Join the Lone Kidney Club: incentivising live organ donation.


:Given the dramatic shortage of transplantable organs, demand cannot be met by established and envisioned organ procurement policies targeting postmortem donation. Live organ donation (LOD) is a medically attractive option, and ethically permissible if informed consent is given and donor beneficence balances recipient non-maleficence. Only a few legal and regulatory frameworks incentivise LOD, with the key exception of Israel's Organ Transplant Law, which has produced significant improvements in organ donation rates. Therefore, I propose an organ procurement system that incentivises LOD by allocating additional priority points to the living donor on any transplant waiting list. I outline benefits and challenges for potential recipients, donors and society at large, and suggest measures to ensure medical protection of marginalised patient groups.


J Med Ethics


Glas A




Has Abstract


2020-02-14 00:00:00








  • Treatment-resistant depression and physician-assisted death.

    abstract::In a recent article, Udo Schuklenk and Suzanne van de Vathorst argued in favour of a legal option of physician-assisted death for patients with 'treatment-resistant' depression. In this commentary, I contend that their argument neglects the important consideration of the professional integrity of physicians. In light ...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: MIller FG

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Medical decision making in scarcity situations.

    abstract::The issue of the allocation of resources in health care is here to stay. The goal of this study was to explore the views of physicians on several topics that have arisen in the debate on the allocation of scarce resources and to compare these with the views of policy makers. We asked physicians (oncologists, cardiolog...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Delden JJ,Vrakking AM,van der Heide A,van der Maas PJ

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Blameworthy bumping? Investigating nudge's neglected cousin.

    abstract::The realm of non-rational influence, which includes nudging, is home to many other morally interesting phenomena. In this paper, I introduce the term bumping, to discuss the category of unintentional non-rational influence. Bumping happens constantly, wherever people make choices in environments where they are affecte...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miyata-Sturm A

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation.

    abstract::The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Savulescu J

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • The costs and benefits of a cigarette ban.

    abstract::The death toll from tobacco is staggering: it might contribute to one billion premature deaths over the course of the 21st century. In 'The case for banning cigarettes', Kalle Grill and Kristin Voigt argue that the well-being and equality benefits of a complete ban on cigarettes more than justify the restrictions on a...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Doucet M

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Transwomen in elite sport: scientific and ethical considerations.

    abstract::The inclusion of elite transwomen athletes in sport is controversial. The recent International Olympic Committee (IOC) (2015) guidelines allow transwomen to compete in the women's division if (amongst other things) their testosterone is held below 10 nmol/L. This is significantly higher than that of cis-women. Science...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knox T,Anderson LC,Heather A

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • The best argument against kidney sales fails.

    abstract::Simon Rippon has recently argued against kidney markets on the grounds that introducing the option to vend will result in many people, especially the poor, being subject to harmful pressure to vend. Though compelling, Rippon's argument fails. What he takes to be a single phenomenon-social and legal pressure to vend-is...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Semrau L

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • 'These sorts of people don't do very well': race and allocation of health care resources.

    abstract::Recent literature has highlighted issues of racial discrimination in medicine. In order to explore the sometimes subtle influence of racial determinants in decisions about resource allocation, we present the case of a 53-year-old Australian Aboriginal woman with end-stage renal failure. The epidemiology of renal failu...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lowe M,Kerridge IH,Mitchell KR

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Empirical evidence against placebo controls.

    abstract::The revised Declaration of Helsinki allows placebo-controlled trials to be used even when there is an established therapy, provided there are adequate 'methodological' reasons for doing so. This seems to violate the principle of beneficence: where there is an established therapy, physicians treating patients with a pl...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Batra S,Howick J

    更新日期:2017-08-09 00:00:00

  • When four principles are too many: bloodgate, integrity and an action-guiding model of ethical decision making in clinical practice.

    abstract::Medical ethical analysis remains dominated by the principlist account first proposed by Beauchamp and Childress. This paper argues that the principlist model is unreflective of how ethical decisions are taken in clinical practice. Two kinds of medical ethical decisions are distinguished: biosocial ethics and clinical ...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muirhead W

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Advance directives for non-therapeutic dementia research: some ethical and policy considerations.

    abstract::This paper explores the use of advance directives in clinical dementia research. The focus is on advance consent to participation of demented patients in non-therapeutic research involving more than minimal risks and/or burdens. First, morally relevant differences between advance directives for treatment and care, and...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Berghmans RL

    更新日期:1998-02-01 00:00:00

  • Prevention of disability on grounds of suffering.

    abstract::This paper examines one particular justification for the screening and termination of embryos/fetuses which possess genetic features known to cause disability. The particular case is that put forward in several places by John Harris. He argues that the obligation to prevent needless suffering justifies the prevention ...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Edwards SD

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Towards a specific approach to education in dental ethics: a proposal for organising the topics of biomedical ethics for dental education.

    abstract::Understanding dental ethics as a field separate from its much better known counterpart, medical ethics, is a relatively new, but necessary approach in bioethics. This need is particularly felt in dental education and establishing a curriculum specifically for dental ethics is a challenging task. Although certain topic...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gorkey S,Guven T,Sert G

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Results of a self-assessment tool to assess the operational characteristics of research ethics committees in low- and middle-income countries.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Many research ethics committees (RECs) have been established in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in response to increased research in these countries. How well these RECs are functioning remains largely unknown. Our objective was to assess the usefulness of a self-assessment tool in obtaining benchmarki...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Silverman H,Sleem H,Moodley K,Kumar N,Naidoo S,Subramanian T,Jaafar R,Moni M

