Dynamic CO2 and pH levels in coastal, estuarine, and inland waters: Theoretical and observed effects on harmful algal blooms.


:Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 results in higher equilibrium concentrations of dissolved CO2 in natural waters, with corresponding increases in hydrogen ion and bicarbonate concentrations and decreases in hydroxyl ion and carbonate concentrations. Superimposed on these climate change effects is the dynamic nature of carbon cycling in coastal zones, which can lead to seasonal and diel changes in pH and CO2 concentrations that can exceed changes expected for open ocean ecosystems by the end of the century. Among harmful algae, i.e. some species and/or strains of Cyanobacteria, Dinophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Ulvophyceae, the occurrence of a CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) is the most frequent mechanism of inorganic carbon acquisition in natural waters in equilibrium with the present atmosphere (400 μmol CO2  mol-1 total gas), with varying phenotypic modification of the CCM. No data on CCMs are available for Raphidophyceae or the brown tide Pelagophyceae. Several HAB species and/or strains respond to increased CO2 concentrations with increases in growth rate and/or cellular toxin content, however, others are unaffected. Beyond the effects of altered C concentrations and speciation on HABs, changes in pH in natural waters are likely to have profound effects on algal physiology. This review outlines the implications of changes in inorganic cycling for HABs in coastal zones, and reviews the knowns and unknowns with regard to how HABs can be expected to ocean acidification. We further point to the large regions of uncertainty with regard to this evolving field.


Harmful Algae


Harmful algae


Raven JA,Gobler CJ,Hansen PJ




Has Abstract


2020-01-01 00:00:00












  • Feeding and grazing impact by the bloom-forming euglenophyte Eutreptiella eupharyngea on marine eubacteria and cyanobacteria.

    abstract::The phototrophic euglenophyte Eutreptiella eupharyngea often causes blooms in the coastal waters of many countries, but its mode of nutrition has not been assessed. This species has previously been considered as exclusively auxotrophic. To explore whether E. eupharyngea is a mixotrophic species, the protoplasm of E. e...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yoo YD,Seong KA,Kim HS,Jeong HJ,Yoon EY,Park J,Kim JI,Shin W,Palenik B

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Feeding characteristics and molecular phylogeny of the thecate mixotrophic dinoflagellate Fragilidium mexicanum.

    abstract::Prey spectrum and feeding process of the mixotrophic thecate dinoflagellate Fragilidium mexicanum strain Fm-LOHABE01 were examined using a culture isolated from Masan Bay, Korea in 2011 during a summer bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum. The novel 18S and 28S rDNA sequences for F. mexicanum were a...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim S,Park MG

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Variation in the abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid with surf zone type.

    abstract::Most harmful algal blooms (HAB) originate away from the shore and, for them to endanger human health, they must be first transported to shore after which they must enter the surf zone where they can be feed upon by filter feeders. The last step in this sequence, entrance into the surf zone, depends on surf zone hydrod...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shanks AL,Morgan SG,MacMahan J,Reniers AJ,Kudela R,Jarvis M,Brown J,Fujimura A,Ziccarelli L,Griesemer C

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • The 5S rRNA genes in Alexandrium: their use as a FISH chromosomal marker in studies of the diversity, cell cycle and sexuality of dinoflagellates.

    abstract::Chromosomal markers of the diversity and evolution of dinoflagellates are scarce because the genomes of these organisms are unique among eukaryotes in terms of their base composition and chromosomal structure. Similarly, a lack of appropriate tools has hindered studies of the chromosomal localization of 5S ribosomal D...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Bustos A,Figueroa RI,Sixto M,Bravo I,Cuadrado Á

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Ostreopsis cf. ovata in the Gulf of Gabès (south-eastern Mediterranean Sea): morphological, molecular and ecological characterization.

    abstract::In the last few decades, the frequency of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata proliferation has increased in the Mediterranean Sea. These blooms are associated with harmful effects on human health and the environment. The present work provides the first long term study on the spatio-temporal distribu...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abdennadher M,Zouari AB,Sahnoun WF,Alverca E,Penna A,Hamza A

