Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a review of the pathology and pathogenesis.


:Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is an important viral opportunistic infection of oligodendrocytes leading to direct demyelination. Virus is likely disseminated to the brain via the blood. However, the timing of that dissemination with relationship to clinical disease is unknown. Important clues about viral pathogenesis have been learned by applying molecular in situ techniques to diseased brain. The oligodendrocyte is the primary target for JC virus infection, and its death is the primary reason for demyelination. Bizarre astrocytes show limited viral DNA replication but are abortively infected. Although lymphoid organs can be infected by JC virus, there is no definitive evidence that lymphoid cells carry virus into the brain at the time of immunosuppression. JC virus may be reactivated from a latent state in both the brain and in non-central nervous system (CNS) organs at the time of immunosuppression, leading to clinical disease. Future sensitive in situ studies will likely resolve controversies about pathogenesis.


Microsc Res Tech


Aksamit AJ Jr




Has Abstract


1995-11-01 00:00:00












  • Systematic approach to the correct identification of Asplenium dalhousiae (Aspleniaceae) with their medicinal uses.

    abstract::In present study, multiple microscope techniques were used for the systematics identification of the species Asplenium dalhousiae. The plant was collected from different phytogeographical and its natural habitat of Pakistan, where it shows higher diversity. Morphology, foliar epidermal anatomy, and spore morphological...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zaman W,Shah SN,Ullah F,Ayaz A,Ahmad M,Ali A

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Deposition of lead and cadmium released by cigarette smoke in dental structures and resin composite.

    abstract::Cigarette smoke is a significant source of cadmium, lead, and toxic elements, which are absorbed into the human organism. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the presence of toxic elements, cadmium, and lead deriving from cigarette smoke in the resin composite, dentine, and dental enamel...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takeuchi CY,Corrêa-Afonso AM,Pedrazzi H,Dinelli W,Palma-Dibb RG

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ultrastructural features of the double capsulated connective tissue around silicone prostheses.

    abstract::The implantation of breast prostheses for both aesthetic and reconstructive purposes has been growing exponentially in the last 20 years. Safety and prosthesis lifespan are majorly debated issues in relation to the correlated long-term complications. Mainly the periprosthetic capsule that develops around the implant i...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Calderan L,Panettiere P,Accorsi D,Marchi A,Bernardi P,Benati D,Conti G,Chirumbolo S,Zingaretti N,Parodi PC,Cisterna B,Sbarbati A

    更新日期:2020-12-10 00:00:00

  • Effects of vitamin A deficiency on the inter-Sertoli cell tight junctions and on the germ cell population.

    abstract::When 20-day-old rats are placed on a vitamin A deficient diet (VAD) for a period of 10 weeks, the seminiferous tubules are found to contain only Sertoli cells, a few residual A0, A1 spermatogonia, and preleptotene spermatocytes (PL). The type A1 spermatogonia and PL spermatocytes are arrested in their G2 phase. In VAD...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ismail N,Morales CR

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Localization of neurotrophin-3-like immunoreactivity in the rat cochlear nucleus.

    abstract::Immunohistochemistry as well as immunohistofluorescence were used to investigate the distribution of the neurotrophin-3 (NT3) in the adult rat cochlear nucleus. We found a widespread distribution of NT3 immunolabeled neurons throughout the three divisions of this nucleus. NT3-like immunoreactivity was clearly populati...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burette A,Belliot G,Albuisson E,Romand R

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanisms of gastrulation and tail formation in ascidians.

    abstract::Ascidian embryos are useful for examining how events that occur during fertilization and cleavage affect gastrulation because they gastrulate early in development, during the seventh cleavage. In ascidians, both dorsal-ventral and anterior-posterior axes are determined before first cleavage. The dorsal-ventral axis is...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Swalla BJ

    更新日期:1993-11-01 00:00:00

  • F463L increases the potential of dofetilide on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels.

    abstract::Mutations in genes related to long QT syndrome (LQTS) is recognized as an independent risk of drug-induced LQTS. We previously screened a mutation F463L in a Chinese patient with LQT2, syncope, and epilepsy. Here, we planned to illustrate how F463L influences the action of dofetilide on hERG channels. F463L-hERG plasm...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cheng G,Wu J,Han W,Sun C

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Development of the vomeronasal receptor epithelium and the accessory olfactory bulb in sheep.

    abstract::The morphological development of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the sheep from anlage to birth were studied by classical and histochemical methods using embryos and fetuses obtained from an abattoir with ages estimated from crown-to-rump length. Both VNO and AOB developed in a biolog...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salazar I,Lombardero M,Alemañ N,Sánchez Quinteiro P

