Soma siddhas and alchemical enlightenment: psychedelic mushrooms in Buddhist tradition.


:In the legendary biographies of some Buddhist adepts from the 2nd- and 9th-centuries there are some clues which can be interpreted to reveal that the adepts were consuming psychedelic Amanita muscaria, 'fly agaric', mushrooms to achieve enlightenment. This secret ingredient in the alchemical elixir they used to attain 'realization' was, of course, unnamed, in keeping with their vows to maintain the secrecy of their practices. Its identity was concealed behind a set of symbols, some of which appeared in the Soma symbol system of the Rg Veda, some other symbols possibly passed down from a time of earlier shamanic use of the mushroom in the forests of Northern Eurasia, and some symbols that may be unique to these Buddhist legends. The congruity of these sets of symbols from Northern and Southern Asian traditions will be shown to be reflected in the Germanic tradition in some characteristics of the Oldest God, Odin.


J Ethnopharmacol


Hajicek-Dobberstein S




Has Abstract


1995-10-01 00:00:00














  • The immunostimulatory effects and chemical characteristics of heated honey.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), honey has been used as an additive in the heat-processing of herbal medicines to enhance their immunostimulatory activities. AIM OF THE STUDY:We investigated the immunostimulatory activity of heated honey in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ota M,Ishiuchi K,Xu X,Minami M,Nagachi Y,Yagi-Utsumi M,Tabuchi Y,Cai SQ,Makino T

    更新日期:2019-01-10 00:00:00

  • Ameliorative potential of standardized fruit extract of Pterodon pubescens Benth on neuropathic pain in mice: Evidence for the mechanisms of action.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:The medicinal plant Pterodon pubescens Benth has been traditionally used for a long time to treat rheumatic diseases due to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The present study aims to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of ethanolic extract from P. pubescens fruits (EEPp) in...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nucci-Martins C,Martins DF,Nascimento LF,Venzke D,Oliveira AS,Frederico MJ,Silva FR,Brighente IM,Pizzolatti MG,Santos AR

    更新日期:2015-12-04 00:00:00

  • Hepatoprotective effect of Gan Kang Yuan against chronic liver injury induced by alcohol.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Gan Kang Yuan (GKY) is a compound medicine formulated on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It was composed of Herba Cistanchis (Roucongrong), Radix Puerariae (Gegen), Radix Astragali (Huangqi), Fructus Schisandrae (Wuweizi) and Radix Glycyrrhizae (Gancao). AIM:The purpose ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guo Y,Zhao Q,Cao L,Zhao B

    更新日期:2017-08-17 00:00:00

  • A complex prescription for vitiligo activates mitochondrial ATP synthase-6 expression in B-16 murine melanoma cells.

    abstract::A complex prescription (CP) used traditionally for the treatment of vitiligo was prepared from water extract of eight plant materials. To study the mechanism of this preparation its effect on gene expression of B-16 murine melanoma cells was estimated using differential display method (DDRT-PCR). The results showed th...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li W,Yu W,Dong Q,Wang P,Chen Q

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence of anti-inflammatory effects of Passiflora edulis in an inflammation model.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:The popular medicine Passiflora edulis has been used as a sedative, tranquilizer, against cutaneous inflammatory diseases and intermittent fever. Most of the pharmacological investigations of Passiflora edulis have been addressed to its Central Nervous System activities, such as anxiolytic, anticonvulsant an...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montanher AB,Zucolotto SM,Schenkel EP,Fröde TS

    更新日期:2007-01-19 00:00:00

  • Effects of Geum urbanum L. root extracts and its constituents on polymorphonuclear leucocytes functions. Significance in periodontal diseases.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Geum urbanum L. (wood avens) root infusions and decoctions have been used externally for reducing the bleeding and inflammation of gums (gingivitis), and mucous membranes. AIM OF THE STUDY:Taking into account that primed and hyperactivated neutrophils are an important factor in the trans...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Granica S,Kłębowska A,Kosiński M,Piwowarski JP,Dudek MK,Kaźmierski S,Kiss AK

