Biomechanical evaluation of spinal fixation devices: I. A conceptual framework.


:In the field of spinal fixation devices, there is a profusion of new instrumentations. Often, the biomechanical evaluation is done in a nonstandardized manner, which makes it difficult to compare the results of one researcher with those of another, for the same device or for different devices. There is a need for a conceptual framework under which guidelines may be suggested for the evaluation of these devices in some uniform and comprehensive manner. There are three basic biomechanical tests: strength, fatigue, and stability. The strength test evaluates the failure load of the device, determines its weak points, and is helpful in the initial development of the device. The fatigue test provides a measure of longevity of the device, either alone or as part of the spinal construct, by testing the device to failure using cyclically varying loads. In contrast, the stability test measures the capability of the device to provide multi-directional stability to the injured spine. There is no failure of the device, and the results of this test are clinically important, as they characterize the potential for early fracture healing and early fusion. A conceptual framework for the evaluation of multi-direction stability of spinal fixation devices and guidelines for designing the necessary experiments are described.


Spine (Phila Pa 1976)




Panjabi MM




Has Abstract


1988-10-01 00:00:00














  • Augmentation of pedicle screw fixation strength using an injectable calcium sulfate cement: an in vivo study.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:An in vivo landrace model of cement augmentation of pedicle screw was established, and axial pull-out tests and histological analysis were performed. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the long-term in vivo biomechanical performance of pedicle screws augmented with calcium sulfate cement. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DAT...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yi X,Wang Y,Lu H,Li C,Zhu T

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of trunk muscles during prolonged bed rest.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Prospective longitudinal study. OBJECTIVE.: To investigate, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the influence of bed rest on the lumbopelvic musculature. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Reduced gravitational loading and inactivity (bed rest) are known to result in significant change in musculoskeletal func...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hides JA,Belavý DL,Stanton W,Wilson SJ,Rittweger J,Felsenberg D,Richardson CA

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • A bridging demineralized bone implant facilitates posterolateral lumbar fusion in New Zealand white rabbits.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Randomized controlled animal study. OBJECTIVE:Test the effectiveness of a single-strip demineralized bone matrix with hyaluronan and gelatin. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Demineralized bone matrix is widely used to augment spinal fusion, however, the effect of changing the physical characteristic and carri...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Choi Y,Oldenburg FP,Sage L,Johnstone B,Yoo JU

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Wear analysis of the Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:In vitro wear testing of the Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis was performed in a cervical spine simulator. The biologic response was assessed in chimpanzee and goat animal models. OBJECTIVE:Determine the wear characteristics of the Bryan disc. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Large joint arthroplasties fail most...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Anderson PA,Rouleau JP,Bryan VE,Carlson CS

    更新日期:2003-10-15 00:00:00

  • Analysis and prevention of spinal column deformity following cervical laminectomy. I. Pathogenetic analysis of postlaminectomy deformities.

    abstract::Postlaminectomy deformities were simulated in the cervical or cervicothoracic spine by the use of a displacement incremental method based on finite-element analysis combined with composite material and spanning element theory. The simulation analyses revealed that the primary cause of postlaminectomy deformity was the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saito T,Yamamuro T,Shikata J,Oka M,Tsutsumi S

    更新日期:1991-05-01 00:00:00

  • Preservation of thoracic kyphosis is critical to maintain lumbar lordosis in the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected multicenter series. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the sagittal profile of surgically treated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:With the increasing popularity of segmental pedicle screw spinal instrumentation, thoracic kyph...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Newton PO,Yaszay B,Upasani VV,Pawelek JB,Bastrom TP,Lenke LG,Lowe T,Crawford A,Betz R,Lonner B,Harms Study Group.