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Towards a bioethics of innovation.

    abstract::In recent years, it has become almost axiomatic that biomedical research and clinical practice should be 'innovative'-that is, that they should be always evolving and directed towards the production, translation and implementation of new technologies and practices. While this drive towards innovation in biomedicine mi...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lipworth W,Axler R

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Functional neuroimaging and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment from vegetative patients.

    abstract::Recent studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging of patients in a vegetative state have raised the possibility that such patients retain some degree of consciousness. In this paper, the ethical implications of such findings are outlined, in particular in relation to decisions about withdrawing life-sustainin...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilkinson DJ,Kahane G,Horne M,Savulescu J

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical prioritisations of healthcare for the aged--professional roles.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although fair distribution of healthcare services for older patients is an important challenge, qualitative research exploring clinicians' considerations in clinical prioritisation within this field is scarce. OBJECTIVES:To explore how clinicians understand their professional role in clinical prioritisation...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Nortvedt P,Pedersen R,Grøthe KH,Nordhaug M,Kirkevold M,Slettebø A,Brinchmann BS,Andersen B

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • Ethics and evidence based surgery.

    abstract::Traditionally, surgical practice has been experiential and based on the contemporary understanding of basic mechanisms of disease. It was both a science and an art and depended to far too great an extent on the individualism and self belief of its main exponents. "Evidence based medicine" (EBM) emerged in the 1980s an...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stirrat GM

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Would you rather be a 'birth' or a 'genetic' mother? If so, how much?

    abstract::Judges face difficult choices when the birth and genetic mothers of a child are separate people who dispute maternal access; the views of the general population may help them. Fifty women were asked whether, if they were infertile and could have only one child, they would prefer to be birth mothers (to carry a baby wh...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thornton JG,McNamara HM,Montague IA

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • HIV, confidentiality and 'a delicate balance': a reply to Leone Ridsdale.

    abstract::The passing on of information to GPs by genito-urinary doctors is to be encouraged but is not always possible and ultimately the patient's wishes and confidentiality must be respected if sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection are to be controlled. Infected health-care workers should seek counselling and medic...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adler MW

    更新日期:1991-12-01 00:00:00

  • A quiet revolution in organ transplant ethics.

    abstract::A quiet revolution is occurring in the field of transplantation. Traditionally, transplants have involved solid organs such as the kidney, heart and liver which are transplanted to prevent recipients from dying. Now transplants are being done of the face, hand, uterus, penis and larynx that aim at improving a recipien...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Caplan A,Purves D

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • What are we to make of the charge that human biological enhancement technologies are 'unnatural'?

    abstract::In popular lay discourse, objections to human biological enhancement technologies are sometimes expressed in terms of the charge that they are unnatural. This paper critiques the literal claim that seems to be presented here, namely that such technologies are in some ordinary sense 'unnatural' and that it follows from...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller PR

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • The demise of UKXIRA and the regulation of solid-organ xenotransplantation in the UK.

    abstract::The new regulations on xenotransplantation pay insufficient attention to the broad ethical (and legal) problems raised by this technique and that the abandonment of a national body with overall regulatory authority in this area is a mistake. ...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 社论,评审


    authors: McLean S,Williamson L

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Placebo: the lie that comes true?

    abstract::Over the decades of experimentation on the placebo effect, it has become clear that it is driven largely by expectation, and that strong expectations of efficacy are more likely to give rise to the experience of benefit. No wonder the placebo effect has come to resemble a self-fulfilling prophecy. However, this resemb...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Justman S

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • American biofutures: ideology and utopia in the Fukuyama/Stock debate.

    abstract::Francis Fukuyama, in his Our Posthuman Future, and Gregory Stock, in his Redesigning Humans, present competing versions of the biomedical future of human beings, and debate the merits of more or less stringent regimes of regulation for biomedical innovation. In this article, these positions are shown to depend on a sh...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ashcroft RE

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • The justificatory power of moral experience.

    abstract::A recurrent issue in the vast amount of literature on reasoning models in ethics is the role and nature of moral intuitions. In this paper, we start from the view that people who work and live in a certain moral practice usually possess specific moral wisdom. If we manage to incorporate their moral intuitions in ethic...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Thiel GJ,van Delden JJ

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • What about the dentist-patient relationship in dental tourism?

    abstract::Dental tourism is patients travelling across international borders with the intention of receiving dental care. It is a growing phenomenon that raises many ethical issues, particularly regarding the dentist-patient relationship. We discuss various issues related to this phenomenon, including patient autonomy over prac...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Conti A,Delbon P,Laffranchi L,Paganelli C

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Greek theories on eugenics.

    abstract::With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social t...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 传,历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Galton DJ

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • Examining consent within the patient-doctor relationship.

    abstract::The notion of consent which rose to the forefront in biomedical ethics as an attempt to safeguard patients' autonomy, is relatively new. The notion itself requires qualification, for it precludes neither duress nor ignorance. More seriously, I argue here that consent is redundant except in situations where paternalism...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Habiba MA

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00

  • "I can put the medicine in his soup, Doctor!".

    abstract::The practice of covertly administering medication is controversial. Although condemned by some as overly paternalistic, others have suggested that it may be acceptable if patients have permanent mental incapacity and refuse needed treatment. Ethical, legal, and clinical considerations become more complex when the ment...

    journal_title:Journal of medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wong JG,Poon Y,Hui EC

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00