Dynamic CO2 and pH levels in coastal, estuarine, and inland waters: Theoretical and observed effects on harmful algal blooms.


:Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 results in higher equilibrium concentrations of dissolved CO2 in natural waters, with corresponding increases in hydrogen ion and bicarbonate concentrations and decreases in hydroxyl ion and carbonate concentrations. Superimposed on these climate change effects is the dynamic nature of carbon cycling in coastal zones, which can lead to seasonal and diel changes in pH and CO2 concentrations that can exceed changes expected for open ocean ecosystems by the end of the century. Among harmful algae, i.e. some species and/or strains of Cyanobacteria, Dinophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Ulvophyceae, the occurrence of a CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) is the most frequent mechanism of inorganic carbon acquisition in natural waters in equilibrium with the present atmosphere (400 μmol CO2  mol-1 total gas), with varying phenotypic modification of the CCM. No data on CCMs are available for Raphidophyceae or the brown tide Pelagophyceae. Several HAB species and/or strains respond to increased CO2 concentrations with increases in growth rate and/or cellular toxin content, however, others are unaffected. Beyond the effects of altered C concentrations and speciation on HABs, changes in pH in natural waters are likely to have profound effects on algal physiology. This review outlines the implications of changes in inorganic cycling for HABs in coastal zones, and reviews the knowns and unknowns with regard to how HABs can be expected to ocean acidification. We further point to the large regions of uncertainty with regard to this evolving field.


Harmful Algae


Harmful algae


Raven JA,Gobler CJ,Hansen PJ




Has Abstract


2020-01-01 00:00:00












  • Climate variability and Dinophysis acuta blooms in an upwelling system.

    abstract::Dinophysis acuta is a frequent seasonal lipophilic toxin producer in European Atlantic coastal waters associated with thermal stratification. In the Galician Rías, populations of D. acuta with their epicentre located off Aveiro (northern Portugal), typically co-occur with and follow those of Dinophysis acuminata durin...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Díaz PA,Ruiz-Villarreal M,Pazos Y,Moita T,Reguera B

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Prorocentrum lima from the South Atlantic: Morphological, molecular and toxicological characterization.

    abstract::Morphological descriptions using light and scanning electron microscopy and molecular characterization of two Prorocentrum lima strains (UNR-01 and UNR-09) isolated from Armação dos Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are provided. Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) and DTX2 production by strain UNR-01 was investi...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nascimento SM,Salgueiro F,Menezes M,Oliveira FA,Magalhães VCP,De Paula JC,Morris S

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Economic and sociocultural impacts of fisheries closures in two fishing-dependent communities following the massive 2015 U.S. West Coast harmful algal bloom.

    abstract::In the spring of 2015, a massive harmful algal bloom (HAB) of the toxin-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia occurred on the U.S. West Coast, resulting in the largest recorded outbreak of the toxin domoic acid and causing fisheries closures. Closures extended into 2016 and generated an economic shock for coastal fishing ...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ritzman J,Brodbeck A,Brostrom S,McGrew S,Dreyer S,Klinger T,Moore SK

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Feeding by the harmful phototrophic dinoflagellate Takayama tasmanica (Family Kareniaceae).

    abstract::The trophic mode of a phototrophic dinoflagellate is a critical factor in the dynamics of its harmful algal bloom. Recent discoveries of the mixotrophic capabilities of phototrophic dinoflagellates have changed the traditional view of bloom dynamics and prediction models. Here, mixotrophy in the harmful phototrophic d...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lim AS,Jeong HJ,Ok JH,Kim SJ

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • The impact of urea on toxic diatoms - Potential effects of fertilizer silo breakdown on a Pseudo-nitzschia bloom.

    abstract::In spring 2016, two silos containing liquid nitrogen-containing fertilizer collapsed on a harbor in Fredericia, Denmark. More than 2,750 tons of fertilizer spilled into inner Danish waters. A bloom of Pseudo-nitzschia occurred approximately one month after the incident. The bloom caused a 5-week quarantine of numerous...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Olesen AJ,Harðardóttir S,Daugbjerg N,Andersen P,Lyngsgaard M,Krock B,Lundholm N

