Establishing Reference Intervals for Gadolinium Concentrations in Blood, Plasma, and Urine in Individuals Not Previously Exposed to Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents.


OBJECTIVES:Over the recent years, there have been increasing concerns that exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) may be associated with retention of Gd within the skin, bones, and solid organs in patients with normal renal function, although the clinical implications of this deposition remain to be established. There are no published data available to guide the development of reference intervals for Gd concentrations in biological samples from healthy people. The aims of this study were to (1) determine whether healthy individuals who have not received GBCAs have detectable concentrations of Gd in their blood and urine, and (2) to develop a reference range for Gd concentrations in blood and spot urine samples for healthy individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Whole blood, plasma, and spot urine samples were taken from 120 healthy volunteers with estimated glomerular filtration rate 70 mL/min per 1.73 m or greater. Gd concentrations were measured in these samples using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. The reference intervals for Gd concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine were estimated as the 2.5th percentile and the upper reference limit as the 97.5th percentile. RESULTS:Ten (8.33%) of the 120 subjects had detectable concentrations of Gd in their whole blood (n = 5) or spot urine (n = 5) samples; no subjects had detectable concentrations of Gd in their plasma samples. Our proposed reference intervals for Gd are as follows: whole blood, <0.008 ng/mL or <0.050 nmol/L; plasma, <0.009 ng/mL or <0.057 nmol/L; spot urine, <0.036 μg/g or <0.0250 nmol/mmol. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study provide reference intervals for whole blood, plasma, and urine Gd concentrations in healthy subjects who have not previously received GBCAs and will assist clinicians in assessing patients who have concerns regarding potential Gd retention postexposure and help guide further clinical studies to explore the pharmacokinetics of GBCAs in patients with normal renal function.


Invest Radiol


Investigative radiology


Layne KA,Wood DM,Dixon-Zegeye M,Archer JRH,Raja K,Dargan PI




Has Abstract


2020-07-01 00:00:00












  • Contrast media-induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocyte cultures.

    abstract::Ionic (diatrizoate, ioxaglate) and nonionic (iohexol, iosimide, iopromide, and iotrolan) contrast media (CM) were evaluated for their cytogenetic effects in lymphocytes. Heparinized blood was mixed with culture medium RPMI-1640 supplemented with phytohemagglutinin, fetal calf serum, and antibiotics. Plastic tubes cont...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parvez Z,Kormano M,Moncada R,Eklund R

    更新日期:1986-11-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment and reproducibility of aortic atherosclerosis magnetic resonance imaging: impact of 3-Tesla field strength and parallel imaging.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To investigate image quality and interstudy reproducibility of aortic atherosclerosis imaging at 1.5 T, and to explore the impact of parallel imaging techniques at 3 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Thirty-two subjects (20 normal, 12 patients w...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maroules CD,McColl R,Khera A,Peshock RM

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Comprehensive assessment of renal function and vessel morphology in potential living kidney donors: an MRI-based approach.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To test the feasibility of a single MR-based examination allowing for the comprehensive assessment of renal anatomy, function, and vascular status in candidates for kidney transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twelve healthy potential kidney donors (mean age: 47 +/- 14 [standard deviation] years, 3 men and...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Rossi C,Boss A,Artunc F,Yildiz S,Martirosian P,Dittmann H,Claussen CD,Heyne N,Schick F,Schlemmer HP

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound for assessment of skeletal muscle microcirculation in peripheral arterial disease.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:: This feasibility study was performed to assess whether dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and transient arterial occlusion are able to detect alterations in the microvascular perfusion and arterial perfusion reserve in patients suffering from peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in comparison with hea...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amarteifio E,Weber MA,Wormsbecher S,Demirel S,Krakowski-Roosen H,Jöres A,Braun S,Delorme S,Böckler D,Kauczor HU,Krix M

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Alteration of human tumor cell adhesion by high-strength static magnetic fields.

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:The authors investigated whether the ability of human malignant melanoma cells to increase in cell number or their ability to remain viable was compromised by high-field strength static magnetic fields. Normal human fibroblasts also were studied to determine if any magnetic field-related altera...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Short WO,Goodwill L,Taylor CW,Job C,Arthur ME,Cress AE

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in portal hemodynamics and acute rejection in the first 2 weeks after orthotopic liver transplantation. A prospective Doppler ultrasound study.

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:To analyze changes in Doppler ultrasound variables of the portal vein in relation to liver biopsy findings, the authors performed a prospective study of 316 Doppler ultrasound examinations in the first 2 weeks after orthotopic liver transplantation on 23 patients. METHODS:Recordings were obtai...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kok T,Slooff MJ,Peeters PM,Zwaveling JH,Bijleveld CM,Gi-van Loon CE,Klompmaker IJ,Haagsma EB

    更新日期:1996-12-01 00:00:00

  • Antiproliferative effects of the antiallergic agent azelastine on human aortic smooth-muscle cells: an in vitro study.

