Establishing Reference Intervals for Gadolinium Concentrations in Blood, Plasma, and Urine in Individuals Not Previously Exposed to Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents.


OBJECTIVES:Over the recent years, there have been increasing concerns that exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) may be associated with retention of Gd within the skin, bones, and solid organs in patients with normal renal function, although the clinical implications of this deposition remain to be established. There are no published data available to guide the development of reference intervals for Gd concentrations in biological samples from healthy people. The aims of this study were to (1) determine whether healthy individuals who have not received GBCAs have detectable concentrations of Gd in their blood and urine, and (2) to develop a reference range for Gd concentrations in blood and spot urine samples for healthy individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Whole blood, plasma, and spot urine samples were taken from 120 healthy volunteers with estimated glomerular filtration rate 70 mL/min per 1.73 m or greater. Gd concentrations were measured in these samples using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. The reference intervals for Gd concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine were estimated as the 2.5th percentile and the upper reference limit as the 97.5th percentile. RESULTS:Ten (8.33%) of the 120 subjects had detectable concentrations of Gd in their whole blood (n = 5) or spot urine (n = 5) samples; no subjects had detectable concentrations of Gd in their plasma samples. Our proposed reference intervals for Gd are as follows: whole blood, <0.008 ng/mL or <0.050 nmol/L; plasma, <0.009 ng/mL or <0.057 nmol/L; spot urine, <0.036 μg/g or <0.0250 nmol/mmol. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study provide reference intervals for whole blood, plasma, and urine Gd concentrations in healthy subjects who have not previously received GBCAs and will assist clinicians in assessing patients who have concerns regarding potential Gd retention postexposure and help guide further clinical studies to explore the pharmacokinetics of GBCAs in patients with normal renal function.


Invest Radiol


Investigative radiology


Layne KA,Wood DM,Dixon-Zegeye M,Archer JRH,Raja K,Dargan PI




Has Abstract


2020-07-01 00:00:00












  • In vitro complement consumption by contrast materials and analogues: reactors vs. nonreactors.

    abstract::Blood samples from previous contrast reactors and nonreactor controls were incubated with diatrizoate and several contrast analogues. Total complement levels were assayed. All the agents caused complement activation generally proportional to their concentration. Reactors' sera responded to lower concentrations of cont...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Siegle RL,Lieberman P,Rice MC

    更新日期:1983-07-01 00:00:00

  • Experimental carotid aneurysms: I. Simple surgical production and radiographic evaluation.

    abstract::Using simple surgical techniques, experimental carotid aneurysms are created which simulate some types of human berry aneurysms, both in hemodynamic and radiographic behavior. End to side anastomoses of an external jugular vein graft to the common carotid artery can be carried out by radiologic personnel with no forma...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kerber CW,Buschman RW

    更新日期:1977-03-01 00:00:00

  • Lung perfusion demonstrated by contrast-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Application to unilateral lung transplantation.

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:The authors evaluate the use of magnetic resonance (MR) to image pulmonary perfusion in healthy controls and to detect pulmonary defects in patients with unilateral lung transplantation, using dynamic images after contrast administration. METHODS:Five patients with right lung transplantation a...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Berthezène Y,Croisille P,Bertocchi M,Houzard C,Bendib K,Revel D

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of iron content in human cerebral cavernous malformation using quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The aims of this study were to investigate and validate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) for lesional iron quantification in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed in phantoms and 16 patients on a 3-T scanner. Susceptibility ...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tan H,Liu T,Wu Y,Thacker J,Shenkar R,Mikati AG,Shi C,Dykstra C,Wang Y,Prasad PV,Edelman RR,Awad IA

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Investigation of 125I as an isotopic source for mammography.

    abstract::An isotopic radiation source 125I was investigated for use in soft tissue radiaography, with particular attention to possible use in mammography for mass screening. Film sensitivities, exposure rates, absorbed doeses, contrast and resolution were determined, and compared to conventional x-ray units. It was found that ...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fairchild R,Atkins HL,Lebowitz E,Greenberg D

    更新日期:1975-09-01 00:00:00

  • Hardcopy recording technologies for digitally formatted image data.

    abstract::The hardcopy recording technologies of video cameras, slow-scan (digital spot) recorders, and laser film printers are presented and compared. Slow-scan (digital spot) recorders offer a few advantages when compared with multiformat video cameras. But only laser film printers provide the high-quality hardcopy recordings...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Siegel EL,Bishop MD,Wetzel LH,Anderson WF,McMillan JH

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • Magnetic resonance microscopy of the rat carotid artery at 300 megahertz.