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Feeding and grazing impact by the bloom-forming euglenophyte Eutreptiella eupharyngea on marine eubacteria and cyanobacteria.

    abstract::The phototrophic euglenophyte Eutreptiella eupharyngea often causes blooms in the coastal waters of many countries, but its mode of nutrition has not been assessed. This species has previously been considered as exclusively auxotrophic. To explore whether E. eupharyngea is a mixotrophic species, the protoplasm of E. e...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yoo YD,Seong KA,Kim HS,Jeong HJ,Yoon EY,Park J,Kim JI,Shin W,Palenik B

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro isolation of nanobodies for selective Alexandrium minutum recognition: A model for convenient development of dedicated immuno-reagents to study and diagnostic toxic unicellular algae.

    abstract::At the present, the identification of planktonic species in coastal water is still a time intensive process performed by highly trained personnel that relies either on qPCR or on light microscopy observation and in vitro culturing. Furthermore, the increasing danger represented by Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) inside ph...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mazzega E,Beran A,Cabrini M,de Marco A

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Two decades of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms and king scallop (Pecten maximus) contamination by domoic acid along the French Atlantic and English Channel coasts: Seasonal dynamics, spatial heterogeneity and interannual variability.

    abstract::King scallop contamination (Pecten maximus) by domoic acid, a neurotoxin produced by some species of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, is highly problematic because of its lengthy retention in the bivalve tissue, leading to prolonged fishery closures. Data collected within the French Phytoplankton and Phycotoxin monitoring...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Husson B,Hernández-Fariñas T,Le Gendre R,Schapira M,Chapelle A

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Present-day and future climate pathways affecting Alexandrium blooms in Puget Sound, WA, USA.

    abstract::This study uses a mechanistic modeling approach to evaluate the effects of various climate pathways on the proliferative phase of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium in Puget Sound, WA, USA. Experimentally derived Alexandrium growth responses to temperature and salinity are combined with simulations of the ...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moore SK,Johnstone JA,Banas NS,Salathé EP Jr

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Survey of survival rate and histological alterations of gills and hepatopancreas of the Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles caused by exposure of Margalefidinium / Cochlodinium polykrikoides isolated from the Persian Gulf.

    abstract::Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have had harmful effects on the health of a wide range of organisms and are becoming a noteworthy risk to fisheries, human health and wildlife around the globe. Although the lethal influences of dinoflagellate Margalefidinium / Cochlodinium polykrikoides have been well-documented for finfis...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yeganeh V,Sharifinia M,Mobaraki S,Dashtiannasab A,Aeinjamshid K,Borazjani JM,Maghsoudloo T

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship between toxic phytoplankton species occurrence and environmental and meteorological factors along the Eastern Adriatic coast.

    abstract::In this study, the time series of toxic phytoplankton species collected between 2004 and 2018 from the Northern Adriatic, Šibenik Bay, and Mali Ston Bay was analyzed in relation to environmental (temperature, salinity, water column stability, and river flow) and meteorological parameters (precipitation and wind). Beca...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ninčević Gladan Ž,Matić F,Arapov J,Skejić S,Bužančić M,Bakrač A,Straka M,Dekneudt Q,Grbec B,Garber R,Nazlić N

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Caspase-like activity during aging and cell death in the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis.

    abstract::The observation of caspase-like activity during cell death has provided a new framework for understanding the evolutionary and ecological contexts of programmed cell death in phytoplankton. However, additional roles for this caspase-like activity, the enzymes responsible, and the targets of this enzyme activity in phy...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnson JG,Janech MG,Van Dolah FM

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Spatial-temporal variation of Aureococcus anophagefferens blooms in relation to environmental factors in the coastal waters of Qinhuangdao, China.

    abstract::The brown tides occurring in the coastal scallop cultivation area of Qinhuangdao, China, in recent years are caused by Aureococcus anophagefferens and significantly impact the scallop industry and the marine ecosystem in this region. Long-term investigations of phytoplankton and hydrological variables in the Qinhuangd...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yao P,Lei L,Zhao B,Wang J,Chen L

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Feeding characteristics and molecular phylogeny of the thecate mixotrophic dinoflagellate Fragilidium mexicanum.