    更新日期:2010-06-15 00:00:00

  • Long-term results of Harrington instrumentation in idiopathic scoliosis.

    abstract::The long-term effect of Harrington instrumentation was investigated using posteroanterior radiographs and computed tomographic measurements preoperatively, postoperatively, and at a mean follow-up at 10.8 years in 33 patients with idiopathic scoliosis. No patient was lost from long-term follow-up. At follow-up, the me...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Willers U,Hedlund R,Aaro S,Normelli H,Westman L

    更新日期:1993-05-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of surgical intervention on quality of life in patients with spinal metastases.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Prospective clinical study. OBJECTIVE:To assess Health-Related Quality of Life outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for spinal metastases. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Increasing life expectancy of patients with spinal metastases has resulted in greater interest in overall quality of life, including pai...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Falicov A,Fisher CG,Sparkes J,Boyd MC,Wing PC,Dvorak MF

    更新日期:2006-11-15 00:00:00

  • Radiation exposure to the spine surgeon during fluoroscopically assisted pedicle screw insertion.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:In vitro study to determine occupational radiation exposure during lumbar fluoroscopy. OBJECTIVES:To assess radiation exposure to the spine surgeon during fluoroscopically assisted thoracolumbar pedicle screw placement. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Occupational radiation exposure during a variety of fluoro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rampersaud YR,Foley KT,Shen AC,Williams S,Solomito M

    更新日期:2000-10-15 00:00:00

  • Potential Selection Bias in Observational Studies Comparing Cervical Disc Arthroplasty to Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective study using a national administrative database. OBJECTIVE:To define the cohort differences in patient characteristics between patients undergoing cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in a large national sample, and to describe the impact of thos...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goz V,Martin BI,Donnally CJ 3rd,Brodke D,Spina N,Lawrence B,Spiker WR

    更新日期:2020-07-15 00:00:00

  • Bilateral pedicle stress fractures in a female athlete: case report and review of the literature.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Clinical case report of bilateral stress fractures of the pedicle in a female athlete presenting with back pain. OBJECTIVES:To report this unusual case and surgical treatment and to review the relevant literature. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Low back pain is a frequent complaint in athletes, with the majo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parvataneni HK,Nicholas SJ,McCance SE

    更新日期:2004-01-15 00:00:00

  • Changes in the lumbar spine of athletes from supine to the true-standing position in magnetic resonance imaging.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Case-control observational study. OBJECTIVE:Determination of dimensional changes in the lumbar spines of athletes between supine and stand-up position in MRI, concerning the lordosis, spinal canal cross-sectional area (SCCA), dural sac cross-sectional area (DSCA), sagittal dural sac diameter (SDSD), the l...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mauch F,Jung C,Huth J,Bauer G

    更新日期:2010-04-20 00:00:00

  • Risk Factors for Rapidly Progressive Neurological Deterioration in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:A retrospective single-center study. OBJECTIVE:This study sought to clarify the risk factors and to evaluate the surgical outcome in patients with rapidly progressive cervical spondylotic myelopathy (rp-CSM). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:CSM is a degenerative spine disease presenting a slow development of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takasawa E,Sorimachi Y,Iizuka Y,Tsunoda D,Mieda T,Iizuka H,Chikuda H

    更新日期:2019-06-15 00:00:00

  • Prone versus knee-chest position for microdiscectomy: a prospective randomized study of intra-abdominal pressure and intraoperative bleeding.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Prospective randomized study. OBJECTIVES:To compare two support systems for positioning patients during microdiscectomy (i.e., prone on a modified Relton-Hall spine support vs. knee-chest position on an Andrews-type table) regarding their effects on intra-abdominal pressure and surgical bleeding. SUMMARY...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Rigamonti A,Gemma M,Rocca A,Messina M,Bignami E,Beretta L

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

  • Posterolateral Lumbar Arthrodesis With and Without Interbody Arthrodesis for L4-L5 Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: A Comparative Value Analysis.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Independent retrospective review of prospectively collected data, comparative cohort study. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to compare the clinical, radiographical, and cost/value of the addition of an interbody arthrodesis (IBA) to a posterolateral arthrodesis (PLA) in the surgical treatment of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gottschalk MB,Premkumar A,Sweeney K,Boden SD,Heller J,Yoon ST,Rhee JM,Leckie SK,Braly B,Simpson AK,Lenehan E

