapeutic candidate for oral aphthous ulcer: Allicin.

    abstract::Recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is the most common ulcer of oral non-keratinized mucosa, but the treatment is always limited at present. Considering the multifactorial etiology of RAU, a novel therapeutic agent with multi-bioactivties should be presented. Garlic has been recognized as a favorable natural medicine again...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jiang XW,Hu J,Mian FI

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Serum albumin-mediated strategy for the effective targeting of SARS-CoV-2.

    abstract::Novel coronavirus (NCoV-19), also known as SARS CoV-2, is a pathogen causing an emerging infection that rapidly increases in incidence and geographic range, is associated with the ever-increasing morbidity and mortality rates, and shows sever economic impact worldwide. The WHO declares the NCoV-19 infection disease (C...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mani Mishra P,Uversky VN,Nandi CK

    更新日期:2020-04-24 00:00:00

  • Could exogenous melatonin prevent sudden infant death syndrome?

    abstract::Hypoplastic pineal glands and decreased melatonin levels are found in sudden infant death syndrome. Excess oxygen radical production and inadequate radical quenching is suggested to cause oxidative stress in the brain of sudden infant death syndrome victims. Loss of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid melatonin could...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maurizi CP

    更新日期:1997-11-01 00:00:00

  • A hypothesis on the conflicting results of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    abstract::Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is regarded as acute tubular necrosis resulting from the cytotoxicity of contrast media and the medullary hypoxia linking to the interplay of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation. Saline infusion may prevent CIN by inhibiting renin release and thus production of angiotensin II (ANG II...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wong PC,Guo J,Zhang A

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Clock-cancer connection in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    abstract::The universal 24-hour circadian clock has a profound impact on many daily biological processes. Disturbance of circadian rhythms has been implicated in the etiologies of many chronic illnesses, including cancer; with correlations most profoundly found among hormone-related breast and prostate cancers. Given the fact t...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu Y,Zheng T

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Psoralens in association with seasonal affective disorder.

    abstract::The pathogenesis of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) has been attributed to abnormal melatonin metabolism. Perorally administered psoralens increase the daytime levels of melatonin via the competitive inhibition of hepatic melatonin metabolism. Some findings among SAD patients are parallel to those observed after the...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Partonen T

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • A theoretical analysis of the steady-state relationship between plasma concentrations of calcium and parathyroid hormone.

    abstract::A theoretical consideration of the relationship between plasma concentrations of calcium and parathyroid hormone suggests that the reported negative correlations between these variables in normal subjects and in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, and the positive correlation in patients with primary hyperpar...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Walton RJ

    更新日期:1977-01-01 00:00:00

  • Is mitral valve prolapse a manifestation of adolescent growth spurt?

    abstract::The exact aetiology of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is unknown, although this is the most common cardiac valvular abnormality currently detected. MVP has high incidence in young individuals, particularly during the second and third decades. These individuals are usually of a slender body habitus indicating higher rates...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kumar PD

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • Hypothesis on the time course of antigen dependent changes in lymphoid organs proved by experimental data of depleted growing rats' mesenteric lymph nodes.

    abstract::The results described in this paper partially agree with the hypothesis that mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of depleted growing rats recover their antigen specific determinants after the oral administration of 20% casein for 5-9 days following the time course of antigen dependent changes observed in virgin lymph nodes. ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Langini SH,López MC,Slobodianik NH,Sanahuja JC,Rio ME,Roux ME

    更新日期:1987-08-01 00:00:00

  • Modern menstruation: Is it abnormal and unhealthy?

    abstract::The menstrual cycle appears to have evolved in humans and some other species to improve reproductive efficiency by enabling progesterone production without the presence of the fetus. This phenomenon is termed spontaneous decidualization. Repeated menstruation is produced in modern women because of better general healt...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goldstuck ND

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • From clinic to hypothesis, an innovative operation for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis in a minimal invasive way.

    abstract::Concerning the damage to back muscles and posterior ligament complex (PLC) by posterior open approach for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), the oblique lateral intervertebral fusion (OLIF) is pretty popular nowadays. However, oblique lateral approach has obvious drawbacks, which are limited vision and operative scope for ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Du C,Wu T,Mao T,Jia F,Hai B,Zhu B,Liu X

