Calculus bovis: A review of the traditional usages, origin, chemistry, pharmacological activities and toxicology.


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Calculus bovis (C. bovis), a widespread known traditional animal drug in China and Japan, has been widely used for a long time to treat various diseases, including high fever, convulsion and stroke. The aim of the present paper is to comprehensively review knowledge about C. bovis in terms of traditional usages, origin, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and toxicology to seek an applicable substitute for NCB and provide potential new strategies utilizing C. bovis. Additionally, directions and perspectives for future investigations regarding C. bovis are also discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this paper, the traditional usages, origin, chemical constituents, pharmacology, and toxicology of C. bovis are comprehensively and systematically summarized by searching scientific databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, CNKI, Baidu Scholar and others. Additionally, some classic books of Chinese herbal medicine, academic papers authored by individuals with MSc and PhD degrees, local government reports as well as the state of local drug standards are also retrieved. RESULTS:Currently, C. bovis mainly derives from four sources: natural Calculus bovis (NCB), Calculus bovis sativus (CBS), Cultured calculus bovis (CCB) and Calculus bovis artifactus (CBA). Owing to their different formation processes, the chemical constituents of the four kinds of C. bovis show certain differences. Additionally, over 44 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from C. bovis, mainly including bile pigments, bile acids, cholesterols and amino acids. Further investigations have revealed a wide range of pharmacological effects of C. bovis, with effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, immune system and others. Furthermore, NCB and CBA show hypotoxicity, but high concentrations of bilirubin can cause neurotoxicity and hearing impairment. Additionally, pharmacokinetic data for C. bovis are still lacking. CONCLUSION:CBS contains analogous types and amounts of constituents and exerts similar therapeutic effects to NCB. Thus, CBS might be used as a sustainable substitute for NCB. Furthermore, the configuration and concentration of bile acids and bilirubin in C. bovis are responsible for the difference in pharmacological effects in the four types C. bovis. Further studies should focus on the structure-function relationship of bile acids and bilirubin in C. bovis by employing pharmacokinetics.


J Ethnopharmacol


Yu ZJ,Xu Y,Peng W,Liu YJ,Zhang JM,Li JS,Sun T,Wang P




Has Abstract


2020-05-23 00:00:00












  • Prevention of experimental diabetes by Uncaria tomentosa extract: Th2 polarization, regulatory T cell preservation or both?

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC (Rubiaceae) is a species native to the Amazon rainforest and surrounding tropical areas that is endowed with immunomodulatory properties and widely used around the world. In this study we investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) a...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Domingues A,Sartori A,Golim MA,Valente LM,da Rosa LC,Ishikawa LL,Siani AC,Viero RM

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • Biological effect of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) waste matter. Note I: diuretic activity.

    abstract::In this work we studied in rat the diuretic activity of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) waste matter. The cladodes, flowers and non commerciable fruits were collected in S. Cono (CT, Sicily) cultivation. Acute and chronic diuretic activity of 15% infusion of cladodes, flowers and fruits were assayed. Natri...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Galati EM,Tripodo MM,Trovato A,Miceli N,Monforte MT

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antihyperglycemic and insulin secretory activity of Costus pictus leaf extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and in in vitro pancreatic islet culture.

    abstract:AIM OF THE STUDY:The leaves of Costus pictus D. Don were used extensively for its antihyperglycemic activity by the people in Kerala, India. In the present study, the antihyperglycemic and insulin secretory activity of an aqueous extract of Costus pictus leaf extract was investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gireesh G,Thomas SK,Joseph B,Paulose CS

    更新日期:2009-06-25 00:00:00

  • Efficacy of the intralesional treatment with Chenopodium ambrosioides in the murine infection by Leishmania amazonensis.

    abstract:AIM OF THE STUDY:Leishmaniasis, caused by protozoan from Leishmania genus, is an endemic disease in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The chemotherapy to this disease is not always effective and can cause several side effects. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) is used by the native people in...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Patrício FJ,Costa GC,Pereira PV,Aragão-Filho WC,Sousa SM,Frazão JB,Pereira WS,Maciel MC,Silva LA,Amaral FM,Rebêlo JM,Guerra RN,Ribeiro MN,Nascimento FR