    更新日期:2015-06-15 00:00:00

  • Annular repair using high-density collagen gel: a rat-tail in vivo model.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Animal in vivo study. OBJECTIVE:To test the capability of high-density collagen gel to repair annular defects. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Annular defects are associated with spontaneous disc herniations and disc degeneration, which can lead to significant morbidity. Persistent annular defects after surgi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grunert P,Borde BH,Hudson KD,Macielak MR,Bonassar LJ,Härtl R

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Family stature in idiopathic scoliosis.

    abstract::The standing heights of 40 children with scoliosis and 110 persons from their immediate families were compared with those of a group of 349 contemporary control subjects. Skeletal bone ages and puberty ratings did not differ from normal, but the children with scoliosis were found to be significantly taller than the co...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carr AJ,Jefferson RJ,Turner-Smith AR

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Patterns of muscular activity during movement in patients with chronic low-back pain.

    abstract::Bilateral paraspinal electromyogram (EMG) at levels L1-L2 and L4-L5, and abdominal EMG of a group of 20 low-back pain patients were compared to those of a group of 20 pain-free controls during flexion, extension, lateral bending to right and left, and rotation to right and left. The results showed no significant left-...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nouwen A,Van Akkerveeken PF,Versloot JM

    更新日期:1987-10-01 00:00:00

  • Congenital absence of lumbar facets as a cause of lower-back pain.

    abstract::Unilateral arch hypertrophy secondary to congenital absence of lumbar articular facets is a rare condition of still undetermined etiology. Most symptomatic cases had a history of mild trauma. Radiologic criteria using plain films and CAT scan are available to make the diagnosis of unilateral arch hypertrophy and the s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Segal D,Franchi AV

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • "July Effect" Revisited: July Surgeries at Residency Training Programs are Associated with Equivalent Long-term Clinical Outcomes Following Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Surgery.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective analysis of a prospective registry. OBJECTIVE:We utilized the Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) registry to investigate the "July Effect" at QOD spondylolisthesis module sites with residency trainees. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:There is a paucity of investigation on the long-term outcomes fol...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chan AK,Patel A,Bisson EF,Bydon M,Glassman SD,Foley KT,Shaffrey CI,Potts EA,Shaffrey ME,Coric D,Knightly JJ,Park P,Wang MY,Fu KM,Slotkin JR,Asher AL,Virk MS,Kerezoudis P,Alvi MA,Guan J,Choy W,Haid RW,Mummaneni

    更新日期:2020-12-24 00:00:00

  • Factors predicting the result of surgery for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation.

    abstract::The prospective study was undertaken to find out preoperative or perioperative factors predicting the results of the first surgery for lumbar disc herniation. The results were evaluated 1 and 6 months postoperatively using, in addition to the patient evaluation, indices for pain, activities of daily living (ADL), and ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hurme M,Alaranta H

    更新日期:1987-11-01 00:00:00

  • Preoperative and Postoperative Sitting Radiographs for Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Upper Instrumented Vertebra Selection Using Sitting C2 Plumb Line Distance to Prevent Proximal Junctional Kyphosis.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Case-control study from a continuous series. OBJECTIVES:To study the impact of perioperative sitting radiographs in adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients and determine whether proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) can be prevented using preoperative sitting radiograph. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Radiographi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yoshida G,Ushirozako H,Hasegawa T,Yamato Y,Kobayashi S,Yasuda T,Banno T,Arima H,Oe S,Mihara Y,Ide K,Watanabe Y,Yamada T,Togawa D,Matsuyama Y

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • A review of camptocormia and an unusual case in the female.