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Psammodinium inclinatum gen. nov. et comb. nov. (=Thecadinium inclinatum Balech) is the closest relative to the toxic dinoflagellate genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa.

    abstract::The heterotrophic sand-dwelling dinoflagellate Thecadinium inclinatum has been re-examined by light and scanning electron microscopy in order to resolve the discrepancies on its plate pattern from the literature, and to obtain its phylogenetic information single-cell PCR technique has been used. The comparison of morp...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reñé A,Hoppenrath M

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Climate variability and Dinophysis acuta blooms in an upwelling system.

    abstract::Dinophysis acuta is a frequent seasonal lipophilic toxin producer in European Atlantic coastal waters associated with thermal stratification. In the Galician Rías, populations of D. acuta with their epicentre located off Aveiro (northern Portugal), typically co-occur with and follow those of Dinophysis acuminata durin...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Díaz PA,Ruiz-Villarreal M,Pazos Y,Moita T,Reguera B

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Economic and sociocultural impacts of fisheries closures in two fishing-dependent communities following the massive 2015 U.S. West Coast harmful algal bloom.

    abstract::In the spring of 2015, a massive harmful algal bloom (HAB) of the toxin-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia occurred on the U.S. West Coast, resulting in the largest recorded outbreak of the toxin domoic acid and causing fisheries closures. Closures extended into 2016 and generated an economic shock for coastal fishing ...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ritzman J,Brodbeck A,Brostrom S,McGrew S,Dreyer S,Klinger T,Moore SK

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Harmful epiphytic dinoflagellate assemblages on macrophytes in the Gulf of Tunis.

    abstract::The spatio-temporal distribution of epiphytic and planktonic microalgae coupled with environmental factors was investigated for a one-year period in the Gulf of Tunis (northeastern Tunisia). Harmful microalgae assemblages were dominated by three toxic epiphytic dinoflagellates: Ostreopsis sp., Prorocentrum lima and Co...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hachani MA,Dhib A,Fathalli A,Ziadi B,Turki S,Aleya L

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • An alternative explanation for cyanobacterial scum formation and persistence by oxygenic photosynthesis.

    abstract::The cause of persistent cyanobacteria scum formation in lakes is an unresolved subject. Scum refers to the event in which cyanobacteria are at the water surface of a lake. Factors like low turbulence levels, long day-light, high water temperatures and the buoyant capacity of cyanobacterial cells play a role in the occ...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aparicio Medrano E,Uittenbogaard RE,van de Wiel BJ,Dionisio Pires LM,Clercx HJ

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Alexandrium catenella cyst accumulation by passive and active dispersal agents: Implications for the potential spreading risk in Chilean Patagonian fjords.

    abstract::The dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella is responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning and negative socioeconomic impacts on the fishing industry and aquaculture. In Chilean Patagonia, the reasons underlying the significant increase in the geographical extension (from south to north) of A. catenella blooms during t...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodríguez-Villegas C,Díaz PA,Pizarro G,Salgado P,Pérez-Santos I,Díaz M,Seguel M,Baldrich Á,Bravo I,Iriarte L,Figueroa RI

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • High resolution mass spectrometry-based screening reveals lipophilic toxins in multiple trophic levels from the North Sea.

    abstract::Lipophilic marine biotoxins, which are mainly produced by small dinoflagellates, are increasingly detected in coastal waters across the globe. As these producers are consumed by zooplankton and shellfish, the toxins are introduced, bioaccumulated and possibly biomagnified throughout marine food chains. Recent research...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Orellana G,Van Meulebroek L,De Rijcke M,Janssen CR,Vanhaecke L

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Development of a qPCR assay to detect and quantify ichthyotoxic flagellates along the Norwegian coast, and the first Norwegian record of Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae).

    abstract::Blooms of ichthyotoxic microalgae pose a great challenge to the aquaculture industry world-wide, and there is a need for fast and specific methods for their detection and quantification in monitoring programs. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for the detection and enumeration of three ichthyotox...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Engesmo A,Strand D,Gran-Stadniczeñko S,Edvardsen B,Medlin LK,Eikrem W

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Feeding by the harmful phototrophic dinoflagellate Takayama tasmanica (Family Kareniaceae).