    更新日期:2016-07-21 00:00:00

  • Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. is a medicinal herbaceous plant that is commonly used by the Malay community in Malaysia to relieve pain often associated with mouth ulcers, toothache, sore throat, and stomach ache. AIM:The study was carried out to investigate the antinociceptive effect of ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ong HM,Mohamad AS,Makhtar N',Khalid MH,Khalid S,Perimal EK,Mastuki SN,Zakaria ZA,Lajis N,Israf DA,Sulaiman MR

    更新日期:2011-01-07 00:00:00

  • Acute blood glucose lowering effects and long-term safety of OpunDia supplementation in pre-diabetic males and females.

    abstract:AIM OF THE STUDY:The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of OpunDia (Opuntia ficus-indica) in obese pre-diabetic men and women. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This double-blind placebo controlled study included participants (age range of 20-50 years) randomly assigned to one of the two groups and gi...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Godard MP,Ewing BA,Pischel I,Ziegler A,Benedek B,Feistel B

    更新日期:2010-08-09 00:00:00

  • Effect of Momordica charantia on the glucose tolerance in maturity onset diabetes.

    abstract::Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effect of Momordica charantia on the glucose tolerance of maturity onset diabetic patients. The fruit juice of M. charantia was found to significantly improve the glucose tolerance of 73% of the patients investigated while the other 27% failed to respond. ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Welihinda J,Karunanayake EH,Sheriff MH,Jayasinghe KS

    更新日期:1986-09-01 00:00:00

  • Microencapsulation enhances the anti-ulcerogenic properties of Entada africana leaf extract.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:The antiulcer potentials of most plants still remain largely unexplored, despite their prospects evidenced by their use as ethnomedicine. Entada africana (Mimosaceae) has been widely used in Africa for the treatment of skin infections, wounds, tonic for stomach troubles and against diphth...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Obidike IC,Emeje MO

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • [General pharmacologic inventory of Rwandese medicinal plants].

    abstract::A pharmacological screening was conducted on 101 methanolic extracts from 31 medicinal plants chosen among the more widely used plants in Rwandese traditional medicine. Twenty four extracts from 13 plants have shown spasmolytic properties, while 35 extracts from 15 plants contain spasmodic active principles. Ten extra...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chagnon M

    更新日期:1984-12-01 00:00:00

  • Topical medicines for wound healing: A systematic review of Unani literature with recent advances.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Wound healing is an important area of research in contemporary medicine. Unani is a traditional medicine system based on hundreds of years of observations and experiences. Wounds are described under the headings qarha (arabic) and jarāhat (persian) in classical Unani texts. Several drugs ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fazil M,Nikhat S

    更新日期:2020-07-15 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological investigations on Achyrocline satureioides (LAM.) DC., Compositae.

    abstract::Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. inflorescences have been used as remedies in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of human ailments, particularly those of the gastrointestinal tract. Different extracts of inflorescences have been tested for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, constipating and seda...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simões CM,Schenkel EP,Bauer L,Langeloh A

    更新日期:1988-04-01 00:00:00

  • The dual actions of Sanmiao wan as a hypouricemic agent: down-regulation of hepatic XOD and renal mURAT1 in hyperuricemic mice.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Sanmiao wan (SMW) is widely used for the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia in traditional Chinese medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY:The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypouricemic effects of SMW and its possible mechanism in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. MATE...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang X,Wang CP,Hu QH,Lv YZ,Zhang X,Ouyang Z,Kong LD

    更新日期:2010-03-02 00:00:00

  • Antibacterial activity of Brazilian propolis and fractions against oral anaerobic bacteria.

    abstract::Propolis collected from a cerrado area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was subjected to chromatography on silica gel column and to partition between immiscible solvents. Propolis aqueous-ethanolic extract and fractions obtained were tested for inhibitory activity against periodontitis-causing bacteria. All of the assay...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Santos FA,Bastos EM,Uzeda M,Carvalho MA,Farias LM,Moreira ES,Braga FC