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:The aim of the study was to examine the effects of azelastine on proliferation, clonogenic activity, cell-cycle, and migration of human aortic smooth-muscle cells (haSMCs) in vitro. METHODS:HaSMCs were treated for 4 days with azelastine (1 micromol/L, 25 micromol/L, 50 micromol/L). Half of the...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schöber W,Wiskirchen J,Kehlbach R,Gebert R,Rodegerdts E,Betsch A,Johst U,Feuls R,Claussen CD,Duda SD

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Interleaved Mapping of Temperature and Longitudinal Relaxation Rate to Monitor Drug Delivery During Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Induced Hyperthermia.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a method to heat lesions noninvasively to a stable, elevated temperature and a well-suited method to induce local hyperthermia (41°C-43°C) in deep-seated tissues. Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging provides therapy planning on anatomical i...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kneepkens E,Heijman E,Keupp J,Weiss S,Nicolay K,Grüll H

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Combined methods for assessment of neurotoxicity: testing of new nonionic radiographic media.

    abstract::A battery of tests for toxicity assessment of new contrast media is reviewed. Cell toxicity in a protozoan culture (Blepharisma americanum); lethal dose determination in mice; EEG Spectral analysis following cisternography in rabbits; ED50 and LD50 determination by intra- and pericerebral injection in rats; intraciste...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sovak M,Siefert HM,Ranganathan R

    更新日期:1980-11-01 00:00:00

  • Educational objectives for diagnostic radiology residency training.

    abstract::A method of teaching radiology residents by identification of general and specific objectives to be accomplished during each time segment of the four-year training program has been developed. The objectives are incorporated into an educational contract that is signed by the resident and rotation director at the beginn...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Howland WJ,Marler D,Bosshart D

    更新日期:1986-12-01 00:00:00

  • The allergic theory of radiocontrast agent toxicity: demonstration of antibody activity in sera of patients suffering major radiocontrast agent reactions.

    abstract::An allergic, immunologic mechanism for certain adverse reactions to radiocontrast agents has been postulated on the basis of clinical and theoretical considerations. One obstacle to the acceptance of this allergic theory has been the inability to demonstrate significant antibodies with specificity for these agents. In...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brasch RC,Caldwell JL

    更新日期:1976-09-01 00:00:00

  • Detection and characterization of focal liver lesions: a Japanese phase III, multicenter comparison between gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced computed tomography predominantly in patients with hepatocellular

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To prospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined unenhanced and gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging compared with unenhanced MR imaging and triphasic contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography (CT) for the detection and characterization of focal liver...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Ichikawa T,Saito K,Yoshioka N,Tanimoto A,Gokan T,Takehara Y,Kamura T,Gabata T,Murakami T,Ito K,Hirohashi S,Nishie A,Saito Y,Onaya H,Kuwatsuru R,Morimoto A,Ueda K,Kurauchi M,Breuer J

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of radial forces in Z stents.

    abstract:RATIONAL AND OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of variation in design parameters on the resultant radial force. We evaluated the influence of wire gauge, leg length, and number of bends on the radial force produced by z stents and compared these with radial forces produced by commercial s...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Snowhill PB,Nosher JL,Siegel RL,Silver FH

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Myocardial wall motion evaluation using amplitude frequency spectral analysis.

    abstract::Frequency spectral analysis of cardiac wall motion as calculated from the recorded video kymogram are demonstrated. Characteristic harmonics following the fundamental frequency of the cardiac rate have been demonstrated to have an alternating sequential energy distribution as measured from the free margin of the left ...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Silverman NR,Rosen L,Helland DR

    更新日期:1975-03-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of radiologist interpretive performance using blinded reads by multiple external readers.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To demonstrate a method of assessing radiologic diagnostic agreement utilizing multiple blinded external readers. METHODS:Six body CT studies interpreted by one reader (primary reader) at the host institution were compiled with patient identifiers removed. Brief clinical histories that were available to the ...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ryan AF,Semelka RC,Molina PL,Yonkers S,Vaidean G

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of some iodinated contrast media on human plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity.

    abstract::The effect of three iodinated contrast media (CM) on human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity was studied during the intravenous pyelography (i.v.P). BuChE is an enzyme that participates in the metabolism of acetylcholine and hydrolyzes food esters and drugs such as nondepolarizing muscle relaxants and loca...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mironidou M,Ximitidou O,Christopoulos S,Kokkas B

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Noninvasive inductive stent heating: alternative approach to prevent instent restenosis?