    abstract::Prey spectrum and feeding process of the mixotrophic thecate dinoflagellate Fragilidium mexicanum strain Fm-LOHABE01 were examined using a culture isolated from Masan Bay, Korea in 2011 during a summer bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum. The novel 18S and 28S rDNA sequences for F. mexicanum were a...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim S,Park MG

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular approach for analysis of in situ feeding by the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans.

    abstract::The red tide forming heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans is common in temperate to tropical waters around the world. Understanding the in situ prey of N. scintillans is essential for elucidating its role in marine microbial food webs. In this study, we applied two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based c...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nishitani G,Shiromoto M,Sato-Okoshi W,Ishikawa A

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • A review of the global ecology, genomics, and biogeography of the toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis spp.

    abstract::This review summarizes the present state of knowledge regarding the toxic, bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis, with a specific focus on its geographic distribution, toxins, genomics, phylogeny, and ecology. A global analysis found documentation suggesting geographic expansion of Microcystis, with recorded bloom...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Harke MJ,Steffen MM,Gobler CJ,Otten TG,Wilhelm SW,Wood SA,Paerl HW

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • Trends in Dinophysis abundance and diarrhetic shellfish toxin levels in California mussels (Mytilus californianus) from Monterey Bay, California.

    abstract::Diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) are produced by the marine dinoflagellate, Dinophysis, as well as select species of benthic Prorocentrum. The DSTs can bioaccumulate in shellfish and cause gastrointestinal illness when humans consume high levels of this toxin. Although not routinely monitored throughout the U.S., re...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shultz D,Campbell L,Kudela RM

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Development of a qPCR assay to detect and quantify ichthyotoxic flagellates along the Norwegian coast, and the first Norwegian record of Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae).

    abstract::Blooms of ichthyotoxic microalgae pose a great challenge to the aquaculture industry world-wide, and there is a need for fast and specific methods for their detection and quantification in monitoring programs. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for the detection and enumeration of three ichthyotox...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Engesmo A,Strand D,Gran-Stadniczeñko S,Edvardsen B,Medlin LK,Eikrem W

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Growth and epiphytic behavior of three Gambierdiscus species (Dinophyceae) associated with various macroalgal substrates.

    abstract::Species of the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus produce polyether neurotoxins that caused ciguatera fish/shellfish poisoning in human. The toxins enter marine food webs by foraging of herbivores on the biotic substrates like macroalgae that host the toxic dinoflagellates. Interaction of Gambierdiscus and their mac...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mustapa NI,Yong HL,Lee LK,Lim ZF,Lim HC,Teng ST,Luo Z,Gu H,Leaw CP,Lim PT

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Tracing the origin of green macroalgal blooms based on the large scale spatio-temporal distribution of Ulva microscopic propagules and settled mature Ulva vegetative thalli in coastal regions of the Yellow Sea, China.

    abstract::From 2008 to 2016, massive floating green macroalgal blooms occurred annually during the summer months in the Yellow Sea. The original source of these blooms was traced based on the spatio-temporal distribution and species composition of Ulva microscopic propagules and settled Ulva vegetative thalli monthly from Decem...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huo Y,Han H,Hua L,Wei Z,Yu K,Shi H,Kim JK,Yarish C,He P

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Ostreopsis cf. ovata in the Gulf of Gabès (south-eastern Mediterranean Sea): morphological, molecular and ecological characterization.

    abstract::In the last few decades, the frequency of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata proliferation has increased in the Mediterranean Sea. These blooms are associated with harmful effects on human health and the environment. The present work provides the first long term study on the spatio-temporal distribu...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abdennadher M,Zouari AB,Sahnoun WF,Alverca E,Penna A,Hamza A

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Geosmin production and polyphasic characterization of Oscillatoria limosa Agardh ex Gomont isolated from the open canal of a large drinking water system in Tianjin City, China.

    abstract::Taste and odor (T & O) episodes always cause strong effects on drinking water supply system. Luanhe River diversion into Tianjin City in China is an important drinking water resource. Massive growth of a benthic filamentous cyanobacterium with geosmin production in the open canal caused a strong earthy odor episode in...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cai F,Yu G,Zhang K,Chen Y,Li Q,Yang Y,Xie J,Wang Y,Li R

