A probiotic treatment increases the immune response induced by the nasal delivery of spore-adsorbed TTFC.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND:Spore-forming bacteria of the Bacillus genus are widely used probiotics known to exert their beneficial effects also through the stimulation of the host immune response. The oral delivery of B. toyonensis spores has been shown to improve the immune response to a parenterally administered viral antigen in mice, suggesting that probiotics may increase the efficiency of systemic vaccines. We used the C fragment of the tetanus toxin (TTFC) as a model antigen to evaluate whether a treatment with B. toyonensis spores affected the immune response to a mucosal antigen. RESULTS:Purified TTFC was given to mice by the nasal route either as a free protein or adsorbed to B. subtilis spores, a mucosal vaccine delivery system proved effective with several antigens, including TTFC. Spore adsorption was extremely efficient and TTFC was shown to be exposed on the spore surface. Spore-adsorbed TTFC was more efficient than the free antigen in inducing an immune response and the probiotic treatment improved the response, increasing the production of TTFC-specific secretory immunoglobin A (sIgA) and causing a faster production of serum IgG. The analysis of the induced cytokines indicated that also the cellular immune response was increased by the probiotic treatment. A 16S RNA-based analysis of the gut microbial composition did not show dramatic differences due to the probiotic treatment. However, the abundance of members of the Ruminiclostridium 6 genus was found to correlate with the increased immune response of animals immunized with the spore-adsorbed antigen and treated with the probiotic. CONCLUSION:Our results indicate that B. toyonensis spores significantly contribute to the humoral and cellular responses elicited by a mucosal immunization with spore-adsorbed TTFC, pointing to the probiotic treatment as an alternative to the use of adjuvants for mucosal vaccinations.

journal_name

Microb Cell Fact

journal_title

Microbial cell factories

authors

Santos FDS,Mazzoli A,Maia AR,Saggese A,Isticato R,Leite F,Iossa S,Ricca E,Baccigalupi L

doi

10.1186/s12934-020-01308-1

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2020-02-19 00:00:00

pages

42

issue

1

issn

1475-2859

pii

10.1186/s12934-020-01308-1

journal_volume

19

pub_type

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