Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and Headaches Among Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES:This cross-sectional study examined the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and history of frequent headaches (including migraine) among children 3-17 years old using data from the 2016 and 2017 U.S. National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). BACKGROUND:ACEs include abuse (physical, emotional, or sexual), parental divorce, death, mental illness, or addiction, and are linked to higher morbidity and mortality in adulthood. A relationship between ACEs and headaches exists among adults, but studies examining the relationship among children are lacking. To our knowledge, no studies have examined the link among children using NSCH data. METHODS:The NSCH is a nationally representative survey of U.S. children's physical and emotional well-being aimed at understanding their health needs. Parental-reported information was collected on child history of headaches and 9 ACEs for the selected child. The survey collected information on 71,881 children in 2016 and 2017 out of which 61,565 were eligible for the study (age ≥3 years and not missing data on history headaches). Children with missing values for headache, ACEs, or covariates (n = 58,958) were excluded from the final analysis. We used multivariable logistic regression with survey weighting and adjusted for demographics and comorbidities (anxiety, depression, epilepsy, and brain injury) to examine the association between ACEs and headaches overall and stratified by gender. We further assessed the independent relationship between each ACE and headaches. RESULTS:In the current study, out of 61,656 children, 26,884 (48.6%) experienced at least 1 ACE and 3426 (6.5%) experienced 4+ ACEs. Overall, compared with children with no ACEs, the adjusted odds of headache were 1.34 times higher among children with 1 reported ACE (95% CI: 1.07, 1.68), 2.15 times higher among children with 2 ACEs (95% CI: 1.66, 2.80), 1.89 times higher among children with 3 ACEs (95% CI: 1.40, 2.53), and 3.40 times higher among children with 4+ ACEs (95% CI: 2.61, 4.43). Females with 3 and 4+ ACEs were somewhat more likely to report headaches compared to males with the same number of ACEs. Individually, no ACE was independently associated with history of headaches except for difficulty due to family's income (aOR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.98, 3.06). CONCLUSION:Experiencing one or more ACEs vs none was associated with higher risk of headaches in children, and difficulty due to family's income was the only ACE independently associated with headaches. Our findings support results of other studies on ACEs and headache in young adults and suggest that adverse ACE-related health outcomes begin earlier than previously recognized. Additionally, struggling due to low income may represent a constellation of chronic stressors that independently contribute to poor health outcomes in childhood as compared to other individual ACEs. Future research should examine the importance of specific ACE clusters and stressors during childhood.

journal_name

Headache

journal_title

Headache

authors

Mansuri F,Nash MC,Bakour C,Kip K

doi

10.1111/head.13773

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2020-04-01 00:00:00

pages

735-744

issue

4

eissn

0017-8748

issn

1526-4610

journal_volume

60

pub_type

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