    更新日期:2008-01-17 00:00:00

  • Preventive effect of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik. on bone loss in the ovariectomised rats.

    abstract::Because the biggest culprit in pathogenesis of osteoporosis is oestrogen deficiency, hormone replacement therapy remained the mainstay for prevention. However most of postmenopausal women are more inclined to use natural alternative. We thus investigated the ability of Abelmoschus manihot, a herbal medicine to prevent...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Puel C,Mathey J,Kati-Coulibaly S,Davicco MJ,Lebecque P,Chanteranne B,Horcajada MN,Coxam V

    更新日期:2005-05-13 00:00:00

  • In vitro antiplasmodial activity of some plants used in Kisii, Kenya against malaria and their chloroquine potentiation effects.

    abstract::Fifty-five organic and aqueous extracts of 11 plants used in malaria therapy in Kisii District, Kenya were tested in vitro against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive and resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Of the plants tested, 73% were active (IC(50) < 100 microg/ml). Three plants, Vernonia lasiopus, Rhamnus prinoide...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muregi FW,Chhabra SC,Njagi EN,Lang'at-Thoruwa CC,Njue WM,Orago AS,Omar SA,Ndiege IO

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative in vitro bioactivities of tea extracts from six species of Ardisia and their effect on growth inhibition of HepG2 cells.

    abstract:AIM OF THE STUDY:Ardisia species, notably A. compressa, are used in some regions of the world as food or in traditional medicine for prevention and treatment of certain health conditions including liver disease. We investigated the chemical composition and relative anticancer potential of six Ardisia species [A. japoni...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Newell AM,Yousef GG,Lila MA,Ramírez-Mares MV,de Mejia EG

    更新日期:2010-08-09 00:00:00

  • Antimalarial activity of extracts of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    abstract::In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that Malaysian medicinal plants, Piper sarmentosum, Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa produced considerable antimalarial effects. Chloroform extract in vitro did show better effect than the methanol extract. The chloroform extract showed complete parasite growth inhibit...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Najib Nik A Rahman N,Furuta T,Kojima S,Takane K,Ali Mohd M

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Shengmai San reduces hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation in rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet.

    abstract::Shengmai San (SMS), which is comprised of the medicinal herbs of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Schisandra chinensis Baill., and Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl (2:1:2)., is a traditional Chinese medicine being used for treating coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SMS on the plasma...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yao HT,Chang YW,Chen CT,Chiang MT,Chang L,Yeh TK

    更新日期:2008-02-28 00:00:00

  • The effects of sulfur fumigation processing on Panacis Quinquefolii Radix in chemical profile, immunoregulation and liver and kidney injury.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:The influence of sulfur fumigation processing on chemical profile, pharmacological activity and safety of Chinese herbs has attracted great attention. Panacis Quinquefolii Radix (PQR) was more widely used as edible and medicinal than Ginseng because of its tonifying effect and characteris...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jiang J,Xiao S,Yan S,Zhang J,Xu X

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • The polyherbal drug GGEx18 from Laminaria japonica, Rheum palmatum, and Ephedra sinica inhibits hepatic steatosis and fibroinflammtion in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:The herbal composition Gyeongshingangjeehwan 18 (GGEx18), composed of Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae), Laminaria japonica Aresch (Laminariaceae), and Ephedra sinica Stapf (Ephedraceae), is used as an antiobesity drug in Korean clinics. The constituents of GGEx18 have traditionally been r...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lim J,Lee H,Ahn J,Kim J,Jang J,Park Y,Jeong B,Yang H,Shin SS,Yoon M

    更新日期:2018-10-28 00:00:00

  • Assessment of the effect of Maytenus ilicifolia (espinheira santa) extract on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.

    abstract::We are trying to develop a model to assess properties of products utilized in popular medicine. Maytenus ilicifolia is used in herbal medicine. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are employed in nuclear medicine. This labeling procedure depends on a reducing agent and stannous chloride is used. ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Oliveira JF,Braga AC,de Oliveira MB,Avila AS,Caldeira-de-Araújo A,Cardoso VN,Bezerra RJ,Bernardo-Filho M