    abstract::The trophic mode of a phototrophic dinoflagellate is a critical factor in the dynamics of its harmful algal bloom. Recent discoveries of the mixotrophic capabilities of phototrophic dinoflagellates have changed the traditional view of bloom dynamics and prediction models. Here, mixotrophy in the harmful phototrophic d...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lim AS,Jeong HJ,Ok JH,Kim SJ

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Can toxin warfare against fungal parasitism influence short-term Dolichospermum bloom dynamics? - A field observation.

    abstract::Cyanobacterial blooms often consist of numerous co-existing cyanobacterial species, with predominant taxa dynamically varying intra-annually. Parasitism by fungi (chytrids) has come into focus as an important factor driving short-term bloom dynamics. Using microscopic analysis, Illumina sequencing and cyanobacterial t...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weisbrod B,Riehle E,Helmer M,Martin-Creuzburg D,Dietrich DR

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Caspase-like activity during aging and cell death in the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis.

    abstract::The observation of caspase-like activity during cell death has provided a new framework for understanding the evolutionary and ecological contexts of programmed cell death in phytoplankton. However, additional roles for this caspase-like activity, the enzymes responsible, and the targets of this enzyme activity in phy...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnson JG,Janech MG,Van Dolah FM

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • A review of karenia mikimotoi: Bloom events, physiology, toxicity and toxic mechanism.

    abstract::Karenia mikimotoi is a worldwide bloom-forming dinoflagellate in the genus Karenia. Blooms of this alga have been observed since the 1930s and have caused mass mortalities of fish, shellfish, and other invertebrates in the coastal waters of many countries, including Japan, Norway, Ireland, and New Zealand. This specie...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Li X,Yan T,Yu R,Zhou M

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Unraveling the Karenia selliformis complex with the description of a non-gymnodimine producing Patagonian phylotype.

    abstract::Karenia selliformis is a bloom-forming toxic dinoflagellate known for production of gymnodimines (GYMs) and causing mass mortalities of marine fauna. Blooms have been reported from coastal waters of New Zealand, Mexico, Tunisia, Kuwait, Iran, China and Chile. Based on molecular phylogeny, morphology, toxin production,...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mardones JI,Norambuena L,Paredes J,Fuenzalida G,Dorantes-Aranda JJ,Chang KJL,Guzmán L,Krock B,Hallegraeff G

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • A review of the global ecology, genomics, and biogeography of the toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis spp.

    abstract::This review summarizes the present state of knowledge regarding the toxic, bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis, with a specific focus on its geographic distribution, toxins, genomics, phylogeny, and ecology. A global analysis found documentation suggesting geographic expansion of Microcystis, with recorded bloom...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Harke MJ,Steffen MM,Gobler CJ,Otten TG,Wilhelm SW,Wood SA,Paerl HW

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of bloom intensity on the encystment rate and persistence of Alexandrium minutum in Cork Harbor, Ireland.

    abstract::Toxic Alexandrium minutum blooms recur annually in Cork Harbor, Ireland where they initiate in an inlet known as the North Channel. The dynamics of these blooms have been studied since 2003, and a high degree of inter-annual variability in the cell densities has been observed. Two intense blooms, with maximum cell den...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cosgrove S,Rathaille AN,Raine R

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Net community production and dark community respiration in a Karenia brevis (Davis) bloom in West Florida coastal waters, USA.

    abstract::Oxygen-based productivity and respiration rates were determined in West Florida coastal waters to evaluate the proportion of community respiration demands met by autotrophic production within a harmful algal bloom dominated by Karenia brevis. The field program was adaptive in that sampling during the 2006 bloom occurr...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hitchcock GL,Kirkpatrick G,Minnett P,Palubok V

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Spatial-temporal variation of Aureococcus anophagefferens blooms in relation to environmental factors in the coastal waters of Qinhuangdao, China.

    abstract::The brown tides occurring in the coastal scallop cultivation area of Qinhuangdao, China, in recent years are caused by Aureococcus anophagefferens and significantly impact the scallop industry and the marine ecosystem in this region. Long-term investigations of phytoplankton and hydrological variables in the Qinhuangd...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yao P,Lei L,Zhao B,Wang J,Chen L