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • Alexandrium catenella cyst accumulation by passive and active dispersal agents: Implications for the potential spreading risk in Chilean Patagonian fjords.

    abstract::The dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella is responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning and negative socioeconomic impacts on the fishing industry and aquaculture. In Chilean Patagonia, the reasons underlying the significant increase in the geographical extension (from south to north) of A. catenella blooms during t...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodríguez-Villegas C,Díaz PA,Pizarro G,Salgado P,Pérez-Santos I,Díaz M,Seguel M,Baldrich Á,Bravo I,Iriarte L,Figueroa RI

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of ocean acidification and phosphate limitation on physiology and toxicity of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi.

    abstract::This work demonstrated a 10-day batch culture experiment to test the physiology and toxicity of harmful dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi in response to ocean acidification (OA) under two different phosphate concentrations. Cells were previously acclimated in OA (pH = 7.8 and CO2 = 1100 μatm) condition for about three ...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang H,Niu X,Feng X,Gonçalves RJ,Guan W

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Are laboratory growth rate experiments relevant to explaining bloom-forming cyanobacteria distributions at global scale?

    abstract::Predicting algal population dynamics using models informed by experimental data has been used as a strategy to inform the management and control of harmful cyanobacterial blooms. We selected toxic bloom-forming species Microcystis spp. and Raphidiopsis raciborskii (basionym Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii) for further ...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiao M,Hamilton DP,O'Brien KR,Adams MP,Willis A,Burford MA

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • The 5S rRNA genes in Alexandrium: their use as a FISH chromosomal marker in studies of the diversity, cell cycle and sexuality of dinoflagellates.

    abstract::Chromosomal markers of the diversity and evolution of dinoflagellates are scarce because the genomes of these organisms are unique among eukaryotes in terms of their base composition and chromosomal structure. Similarly, a lack of appropriate tools has hindered studies of the chromosomal localization of 5S ribosomal D...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Bustos A,Figueroa RI,Sixto M,Bravo I,Cuadrado Á

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Morphology and phylogeny of Prorocentrum caipirignum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a new tropical toxic benthic dinoflagellate.

    abstract::A new species of toxic benthic dinoflagellate is described based on laboratory cultures isolated from two locations from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. The morphology was studied with SEM and LM. Cells are elliptical in right thecal view and flat. They are 37-44μm long and 29-36μm wide. The right thecal plate has a...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nascimento SM,Mendes MCQ,Menezes M,Rodríguez F,Alves-de-Souza C,Branco S,Riobó P,Franco J,Nunes JMC,Huk M,Morris S,Fraga S

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Harmful epiphytic dinoflagellate assemblages on macrophytes in the Gulf of Tunis.

    abstract::The spatio-temporal distribution of epiphytic and planktonic microalgae coupled with environmental factors was investigated for a one-year period in the Gulf of Tunis (northeastern Tunisia). Harmful microalgae assemblages were dominated by three toxic epiphytic dinoflagellates: Ostreopsis sp., Prorocentrum lima and Co...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hachani MA,Dhib A,Fathalli A,Ziadi B,Turki S,Aleya L

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • LSU rDNA based RFLP assays for the routine identification of Gambierdiscus species.

    abstract::The Gambierdiscus genus is a group of benthic dinoflagellates commonly associated with ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), which is generally found in tropical or sub-tropical regions around the world. Morphologically similar species within the genus can vary in toxicity; however, species identifications are difficult or ...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lyu Y,Richlen ML,Sehein TR,Chinain M,Adachi M,Nishimura T,Xu Y,Parsons ML,Smith TB,Zheng T,Anderson DM

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Diversity and toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia species in Monterey Bay: Perspectives from targeted and adaptive sampling.

    abstract::Monterey Bay, California experiences near-annual blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia that can affect marine animal health and the economy, including impacts to tourism and commercial/recreational fisheries. One species in particular, P. australis, has been implicated in the most toxic of events, however other species within th...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bowers HA,Ryan JP,Hayashi K,Woods AL,Marin R 3rd,Smith GJ,Hubbard KA,Doucette GJ,Mikulski CM,Gellene AG,Zhang Y,Kudela RM,Caron DA,Birch JM,Scholin CA

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00