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • Reconstruction of the inventory of materia medica used by members of the Jewish community of medieval Cairo according to prescriptions found in the Taylor-Schechter Genizah collection, Cambridge.

    abstract::The Taylor-Schechter (T-S) collection at Cambridge University Library is the biggest of all Cairo Genizah collections in the world. The importance and the potential of research into the medical aspects of the Genizah documents were clear to researcher since the early 1960s. A few works have been published since, usual...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Lev E,Amar Z

    更新日期:2006-12-06 00:00:00

  • Oral Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) reduces kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures and neuronal death accompanied by attenuating glial cell proliferation and S100B proteins in rats.

    abstract:AIM OF THE STUDY:Epilepsy is a common clinical syndrome with recurrent neuronal discharges in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Here we aim to determine the protective role of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR), an herbal drug belong to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on epileptic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS:To address thi...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lin YW,Hsieh CL

    更新日期:2011-05-17 00:00:00

  • Effect of ME-3451-106, an aqueous extract of Stichaster striatus with inhibitory activity of voluntary alcohol intake, in genetically drinker rats: Isolation and identification of the active fraction.

    abstract::The aqueous extract obtained from Stichaster striatus Müller & Troschel (Asteroidea, Stichasteridae) has been shown to possess activity as an alcohol appetite inhibitor after oral administration in a rat model with a genetically established excessive appetite for alcohol (Wistar rats, lineage UChB). A significant decr...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Font M,Bilbeny N,Contreras S,Paeile C,García H

    更新日期:2006-04-21 00:00:00

  • Paeonia lactiflora extract suppresses cisplatin-induced muscle wasting via downregulation of muscle-specific ubiquitin E3 ligases, NF-κB signaling, and cytokine levels.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:The dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (Radix Paeoniae) has been traditionally used to treat various inflammatory diseases in many Asian countries. AIM OF THE STUDY:Cisplatin is a broad-spectrum anticancer drug used in diverse types of cancer. However, muscle wasting is a common side...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jang J,Lee H,Song J,Bae T,Park M,Kwon YV,Lee D,Yoon Y

    更新日期:2021-02-10 00:00:00

  • Ethnomedicinal application of plants in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province in Korea.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:This study aims to record and conserve oral traditional knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province, Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Our research team interviewed 46 key informants (20 men and 26 women) who have lived ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Song MJ,Kim H

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury.

    abstract::This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. PE (0.5 and 1 mg/ml) increased cell viability of rat primary cultured hepatocytes being treated with ethanol (96 microl/m) by increasing % MTT and decreasing the release of t...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pramyothin P,Samosorn P,Poungshompoo S,Chaichantipyuth C

    更新日期:2006-10-11 00:00:00

  • The suppressive effects of Saposhnikovia divaricata (Fangfeng) chromone extract on rheumatoid arthritis via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen activated proteinkinases activation on collagen-induced arthritis model.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Saposhnikovia divaricata (SD), called "Fangfeng" in China, is commonly used in clinical compound prescription for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but its actions on RA have not been clarified. The present study aims to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of SD chromone extrac...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kong X,Liu C,Zhang C,Zhao J,Wang J,Wan H,Zhu H,Zhang P,Chen W,Xiao Y,Lin N

    更新日期:2013-07-30 00:00:00

  • In vitro growth stimulatory and in vivo wound healing studies on cycloartane-type saponins of Astragalus genus.

    abstract:AIM OF THE STUDY:The present study was undertaken to evaluate the wound healing effects of the four chief saponins of Astragalus species [cycloastragenol (CA), astragaloside IV (AG), cyclocephaloside I (CCI) and cyclocanthoside E (CCE)]. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Effects of cell viability and proliferation of the isolated ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sevimli-Gür C,Onbaşılar I,Atilla P,Genç R,Cakar N,Deliloğlu-Gürhan I,Bedir E

