[Comparison of Antiviral Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Propolis with Acyclovir on Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1].


:While acyclovir, a nucleoside analogue, is widely used for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), emergence of drug-resistant viruses due to frequent usage of this class of medicines, and their toxic side effects require exploring novel active molecules. Despite the studies on developing synthetic molecules in medical sciences and pharmacology, herbs as a natural source of biologically-active compounds remain popular. In this in vitro study, olive leaf extract (OLE) and propolis alone or in combination with acyclovir were investigated for their antiviral efficacy in HSV-1.Toxic doses of OLE, propolis, and dimethyl sulfoxide, propolis diluent, for Hep-2 (ATCC, CCL-23) cells were determined by conventional cell culture. Using "endpoint" method, the viral dose infecting half of the cell culture (TCID50) was calculated, and viral quantity was determined with Spearman-Karber method. Antiviral effects of OLE and propolis on HSV-1 were investigated by conventional cell culture and real-time cell analysis (RTCA). Combinations of the two extracts with one another and with acyclovir were evaluated by RTCA. Active substances prepared at three different dilutions were added to tubes with HSV-1 of logTCID50: 11.5 in descending order starting from the highest non-toxic concentration, and they were left at room temperature for two different durations (one hour and three hours). The aliquots taken from the tubes were cultured in plates containing Hep-2 cells and evaluated after 72 hours. Combinations of extracts and acyclovir at concentrations at least four times lower than the lowest concentration showing antiviral efficacy against HSV-1 were cultured with Hep-2 cells in the e-plates of the xCELLigence RTCA device, measurements were obtained at 30 minute intervals, and data were recorded in real time. In the test with two different durations and at different concentrations of OLE and propolis, antiviral efficacy was observed both with one-hour and three-hour incubation at a concentration of 10 μg/ ml for propolis and 1.2 mg/ml for OLE with RTCA. The duration and concentration of the greatest decrease in viral quantity were in the first one hour and 10 μg/ml for propolis, and in the first one hour and 1.2 mg/ ml for OLE. Combination of propolis and OLE with acyclovir caused no cytopathic effects, and the combination of extracts led to delayed cytopathic effect. According to these results, propolis and OLE, alone and in combinations with acyclovir, have antiviral efficacy against HSV-1. These agents may reduce the dose and side effects of acyclovir in case of co-administration since they exert their effects through a different mechanism than acyclovir,possibly through direct virucidal activity, inhibition of virus internalization or viral inhibition in early stages of replication (inhibition of adsorption/binding of viral particles to the cell). These extracts that do not require conversion to active form have the potential to reduce infectivity in oral lesions, prevent spread, and be used in the topical treatment of acyclovir-resistant HSV infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. However, in vivo studies should be conducted to determine their medicinal properties and potential toxicities. These results should be supported by further comprehensive studies and the efficacy against other viruses should also be investigated.


Mikrobiyol Bul


Mikrobiyoloji bulteni


Altındiş M,Aslan FG,Uzuner H,Ünal H,Köroğlu M,Kulaç S,Karadenizli A




Has Abstract


2020-01-01 00:00:00










  • Polyclonal B cell anergy induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and cyclophosphamide.

    abstract::Tolerogenic treatment of mice by successive injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli or S. marcescens and cyclophosphamide (CY) decreased both the specific and polyclonal responses to tolerogen and to irrelevant LPS from Br. abortus as well as the specific immune response to sheep red blood cells. Splenocyt...

    journal_title:Folia biologica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fontalin LN,Kondratieva TK,Kondratieva IA,Smirnova IN,Mikheeva NV

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • Clinicopathologic features of IgA nephropathy patients with different levels of proteinuria.

    abstract:AIMS:To investigate the clinicopathologic features of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients with different levels of proteinuria and its clinical significance. METHODS:This was a single-center retrospective cohort study. Patients with biopsy-proven primary IgAN were enrolled from January 2006 to December 2011 in The First A...

    journal_title:Clinical nephrology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ai Z,Xu R,Liu W,Zhou Q,Li B,Huang F,Yu X,Yang Q

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Mobilizing serum factors and immune cells through exercise to counteract age-related changes in cancer risk.

    abstract::An increasing body of evidence suggests that age-related immune changes and chronic inflammation contribute to cancer development. Recognizing that exercise has protective effects against cancer, promotes immune function, and beneficially modulates inflammation with ageing, this review outlines the current evidence in...

    journal_title:Exercise immunology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hwang JH,McGovern J,Minett GM,Della Gatta PA,Roberts L,Harris JM,Thompson EW,Parker TJ,Peake JM,Neubauer O