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • Taxonomic significance of macro and micro-morphology of Geranium L. species Using Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    abstract::Macro and micromorphology of different parts that is, sepals, petals, flowers, indumentum, and leaf shape of 22 Geranium L. taxa from Iran were studied. These taxa representing the eight sections of the genus as sect. Dissecta, sect. Geranium, and sect. Tuberosa (of subgen. Geranium); sect. Batrachioidea, sect. Divari...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Esfandani-Bozchaloyi S,Zaman W

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in membrane trafficking and actin dynamics during axon formation in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    abstract::Neurons begin to polarize when one of the neurites becomes the axon. Hippocampal neurons in cell culture have a sharp transition between their unpolarized and polarized stage revealed by the rapid growth of the future axon. Recent progress shows that both a cytoplasmic membrane flow and actin dynamics govern axon form...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bradke F,Dotti CG

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Adrenomedullin and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide in the normal prostate and in prostate carcinoma.

    abstract::There is increasing evidence for the important role played by regulatory peptides in the physiology of the normal and neoplastic prostate. Adrenomedullin (AM) and pro-adrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) are recently discovered regulatory peptides widely expressed in the normal prostate and in prostate carcinom...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Calvo A,Abasolo I,Jiménez N,Wang Z,Montuenga L

    更新日期:2002-04-15 00:00:00

  • Light adaptation affects synaptic vesicle density but not the distribution of GABAA receptors in goldfish photoreceptor terminals.

    abstract::GABA is a likely feedback transmitter from H1 horizontal cells to cone photoreceptors in fish retinas. Spinules arise from H1 cell dendrites in light-adapted retinas, are correlated with responses attributed to feedback, and have been proposed to be the GABA release sites. We used mAb 62-3G1, an antibody against the b...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yazulla S,Studholme KM

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Synchronized neuronal networks: the GnRH system.

    abstract::The anatomical substrate for coordinated release from the dispersed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal population remains obscure. There is physiological evidence that the GnRH hormone itself has a role in tonic inhibition or modulation of GnRH function. This has led to the hypothesis that there is an ultr...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Witkin JW

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • The mushroom bodies of Drosophila melanogaster: an immunocytological and golgi study of Kenyon cell organization in the calyces and lobes.

    abstract::Golgi impregnations reveal a variety of dendritic morphologies amongst Kenyon cells in the mushroom bodies of Drosophila melanogaster. Different morphological types of Kenyon cells contribute axon-like processes to five divisions of the medial and vertical lobes. Four of these divisions have characteristic affinities ...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Strausfeld NJ,Sinakevitch I,Vilinsky I

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Fossil record of echinoderm regeneration with special regard to crinoids.

    abstract::Regeneration of skeletal parts of fossil echinoderms is reviewed. Among regenerations of various fossil echinoderms, those of crinoids are most common and many examples have been reported. Mesozoic and Cenozoic crinoids, the subclass Articulata, are characterized by the dominance of muscular articulations in the arms ...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Oji T

    更新日期:2001-12-15 00:00:00

  • Fluorescence intensity is a poor predictor of saturation effects in two-photon microscopy: artifacts in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    abstract::Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has become an increasingly important measurement tool for biological and biomedical investigations, with the capability to assay molecular dynamics and interactions both in vitro and within living cells. Information recovery in FCS requires an accurate characterization and c...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu J,Berland K

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Mitochondrial alterations and autofluorescent conversion of Candida albicans induced by histatins.

    abstract::The mechanism of the candidacidal activity of histatins 3 and 5 (Hst) is still a matter of debate. Previous studies have indicated that Hst induce cell permeabilization, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria, inhibition of the respiratory chain, and energy-dependent cytotoxic release of ATP. On t...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Diaz G,Polonelli L,Conti S,Messana I,Cabras T,Putzolu M,Falchi AM,Fadda ME,Cosentino S,Isola R

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Exit wave reconstructions using through focus series of HREM images.

    abstract::The through focus exit wave reconstruction technique uses a series of high resolution electron microscopy images to reconstruct the complex electron wavefunction at the exit plane of the specimen. The feasibility of the through focus exit wave reconstruction method and its most important limitations are discussed. It ...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zandbergen HW,Van Dyck D

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • Morphometric study of adipocytes on breast cancer by means of photonic microscopy and image analysis.

    abstract::Worldwide, breast cancer (BrCa) is currently the leading cause of deaths associated to malignant lesions in adult women. Given that some studies have mentioned that peritumoral adipocytes may contribute to breast carcinogenesis, present work sought to quantitative evaluate the morphometry of these cells in a group of ...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suárez-Nájera LE,Chanona-Pérez JJ,Valdivia-Flores A,Marrero-Rodríguez D,Salcedo-Vargas M,García-Ruiz DI,Castro-Reyes MA

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cellular relations in mouse circumvallate taste buds.

    abstract::The fine structure of the taste buds of circumvallate papillae of two strains of mice was studied by electron microscopy. Mice anesthetized with ketamine were perfused through the heart with a double aldehyde mixture in cacodylate buffer and the tissues embedded in Epon. Semi-serial sections were employed. The morphol...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murray RG