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • The knowledge of medicinal plants in Africa today.

    abstract::The oral tradition for communication in Africa is stressed as well as the secrecy of the treatments with plants by traditional medicine-men. This makes it difficult to obtain more exact information on all the different aspects of traditional medicine. Nevertheless, some data have been collected in the Francophone coun...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lantum DN

    更新日期:1980-03-01 00:00:00

  • Biological and analytical characterization of two extracts from Valeriana officinalis.

    abstract::The anticoronaryspastic and antibronchospastic activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. roots were investigated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs and the results were correlated with the qualitative/quantitative chemical composition of the extracts in order to account for some of the common ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Circosta C,De Pasquale R,Samperi S,Pino A,Occhiuto F

    更新日期:2007-06-13 00:00:00

  • In-vitro (2D and 3D cultures) and in-vivo cytotoxic properties of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) emulsion in breast and cervical cancer cells along with the investigation of immunomodulatory potential.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Zataria multiflora is an iranian valuable traditional plants, called Avishan Shirazi in Persian language used to reduce inflammation, spasm, pain, and cancer symptoms. Zataria essential oil (ZEO) is one of the essential oils possessing broad biological activities. AIM OF THE STUDY:The ai...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Azadi M,Jamali T,Kianmehr Z,Kavoosi G,Ardestani SK

    更新日期:2020-07-15 00:00:00

  • Anxiolytic effects of the aqueous extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to characterize the putative anxiolytic-like effects of the aqueous extract of hooks with stem of Uncaria rhynchophylla using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the hole-board apparatus in rats and mice. Control rats were treated with an equal volume of saline, and positive control rats wit...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jung JW,Ahn NY,Oh HR,Lee BK,Lee KJ,Kim SY,Cheong JH,Ryu JH

    更新日期:2006-11-24 00:00:00

  • Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Dorstenia barteri (Moraceae) leaf and twig extracts in mice.

    abstract::The present study was undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the leaf and twig extracts of Dorstenia barteri (Moraceae) in mice. Both the leaf and twig extracts of Dorstenia barteri at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05-0.01) antinociceptive activities in chem...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Omisore NO,Adewunmi CO,Iwalewa EO,Ngadjui BT,Watchueng J,Abegaz BM,Ojewole JA

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Recent trends in research into African medicinal plants.

    abstract::Recent trends in research into African medicinal plants show that while ethnobotanical surveys continue, there is an appreciable increase in research activity in the area of bioactivity of natural products. The biological areas most researched include antimicrobial, molluscicidal, toxicity tests and antitumour in decr...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sofowora A

    更新日期:1993-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ethnomedicinal plants of Kathua district, J&K, India.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Natural products, especially those derived from plants, continue to provide new and important leads in the drug discovery process. The first step in drug discovery is to document material traditionally used to treat an ailment. Documentation of such knowledge will lead to its conservation...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rao PK,Hasan SS,Bhellum BL,Manhas RK

    更新日期:2015-08-02 00:00:00

  • In vivo disposition and metabolism of madecassoside, a major bioactive constituent in Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. herb is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine for many indications, such as traumatic injuries, keloid and scar. Madecassoside is the main active ingredient of this herb drug with higher content than other triterpenoid constituents. Understandings of ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leng DD,Han WJ,Rui Y,Dai Y,Xia YF

    更新日期:2013-11-25 00:00:00

  • Bioguided identification of triterpenoids and neolignans as bioactive compounds from anti-infectious medicinal plants of the Taira Atacama's community (Calama, Chile).

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Previous ethnobotanical surveys from the north Andean part of Chile, where different ethnic groups are co-existing, with the preeminence of Aymara and Atacama traditions, revealed an extensive domestic use of the local flora. In these communities, traditional medicinal uses are mainly rel...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ortiz S,Lecsö-Bornet M,Bonnal C,Houze S,Michel S,Grougnet R,Boutefnouchet S

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Antimicrobial activity of Schinus lentiscifolius (Anacardiaceae).

