Synaptic Plasticity Forms and Functions.

Abstract:

:Synaptic plasticity, the activity-dependent change in neuronal connection strength, has long been considered an important component of learning and memory. Computational and engineering work corroborate the power of learning through the directed adjustment of connection weights. Here we review the fundamental elements of four broadly categorized forms of synaptic plasticity and discuss their functional capabilities and limitations. Although standard, correlation-based, Hebbian synaptic plasticity has been the primary focus of neuroscientists for decades, it is inherently limited. Three-factor plasticity rules supplement Hebbian forms with neuromodulation and eligibility traces, while true supervised types go even further by adding objectives and instructive signals. Finally, a recently discovered hippocampal form of synaptic plasticity combines the above elements, while leaving behind the primary Hebbian requirement. We suggest that the effort to determine the neural basis of adaptive behavior could benefit from renewed experimental and theoretical investigation of more powerful directed types of synaptic plasticity.

journal_name

Annu Rev Neurosci

authors

Magee JC,Grienberger C

doi

10.1146/annurev-neuro-090919-022842

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2020-07-08 00:00:00

pages

95-117

eissn

0147-006X

issn

1545-4126

journal_volume

43

pub_type

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