    abstract::Camptocormia is a rare low-back disorder involving an abnormal posture of extreme forward flexion. Most reports of camptocormia were of male military recruits during World Wars I and II. The differential diagnosis of the postural deformity, the psychologic formulation of camptocormia as a conversion disorder, and the ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rosen JC,Frymoyer JW

    更新日期:1985-05-01 00:00:00

  • Higher electrical stimulus intensities are required to activate chronically compressed nerve roots. Implications for intraoperative electromyographic pedicle screw testing.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:A comparison of the electrical thresholds required to evoke myogenic responses from direct stimulation of normal and chronically compressed nerve roots. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether intraoperative electromyographic testing to confirm the integrity of instrumented pedicles should be performed at higher s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holland NR,Lukaczyk TA,Riley LH 3rd,Kostuik JP

    更新日期:1998-01-15 00:00:00

  • Role of physical exercise in low back pain rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial of a three-month exercise program in patients who have completed multidisciplinary rehabilitation.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE:To analyze the effects of an exercise program or routine follow-up on patients with chronic low back pain who have completed functional multidisciplinary rehabilitation. The short- and long-term outcome in terms of symptoms and physical and soci...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Henchoz Y,de Goumoëns P,Norberg M,Paillex R,So AK

    更新日期:2010-05-20 00:00:00

  • Proximal Junctional Kyphosis After Posterior Spinal Instrumentation and Fusion in Young Children With Congenital Scoliosis: A Preliminary Report on its Incidence and Risk Factors.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE:To determine the incidence and risk factors of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) in young children who underwent posterior instrumented spinal fusion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:PJK is a well-recognized postoperative complication in adults and adolescents. However, there...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen X,Chen ZH,Qiu Y,Zhu ZZ,Li S,Xu L,Sun X

    更新日期:2017-10-15 00:00:00

  • Radiation exposure to the spine surgeon in lumbar and thoracolumbar fusions with the use of an intraoperative computed tomographic 3-dimensional imaging system.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:A prospective clinical research article. OBJECTIVE:The primary goals were to determine (1) radiation exposure to the spine surgeon with the use of an intraoperative 3-dimensional imaging system and (2) to define the safe distance from the computed tomographic scanner. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND:Intraoperative...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Abdullah KG,Bishop FS,Lubelski D,Steinmetz MP,Benzel EC,Mroz TE

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Upper thoracic versus lower thoracic upper instrumented vertebrae endpoints have similar outcomes and complications in adult scoliosis.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective review-multicenter database. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to compare the upper thoracic (UT) and lower thoracic (LT) upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV) in long fusions to the sacrum for adult scoliosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:The optimal UIV for stopping long fusions to the s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Kim HJ,Boachie-Adjei O,Shaffrey CI,Schwab F,Lafage V,Bess S,Gupta MC,Smith JS,Deviren V,Akbarnia B,Mundis GM,OʼBrien M,Hostin R,Ames C,International Spine Study Group.

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Spontaneous cervical spinal epidural hematoma in the postpartum period.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:We present the case study of a 31-year-old lady who had a spontaneous cervical spinal epidural hematoma in the postpartum period and who presented with sudden onset of neck pain and lower limb weakness for which an emergency decompressive laminectomy was performed with neurological recovery. OBJECTIVE:To ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Puah KL,Tow BP,Yue WM,Guo CM,Chen JL,Tan SB

    更新日期:2012-03-15 00:00:00

  • The Effect of Local Intraoperative Steroid Administration on the Rate of Postoperative Dysphagia Following ACDF: A Study of 245,754 Patients.

    abstract:STUDY DESIGN:A retrospective database analysis. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study is to compare rates of postoperative dysphagia, length of stay, infection, and wound complications following short and long anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients who received local intraoperative steroids and those who...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cancienne JM,Werner BC,Loeb AE,Yang SS,Hassanzadeh H,Singla A,Shen FH,Shimer AL

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00