    更新日期:2011-04-12 00:00:00

  • Analytical methods to access the chemical composition of an Euphorbia tirucalli anticancer latex from traditional Brazilian medicine.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Euphorbia tirucalli L. is widely used by Brazilian folk medicine, mainly for its anticancer activity. However, its commercialization was banned by The Brazilian National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) due to the presence of some compounds considered toxic, such as the diterpene est...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Souza LS,Puziol LC,Tosta CL,Bittencourt MLF,Ardisson JS,Kitagawa RR,Filgueiras PR,Kuster RM

    更新日期:2019-06-12 00:00:00

  • Vasorelaxant action of an ethylacetate fraction of Euphorbia humifusa involves NO-cGMP pathway and potassium channels.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Euphorbia humifusa Willd. (EH) is an important traditional Chinese medicine that has commonly been used for treating bacillary dysentery and enteritis in many Asian countries for thousands of years. EH has a wide variety of pharmacological actions such as antioxidant, hypotensive, and hyp...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang TT,Zhou GH,Kho JH,Sun YY,Wen JF,Kang DG,Lee HS,Cho KW,Jin SN

    更新日期:2013-07-09 00:00:00

  • Systematic investigation of ethanolic extract from Leea macrophylla: Implications in wound healing.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Hornem. (Leeaceae) commonly known as Hastikarnapalasa is mainly distributed throughout the tropical parts of India. Traditionally, the plant is found to be effective against guinea worm, ringworm and is applied to sores and wounds. AIM OF THE STUDY:The present s...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Joshi A,Joshi VK,Pandey D,Hemalatha S

    更新日期:2016-09-15 00:00:00

  • Investigation of Lepechinia graveolens for its antioxidant activity and phenolic composition.

    abstract::A bioguided separation of Lepechinia graveolens (Reg.) Epling. (Lamiaceae) for antioxidant activity was carried out. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from the methanolic extract was chromatographed on Sephadex LH-20 affording five active fractions. The radical scavenging activity of each fraction, as well as that of t...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parejo I,Caprai E,Bastida J,Viladomat F,Jáuregui O,Codina C

    更新日期:2004-09-01 00:00:00

  • Anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Lavandula dentata L. and Lavandula stoechas L.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Plants from genus Lavandula have been used as anti-inflammatory drugs in Mediterranean traditional medicine. Nowadays, there is a growing interest for complementary medicine, including herbal remedies, to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM OF THE STUDY:To test the anti-inflammat...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Algieri F,Rodriguez-Nogales A,Vezza T,Garrido-Mesa J,Garrido-Mesa N,Utrilla MP,González-Tejero MR,Casares-Porcel M,Molero-Mesa J,Del Mar Contreras M,Segura-Carretero A,Pérez-Palacio J,Diaz C,Vergara N,Vicente F,Rodriguez-Ca

    更新日期:2016-08-22 00:00:00

  • Preventive effects of Ecliptae Herba extract and its component, ecliptasaponin A, on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Ecliptae Herba, a nourishing traditional Chinese medicine, is also a folk medicine for the treatment of lung diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY:To investigate the anti-fibrosis effects and the underlying mechanism of the extract of Ecliptae Herba and its potential active components. MATERIALS A...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: You XY,Xue Q,Fang Y,Liu Q,Zhang CF,Zhao C,Zhang M,Xu XH

    更新日期:2015-12-04 00:00:00

  • Promising medicinal plants for bioprospection in a Cerrado area of Chapada do Araripe, Northeastern Brazil.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Traditional medical systems represent an important source of knowledge about the use of biodiversity. Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies can encourage bioprospecting in the pursuit and selection of promising medicinal plants. This study investigated the diversity of medicinal...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ribeiro DA,Oliveira LG,Macêdo DG,Menezes IR,Costa JG,Silva MA,Lacerda SR,Souza MM

    更新日期:2014-09-29 00:00:00