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:To test noninvasive inductive heating of implanted vascular stents as an alternative approach for reduction or prevention of neointimal hyperplasia. METHODS:Calorimetric pretests were performed to get an orientation on the different parameters of influence for inductive heating of stents. The ...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Floren MG,Günther RW,Schmitz-Rode T

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Sonography of the kidneys in hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    abstract::The sonographic appearance of kidneys in patients presenting with acute renal failure due to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) was evaluated and compared with that in an age-matched control series. In nine patients with HUS, the renal cortex was typically hyperechogenic and the renal pyramids appeared sonolucent. The re...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kenney PJ,Brinsko RE,Patel DV,Spitzer RE,Farrar FM

    更新日期:1986-07-01 00:00:00

  • Correlation of Histological Vessel Characteristics and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Intravoxel Incoherent Motion-Derived Parameters in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model-derived parameters and histologically determined microvascularity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). MATERIALS AND METHODS:From April 2013 to May 2014, 42 patients with mal...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Klau M,Mayer P,Bergmann F,Maier-Hein K,Hase J,Hackert T,Kauczor HU,Grenacher L,Stieltjes B

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Personal computer needs for the radiologist.

    abstract::This article reviews the computer system hardware and software, applications programs, and computer network services that are available on microcomputers for use by the radiologist. The American College of Radiology Institute computer network is described, which is specifically designed to help the practicing radiolog...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Newell JD,Hunter TB

    更新日期:1986-02-01 00:00:00

  • The etiology and implications of dense cavitary "photopenia" on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    abstract::Dense cavitary "photopenia" was observed on 21 of 200 consecutive stress perfusion scintigrams. A prominent finding in many cases, it sometimes occupied only a portion of the region overlying the ventricular cavity, was often seen in some projections and not others, and was frequently adjacent to myocardial perfusion ...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dae M,Canhasi B,Botvinick E,Olvera S,Schechtmann N,Engelstad B,Hattner R,Schiller N,O'Connell W,Faulkner D

    更新日期:1985-07-01 00:00:00

  • Necrotic areas in VX2 carcinoma of rabbits. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic appearance.

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:To assess the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating the evolution of tumor necrosis, the authors evaluated 28 VX2 carcinomas inoculated in the thigh muscles of rabbits. METHODS:MRI of VX2 carcinomas at 2.0 T was done with spin-echo technique 1 week (14 tumors) and 3 week...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Choi BI,Lee DH,Han MC

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Magnetic resonance perfusion of the myocardium: semiquantitative and quantitative evaluation in comparison with coronary angiography and fractional flow reserve.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to investigate if a quantitative evaluation of a magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion examination of the myocardium can achieve a comparable diagnostic accuracy as a semiquantitative evaluation. METHODS:A total of 31 patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent MR imaging an...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huber A,Sourbron S,Klauss V,Schaefer J,Bauner KU,Schweyer M,Reiser M,Rummeny E,Rieber J

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Some practical issues of experimental design and data analysis in radiological ROC studies.

    abstract::Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis has been used in a broad variety of medical imaging studies during the past 15 years, and its advantages over more traditional measures of diagnostic performance are now clearly established. But despite the essential simplicity of the approach, workers in the field ofte...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Metz CE

    更新日期:1989-03-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of emphysema with computed tomography. Correlation with pulmonary function tests and chest radiography.

    abstract::We studied 60 male patients who had concurrent chest films (CXR), computed tomography scans (CT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) to assess the sensitivity of CT and conventional films in detecting emphysema compared with PFT. We also sought to determine whether emphysema could be diagnosed by CT in patients with no...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanders C,Nath PH,Bailey WC

    更新日期:1988-04-01 00:00:00

  • Black-blood diffusion-weighted EPI acquisition of the liver with parallel imaging: comparison with a standard T2-weighted sequence for detection of focal liver lesions.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the performance of black-blood diffusion-weighted (DW)-EPI sequences with parallel imaging for the detection of focal liver lesions in comparison with a standard T2-weighted (T2-w) sequence. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty patients with known or suspected focal liver lesions underwent liver MRI usi...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zech CJ,Herrmann KA,Dietrich O,Horger W,Reiser MF,Schoenberg SO

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Blood velocity calculated from volumetric dynamic computed tomography angiography.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Though functional intravascular parameters such as blood velocity and direction of blood flow are available via imaging modalities such as Doppler ultrasound and phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging, such quantitative information is not yet supported by computed tomography (CT). In this study, we examine...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barfett JJ,Fierstra J,Mikulis DJ,Krings T

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Observer variation in detecting the radiologic features associated with bronchiolitis.

    abstract::Chest radiographs are commonly obtained to assess children for bronchiolitis, both to corroborate the diagnosis and to exclude other diagnostic possibilities. Their utility in this setting has not previously been examined. Using a blinded, randomized study design, we examined the interobserver and intraobserver variat...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coblentz CL,Babcook CJ,Alton D,Riley BJ,Norman G

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • Multiphase magnetic resonance angiography of the abdominal and pelvic arteries: results of a bicenter multireader analysis.

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:The objective is to assess the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver variability of multiphase 3D gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (3D-Gd-MRA) for assessment of abdominal and pelvic vascular disease. METHODS:In 41 patients from two different institutions multiphase 3D-Gd-MRA ...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Schoenberg SO,Essig M,Hallscheidt P,Sharafuddin MJ,Stolpen AH,Knopp MV,Yuh WT

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Computed Tomography for 4-Dimensional Angiography and Perfusion Imaging of the Prostate for Embolization Planning of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a computed tomography (CT) protocol enabling the visualization of the prostatic artery (PA) before prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in benign prostatic hyperplasia, which provides quantitative perfusion information of the prostate gland. MATERIALS ...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kobe A,Puippe G,Klotz E,Alkadhi H,Pfammatter T

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00