    更新日期:1993-10-15 00:00:00

  • A novel whole tooth-in-jaw-bone culture of rat molars: morphological, immunohistochemical, and laser capture microdissection analysis.

    abstract::In conventional whole-tooth culture systems, limitation exists regarding maintenance of the vitality of the dental pulp, because this tissue is encased in rigid dentin walls that hinder nutrition supply. We here report a whole tooth-in-jaw-bone culture system of rat mandibular first molars, where transcardiac perfusio...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chokechanachaisakul U,Kaneko T,Yamanaka Y,Okiji T,Suda H

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Intersection of first order Laue zone lines along the [100] direction in an FCC material.

    abstract::An analytical result is given for the wavelength at which two or more first order Laue zone (FOLZ) lines intersect at a single point on the positive x axis when a face centred cubic crystal is observed in the convergent beam mode with the beam axis parallel to the [100] direction. The position of the intersection alon...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Curzon AE

    更新日期:1994-10-15 00:00:00

  • Effect of ultrasonic excitation on the porosity of glass ionomer cement: a scanning electron microscope evaluation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Ultrasonic excitation (US) was applied to glass ionomer cement (GIC) during early set time to increase the advantageous properties of this material. PURPOSE:The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the inner porosity of GIC after US. STUDY DESIGN:A total of 16 specimens, for each material, were prepare...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coldebella CR,Santos-Pinto L,Zuanon AC

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gap junctions in intestinal smooth muscle and interstitial cells of Cajal.

    abstract::This manuscript reviews gap junctions' roles in control of intestinal motility. Gap junctions (GJs) of small intestine (SmIn) are found between circular muscle (CM) cells, between interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) of deep muscular plexus (DMP) and between them and adjacent outer circular muscle (OCM). GJs between long...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Daniel EE,Wang YF

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • Brain tumor detection and classification: A framework of marker-based watershed algorithm and multilevel priority features selection.

    abstract::Brain tumor identification using magnetic resonance images (MRI) is an important research domain in the field of medical imaging. Use of computerized techniques helps the doctors for the diagnosis and treatment against brain cancer. In this article, an automated system is developed for tumor extraction and classificat...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khan MA,Lali IU,Rehman A,Ishaq M,Sharif M,Saba T,Zahoor S,Akram T

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Moving legs: A workflow on how to generate a flexible endopod of the 518 million-year-old Chengjiang arthropod Ercaicunia multinodosa using 3D-kinematics (Cambrian, China).

    abstract::Understanding the functional morphology and mobility of appendages of fossil animals is important for exploring ecological traits such as feeding and locomotion. Previous work on fossils from the 518 million-year-old Chengjiang biota of China was based mainly on two-dimensional information captured from the surface of...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmidt M,Liu Y,Zhai D,Hou X,Melzer RR

    更新日期:2020-11-06 00:00:00

  • Morphology of the pancreatic duct system in mammals.

    abstract::The morphology of pancreatic excretory duct segments was reviewed in mammals. The fine structure of the epithelial lining was described in intercalated ducts, intra- and extralobular ducts, and in major pancreatic ducts. Morphological characteristics of the various cell types comprising to the duct epithelium were det...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Egerbacher M,Böck P

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Age-related changes in the brains of senescence-accelerated mice (SAM): association with glial and endothelial reactions.

    abstract::Twelve substrains of inbred senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) have been developed, among which the SAMP8 and SAMP10 strains show a significant age-related deterioration in learning and memory for passive and active avoidance tasks. These strains have, respectively, a low and high incidence of systemic senile amyloidos...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kawamata T,Akiguchi I,Maeda K,Tanaka C,Higuchi K,Hosokawa M,Takeda T

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Granulated metrial gland cells: a natural killer cell subset of the pregnant murine uterus.

    abstract::The metrial gland develops in the uterus of many rodent species during normal pregnancy. It is a maternally-derived tissue that contains stromal and vascular elements plus a population of large cells, striking in their light microscopic appearance due to the presence of numerous cytoplasmic granules. These cells, whic...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Croy BA,Kiso Y

    更新日期:1993-06-15 00:00:00

  • Microscopic analysis of the quality of obturation and physical properties of MTA Fillapex.

    abstract::This study analyzed the quality of obturation and physical properties of MTA Fillapex and AH Plus sealer. A sample of 30 human maxillary central incisors were instrumented with Protaper until a F5 (50/05) file. Both sealers were mixed with Rhodamine-B dye to allow visualization on a confocal laser-scanning microscope ...

    journal_title:Microscopy research and technique

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amoroso-Silva PA,Guimarães BM,Marciano MA,Duarte MA,Cavenago BC,Ordinola-Zapata R,Almeida MM,Moraes IG

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00