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Fibromyalgia and unexplained widespread pain: The idiopathic cerebrospinal pressure dysregulation hypothesis.

    abstract::Fibromyalgia (FM) is a debilitating, widespread pain disorder that is assumed to originate from inappropriate pain processing in the central nervous system. Psychological and behavioral factors are both believed to underlie the pathogenesis and complicate the treatment. This hypothesis, however, has not yet been suffi...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hulens M,Dankaerts W,Stalmans I,Somers A,Vansant G,Rasschaert R,Bruyninckx F

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sleep paralysis and "the bedroom intruder": the role of the right superior parietal, phantom pain and body image projection.

    abstract::Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common condition occurring either at sleep onset or sleep offset. During SP the sleeper experiences gross motor paralysis while the sensory system is clear. Hypnogogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are common during SP and may involve seeing, hearing, and sensing the presence of menacing int...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jalal B,Ramachandran VS

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Does dopaminergic reward system contribute to explaining comorbidity obesity and ADHD?

    abstract::Some recent studies have reported a strong link between obesity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, to date, the factors underlying this newly described comorbidity are still unclear and unexplored. In the present article, we proposed that the dopamine system and implicate dopamine genes cont...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu LL,Li BM,Yang J,Wang YW

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Microsatellite instability as a predictive factor for immunotherapy in malignant melanoma.

    abstract::Immunotherapy has attracted attention as a novel treatment modality for malignant melanoma. Although the use of immunotherapy in metastatic melanoma has shown promising results, there remains a lack of predictive biomarkers indicating treatment benefit from immunotherapy. There is growing evidence suggesting that micr...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kubecek O,Trojanova P,Molnarova V,Kopecky J

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic implication of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the treatment of depression.

    abstract::Despite the fact that antidepressants represent the gold standard for the treatment of depression, not all patients treated with an antidepressant monotherapy achieve complete remission of depressive symptoms and functional recovery. Therefore, further examination of the components that may be involved in the action m...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pae CU,Lee C,Paik IH

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Protein profiling: a possible molecular mechanism to mislocalization and down-expression of p27(Kip1) in tumor cells.

    abstract::p27(Kip1) (here after referred to as p27) is a member of a family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors that control cell cycle. There is a considerable evidence that p27 plays a pivotal role in multiple foundational cellular processes, including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. A large number ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guan X,Chen L,Wang J

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cortisol abnormality as a cause of elevated estrogen and immune destabilization: insights for human medicine from a veterinary perspective.

    abstract::For more than 35 years the author has treated multiple serious diseases in cats and dogs by correcting an unrecognized endocrine-immune imbalance originating with a deficiency or defect of cortisol. The cortisol abnormality creates a domino effect on feedback loops involving the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. In...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Plechner AJ

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and proteases in COVID-19 patients: A potential role of cellular FURIN in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.

    abstract::Recently, a mini-review was published in the Medical Hypotheses journal by Usul Afsar entitled 2019-nCoV-SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection: Cruciality of Furin and relevance with cancer. Previous studies have pointed out that disruption of the proteolytic cleavage of proteins can promote infectious and non-infectious di...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 信件


    authors: Drak Alsibai K

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • gamma-Glutamyltransferase is a promising biomarker for cardiovascular risk.

    abstract::Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in a variety of clinical settings of atherogenesis, and mediates many pathways linked to atherosclerosis and inflammation. gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), an enzyme responsible for the extracellular catabolism of antioxidant glutathione, may directly take part in atherogenesis an...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Turgut O,Yilmaz A,Yalta K,Karadas F,Birhan Yilmaz M

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pathogenesis of Rushton bodies: A novel hypothesis.

    abstract::Rushton bodies (RBs) are one of the characteristic features seen in the epithelial lining of odontogenic cysts mainly radicular, dentigerous and odontogenic keratocyst. It has two different histo-morphological appearances; granular and homogeneous. Although widely investigated, the exact pathogenesis and histogenesis ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sarode GS,Sarode SC,Tupkari JV,Deshmukh R,Patil S

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00