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of ocean acidification and phosphate limitation on physiology and toxicity of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi.

    abstract::This work demonstrated a 10-day batch culture experiment to test the physiology and toxicity of harmful dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi in response to ocean acidification (OA) under two different phosphate concentrations. Cells were previously acclimated in OA (pH = 7.8 and CO2 = 1100 μatm) condition for about three ...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang H,Niu X,Feng X,Gonçalves RJ,Guan W

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Are laboratory growth rate experiments relevant to explaining bloom-forming cyanobacteria distributions at global scale?

    abstract::Predicting algal population dynamics using models informed by experimental data has been used as a strategy to inform the management and control of harmful cyanobacterial blooms. We selected toxic bloom-forming species Microcystis spp. and Raphidiopsis raciborskii (basionym Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii) for further ...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiao M,Hamilton DP,O'Brien KR,Adams MP,Willis A,Burford MA

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • LSU rDNA based RFLP assays for the routine identification of Gambierdiscus species.

    abstract::The Gambierdiscus genus is a group of benthic dinoflagellates commonly associated with ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), which is generally found in tropical or sub-tropical regions around the world. Morphologically similar species within the genus can vary in toxicity; however, species identifications are difficult or ...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lyu Y,Richlen ML,Sehein TR,Chinain M,Adachi M,Nishimura T,Xu Y,Parsons ML,Smith TB,Zheng T,Anderson DM

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Two decades of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms and king scallop (Pecten maximus) contamination by domoic acid along the French Atlantic and English Channel coasts: Seasonal dynamics, spatial heterogeneity and interannual variability.

    abstract::King scallop contamination (Pecten maximus) by domoic acid, a neurotoxin produced by some species of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, is highly problematic because of its lengthy retention in the bivalve tissue, leading to prolonged fishery closures. Data collected within the French Phytoplankton and Phycotoxin monitoring...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Husson B,Hernández-Fariñas T,Le Gendre R,Schapira M,Chapelle A

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Initial skill assessment of the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) system.

    abstract::Toxic algal events are an annual burden on aquaculture and coastal ecosystems of California. The threat of domoic acid (DA) toxicity to human and wildlife health is the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) concern for the region, leading to a strong focus on prediction and mitigation of these blooms and their toxic effe...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Anderson CR,Kudela RM,Kahru M,Chao Y,Rosenfeld LK,Bahr FL,Anderson DM,Norris TA

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Tracing the origin of green macroalgal blooms based on the large scale spatio-temporal distribution of Ulva microscopic propagules and settled mature Ulva vegetative thalli in coastal regions of the Yellow Sea, China.

    abstract::From 2008 to 2016, massive floating green macroalgal blooms occurred annually during the summer months in the Yellow Sea. The original source of these blooms was traced based on the spatio-temporal distribution and species composition of Ulva microscopic propagules and settled Ulva vegetative thalli monthly from Decem...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huo Y,Han H,Hua L,Wei Z,Yu K,Shi H,Kim JK,Yarish C,He P

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Colorimetric DNA-based assay for the specific detection and quantification of Ostreopsis cf. ovata and Ostreopsis cf. siamensis in the marine environment.

    abstract::Ostreopsis is a toxic benthic dinoflagellate largely distributed worldwide in tropical and temperate areas. In the Mediterranean Sea, periodic summer blooms have been reported and have become a serious concern due to their direct impact on human health and the environment. Current microalgae identification is performe...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Toldrà A,Alcaraz C,Andree KB,Fernández-Tejedor M,Diogène J,Katakis I,O'Sullivan CK,Campàs M

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Interaction between cyanophage MaMV-DC and eight Microcystis strains, revealed by genetic defense systems.

    abstract::Cyanophage MaMV-DC is a member of Myoviridae that was reported to specifically infect and lyse Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-524 among 21 selected cyanobacterial strains. We reidentified the infection specificity of MaMV-DC among seven other Microcystis strains of different species. In our experiments, MaMV-DC infected...

    journal_title:Harmful algae

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang J,Bai P,Li Q,Lin Y,Huo D,Ke F,Zhang Q,Li T,Zhao J

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00