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Schinus lentiscifolius Marchand (syn. Schinus weinmannifolius Engl) is a plant native to Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine as antiseptic and antimicrobial for the treatment of many different health problems as well as to treat leucorrh...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gehrke IT,Neto AT,Pedroso M,Mostardeiro CP,Da Cruz IB,Silva UF,Ilha V,Dalcol II,Morel AF

    更新日期:2013-07-09 00:00:00

  • Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of some Panamanian plants from Celastraceae and Lamiaceae.

    abstract::Thirty four crude extracts of Panamanian plants, from nine species of Celastraceae and Lamiaceae, were assayed for xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. The enzymatic activity was estimated by measuring the increase in absorbance at 290 nm due to uric acid formation. Eighty five percent of the crude extracts were...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: González AG,Bazzocchi IL,Moujir L,Ravelo AG,Correa MD,Gupta MP

    更新日期:1995-04-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of Dodonaea polyandra, a Kaanju traditional medicine.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Extracts of the medicinal plant species Dodonaea polyandra were investigated as part of a collegial research partnership between Northern Kaanju traditional owners represented by Chuulangun Aboriginal Corporation (centred on the Wenlock and Pascoe Rivers, Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simpson B,Claudie D,Smith N,Wang J,McKinnon R,Semple S

    更新日期:2010-10-28 00:00:00

  • An ethnopharmacological survey of the traditional medicine utilized in the community of Porvenir, Bajo Paraguá Indian Reservation, Bolivia.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Porvenir is a semi-isolated Indian community in the Bajo Paraguá Indian Reservation in Bolivian Amazon, one of the two communities of people from the Guarasug'we indigenous nation now close to extinction. The aim of our study was the collection of data on the traditional medicine utilized...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hajdu Z,Hohmann J

    更新日期:2012-02-15 00:00:00

  • Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extract and alkamides-derived from Heliopsis longipes roots.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Heliopsis longipes (A. Gray) Blake (Asteraceae) is a broadly used species in the Mexican, Central and South American Traditional Medicine for its anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerative properties. The ethanolic extract contains alkamides, mainly affinin (spilanthol)...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hernández I,Márquez L,Martínez I,Dieguez R,Delporte C,Prieto S,Molina-Torres J,Garrido G

    更新日期:2009-07-30 00:00:00

  • Gentiana scabra Bunge roots alleviates skin lesions of contact dermatitis in mice.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:The roots and rhizomes of Gentiana scabra Bunge in the family Gentianaceae comprise a major herbal medicine for skin diseases caused by wind-heat or dampness-heat in China, Japan and Korea. This treatment can clear away heat and dry dampness and purge fire from the liver and gallbladder. ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang B,Kim S,Kim JH,Lim C,Kim H,Cho S

    更新日期:2019-04-06 00:00:00

  • Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Smilax china L. aqueous extract.

    abstract::The aqueous extract of the tuber of Smilax china L., popularly known in China as "jin gang ten", was tested for its anti-inflammatory activities in rats by egg-albumin-induced edema and anti-nociceptive effects in mice using hot-plate test and acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test, respectively. The aqueous ...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shu XS,Gao ZH,Yang XL

    更新日期:2006-02-20 00:00:00

  • Protective effect of Heliotropium foertherianum (Boraginaceae) folk remedy and its active compound, rosmarinic acid, against a Pacific ciguatoxin.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Senescent leaves of Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger (Boraginaceae) are traditionally used in the Pacific region to treat Ciguatera Fish Poisoning. This plant contains rosmarinic acid that is known for its multiple biological activities. In the present study, H. foertherianum aqu...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rossi F,Jullian V,Pawlowiez R,Kumar-Roiné S,Haddad M,Darius HT,Gaertner-Mazouni N,Chinain M,Laurent D

    更新日期:2012-08-30 00:00:00

  • Traditional uses of medicinal plants in gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal.

    abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Gastrointestinal disorders cause morbidity and can lead to mortality, especially in the developing world where sanitation is deficient. A large part of the human population relies on medicinal plants for treating various diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders. The present review s...

    journal_title:Journal of ethnopharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rokaya MB,Uprety Y,Poudel RC,Timsina B,Münzbergová Z,Asselin H,Tiwari A,Shrestha SS,Sigdel SR

    更新日期:2014-12-02 00:00:00