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved from a technical curiosity to a tool with which researchers can study important disease models. But MRM is not simply an extension of clinical magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, the unique adaptations of MRM required in the study of caro...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arnder L,Zhou X,Cofer GP,Hedlund LW,Johnson GA

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatic colorectal metastases: technique, indications, results, and new promises.

    abstract::Surgical resection is the standard of care for colorectal metastases isolated to the liver. However, only 10-25% of the patients are eligible for resection because of extent and location of the disease in the liver or concurrent medical conditions. Image-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a minimally invasive tech...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lencioni R,Crocetti L,Cioni D,Della Pina C,Bartolozzi C

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in a perfused and isolated mouse liver model: correlation between magnetic resonance imaging and monochromatic quantitative computed tomography.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this work was to quantitatively evaluate the pharmacokinetic pattern of Gd-EOB-DTPA in a model of isolated and perfused mouse liver by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and monochromatic quantitative computed tomography (MQCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS:For MQCT, perfusions were realized with th...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Segers J,Le Duc G,Laumonier C,Troprès I,Elst LV,Muller RN

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of the dehydration-rehydration method for production of contrast-carrying liposomes.

    abstract::We measured the amounts of three types of radiographic contrast media (RCM) that could be entrapped in liposomes prepared by the dehydration-rehydration vesicle (DRV) technique. To make DRVs, one initially makes water-containing, small unilamellar vesicles, adds contrast media and lyophilizes the mixture. Upon rehydra...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seltzer SE,Gregoriadis G,Dick R

    更新日期:1988-02-01 00:00:00

  • Estimation of chemical composition and density from computed tomography carried out at a number of energies.

    abstract::A method is presented by whichcomputed tomography scans carried out at a number of energies may be utilized to obtain cross-sectional images of density and atomic number in addition to the conventional array of linear attenuation coefficients. This type of analysis has been carried out for various substances of biolog...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McDavid WD,Waggener RG,Dennis MJ,Sank VJ,Payne WH

    更新日期:1977-03-01 00:00:00

  • Initial evaluation of non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease at 7 T.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to achieve initial experience with non-contrast-enhanced (ne) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the lower leg arteries in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) at 7 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Seven patients with PAOD were examined on a 7-T whole-body magnet...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fischer A,Maderwald S,Johst S,Orzada S,Ladd ME,Umutlu L,Lauenstein TC,Kniemeyer HW,Nassenstein K

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of emphysema with computed tomography. Correlation with pulmonary function tests and chest radiography.

    abstract::We studied 60 male patients who had concurrent chest films (CXR), computed tomography scans (CT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) to assess the sensitivity of CT and conventional films in detecting emphysema compared with PFT. We also sought to determine whether emphysema could be diagnosed by CT in patients with no...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanders C,Nath PH,Bailey WC

    更新日期:1988-04-01 00:00:00

  • Intrapulmonary 3He gas distribution depending on bolus size and temporal bolus placement.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Dynamic ventilation (3)He-MRI is a new method to assess pulmonary gas inflow. As differing airway diameters throughout the ventilatory cycle can influence gas inflow this study intends to investigate the influence of volume and timing of a He gas bolus with respect to the beginning of the tidal volume on insp...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gast KK,Hawig K,Windirsch M,Markstaller K,Schreiber WG,Schmiedeskamp J,Düber C,Kauczor HU,Heussel CP

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Accuracy of ultrasound in fetal femur length determination. Ultrasound phantom study.

    abstract::An ultrasound phantom was constructed simulating fetal femurs in amniotic fluid. Bones of 26, 36, 50, 58, and 70 mm, representative of gestational ages ranging from 17 to 36 weeks, were scanned with mechanical sector, phased sector, and linear array systems (ATL, Diasonics, Acuson, and GE). Measurements were made with...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gamba JL,Bowie JD,Dodson WC,Hedlund LW

    更新日期:1985-05-01 00:00:00

  • Postmortem metabolic and morphologic alterations of the dog brain thalamus with use of in vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron microscopy.

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:To investigate postmortem metabolic and morphologic alterations in the dog brain thalamus and to contribute diagnostic aids in medicolegal science. METHODS:A homogeneous group of 17 dogs was used for in vivo 1H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and electron microscopic studies, which were p...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Choe BY,Gil HJ,Suh TS,Shinn KS

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical image quality assessment of accelerated magnetic resonance neuroimaging using compressed sensing.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to determine to what degree current compressed sensing methods are capable of accelerating clinical magnetic resonance neuroimaging sequences. METHODS:Two 2-dimensional clinical sequences were chosen for this study because of their long scan times. A pilot study was used to establish ...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharma SD,Fong CL,Tzung BS,Law M,Nayak KS

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Solid, part-solid, or non-solid?: classification of pulmonary nodules in low-dose chest computed tomography by a computer-aided diagnosis system.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool for automatic classification of pulmonary nodules seen on low-dose computed tomography into solid, part-solid, and non-solid. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Study lesions were randomly selected from 2 sites participating in t...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Jacobs C,van Rikxoort EM,Scholten ET,de Jong PA,Prokop M,Schaefer-Prokop C,van Ginneken B

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Image Quality and Geometric Distortion of Modern Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Sequences in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to compare qualitative and quantitative image quality and geometric distortion of 4 magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences of the prostate using comparable imaging parameters and similar acquisition times. METHODS AND MATERIALS:Axial T2-weighted turbo spin echo ...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stocker D,Manoliu A,Becker AS,Barth BK,Nanz D,Klarhöfer M,Donati OF

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Magnetic resonance osteodensitometry in human heel bones: correlation with quantitative computed tomography using different measuring parameters.

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:Density of trabecular bone structures in human heel bones was assessed by 3D magnetic resonance (MR) gradient echo imaging (GEI) with multiple echoes. Different spatial resolutions were applied to investigate the influence of the pixel size on signal characteristics in GEI and to find suitable ...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Machann J,Schnatterbeck P,Raible A,Lutz O,Claussen CD,Schick F

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of angiographic needle size and subsequent catheter insertion on arterial walls. An in vitro experiment in human cadavers.

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:It is widely believed that down-sizing catheters, and possibly needles, will decrease damage to the entry vessel in the performance of angiography. The purposes of this in vitro experiment are to determine if smaller needles produce less arterial wall damage than larger needles and to assess th...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith DC,Hamlin JA,Jensen DA,Pappas JM,Westengard JC,Saukel GW

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment and monitoring tumor vascularity with contrast-enhanced ultrasound maximum intensity persistence imaging.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is increasingly being used in the clinic for assessment of tissue vascularity. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of different contrast administration parameters on the in vivo ultrasound imaging signal in tumor-bearing mice using a maximum intensity pers...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pysz MA,Foygel K,Panje CM,Needles A,Tian L,Willmann JK

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Targeted Biopsy Validation of Peripheral Zone Prostate Cancer Characterization With Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting and Diffusion Mapping.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This study aims for targeted biopsy validation of magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) and diffusion mapping for characterizing peripheral zone (PZ) prostate cancer and noncancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred four PZ lesions in 85 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging were retrospectivel...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Panda A,OʼConnor G,Lo WC,Jiang Y,Margevicius S,Schluchter M,Ponsky LE,Gulani V

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Patient choice and nonionic contrast media.

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:Because of the greatly increased cost of nonionic, low-osmolar contrast material, some practitioners reserve its use for patients at high risk for an adverse contrast reaction. The authors attempt to evaluate the proportion of low-risk outpatients--when offered a choice between the more expensi...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hopper KD,Matthews YL

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of contrast medium dose on filtration fraction in the rabbit kidney.

    abstract::We have examined the effect of dose on contrast medium-induced reductions in glomerular filtration in anesthetized rabbits. The fraction of renal plasma flow that is filtered, the filtration fraction, was directly measured by the renal arteriovenous difference method using technetium-99m (99mTc) (Sn) DTPA as the trace...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harvey LA,Caldicott WJ

    更新日期:1983-09-01 00:00:00

  • Pathophysiology of radiocontrast nephropathy: a role for medullary hypoxia.

    abstract::Recent experimental data underlies the role of hypoxic tubular injury in the pathophysiology of radiocontrast nephropathy. Although systemic transient hypoxemia, increased blood viscosity, and a leftward shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve may all contribute to intrarenal hypoxia, imbalance between oxyge...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Heyman SN,Reichman J,Brezis M

    更新日期:1999-11-01 00:00:00

  • Experimental tissue damage after subcutaneous injection of water soluble contrast media.

    abstract::Various water soluble contrast media (WSCM) were injected subcutaneously into 970 hind feet of 485 rats. Gross morphologic changes were seen after the injection and analyzed as a function of various physicochemical characteristics of WSCM. The WSCM of larger volume, higher osmolality, higher iodine content, and meglum...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim SH,Park JH,Kim YI,Kim CW,Han MC

    更新日期:1990-06-01 00:00:00

  • The role of catheters and guidewires in the production of angiographic thromboembolic complications.

    abstract::Thromboembolic complications occurring during angiography may result from a number of different causes. Catheters and guidewires can interact with blood to form thrombi; this tendency is related to wall defects and the chemical composition and structural characteristics of the catheters and guidewires. Nonthrombic sou...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kido DK,King PD,Manzione JV,Simon JH

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • Multiplanar reconstruction in magnetic resonance evaluation of the knee. Comparison with film magnetic resonance interpretation.

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:At many institutions, three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely used for examination of the knee. Multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) is a method of displaying three-dimensional datasets. The authors assessed the usefulness of MPR for evaluating knee MRI datasets by comparing...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gay SB,Chen NC,Burch JJ,Gleason TR,Sagman AM

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • The biliary and urinary excretion of sodium tyropanoate and sodium ipodate in dogs: pharmacokinetics, influence of bile salts and choleretic effects with comparison to iopanoic acid.

    abstract::The biliary and urinary excretion of sodium tyropanoate (Bilopaque) and sodium ipodate (Oragrafin) were studied in unanesthetized bile-fistula dogs using stepwise, increasing, intravenous infusions of the contrast materials. A constant intravenous infusion of sodium taurocholate was administered at the rate of either ...

    journal_title:Investigative radiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Berk RN,Loeb PM,Cobo-Frenkel A,Barnhart JL

    更新日期:1977-01-01 00:00:00