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • [PCR-based capsular typing of Haemophilus influenzae isolates non-typeable by agglutination].

    abstract::Haemophilus influenzae is recognized as a pathogenic agent responsible of localized and systemic infections. Six antigenically different capsular polysaccharide types have been described (a, b, c, d, e, and f ) which can be identified by slide agglutination with specific antisera. Besides there are non capsulated stra...

    journal_title:Revista Argentina de microbiologia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weltman G,Fossati MS,Correa C,Regueira M,Mollerach M

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • Hodgkin's disease in four siblings.

    abstract::Familial concentration of Hodgkin's disease has attracted special attention (Razis et al., 1959; De Vore and Doan, 1957; Halazun et al., 1972; Creagan and Fraumeni, 1972) as it could suggest genetical basis. The present report states the unusual occurrence of Hodgkin's disease in four siblings. Three of them descended...

    journal_title:Annales de pathologie

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barretto OC,Morioka H,Terra VM,Bubman I,Souza LF,Bellis ND,Carvalho KT,Machado JC

    更新日期:1984-06-01 00:00:00

  • Metastatic spread of systemic neoplasms to central nervous system tumors: review of the literature and case presentation of esophageal carcinoma metastatic to meningioma.

    abstract::Metastatic spread of a systemic neoplasm to a central nervous system malignancy is a rare but well-documented phenomenon. Over 100 case reports of tumor-to-tumor spread involving the central nervous system have been described since the first report in 1930. Overwhelmingly, intracranial meningioma represents the most c...

    journal_title:Clinical neuropathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Richter B,Harinath L,Pu C,Stabingas K

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Wrist-ankle Acupuncture Increases Pain Thresholds in Healthy Adults.

    abstract::Context • Wrist-ankle acupuncture (WAA) has been used to relieve both chronic and acute pain in China. Some research has shown that WAA can increase the pain thresholds in pain patients, but the ability of WAA to affect the pain thresholds in healthy adults is unknown. Objective • The study intended to assess the infl...

    journal_title:Alternative therapies in health and medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bi HJ,Wu GC,He YY,Chen HY,Zhou S,Zhou QH

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • The hepatoprotective effects of aquatic extract of Levisticum officinale against paraquat hepatocyte toxicity.

    abstract::Paraquat is extensively used as a strong nitrogen-based herbicide for controlling weeds in agriculture. This herbicide is extremely toxic to humans and induces multiorgan failure due to accumulation in the cells. So far, many instances of fatal poisoning have been reported. Paraquat is metabolized primarily in the liv...

    journal_title:Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Afarnegan H,Shahraki A,Shahraki J

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • In utero development of symmetric thalamic and brainstem necrosis in a preterm hydropic stillborn.

    abstract::Focal and symmetric necrotic lesions of the brainstem are thought to result from fetal hypotension or cardiac arrest in the perinatal period and thus occur in the course of postnatal intensive care rather than in utero. Here, we report for the first time on brainstem necrosis in a preterm stillborn demonstrating that ...

    journal_title:Clinical neuropathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Szekessy DP,Bamberg C,Blechschmidt C,Kaindl AM,Stoltenburg-Didinger G

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Dental indices and their impact on targeting of dental prevention, periodontal and filling therapy in young adults undergoing subsidised public dental care.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe the dental health of young adults undergoing subsidised public dental care and evaluate the amount and targeting of actual dental prevention, filling and periodontal therapy, and the length of proposed check-up intervals in relation to dental health indices. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN:Data on dental p...

    journal_title:Community dental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Helminen SK,Vehkalahti MM

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Phenolic acids from Ginkgo biloba L. Part II. Quantitative analysis of free and liberated by hydrolysis phenolic acids.

    abstract::HPLC was applied to the quantitative assay of seven free phenolic acids from the leaves, roots and seed testas of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae). The concentration of the free phenolic acids amounted to: 19.693 micrograms/g of fresh leaves, 345.321 micrograms/g of roots and 2.708 micrograms/g of testas: protocatechuic...

    journal_title:Acta poloniae pharmaceutica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ellnain-Wojtaszek M

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • Abutment-to-fixture load transfer and peri-implant bone stress.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To uncover design principles for the abutment-fixture complex that reduce the stress concentration on the bone. METHODS:A 3-dimensional finite element model was used to vary shape, elasticity, and connectivity of the abutment-fixture complex. We compared peri-implant bone stress of these designs. RESULTS:Peri...

    journal_title:American journal of dentistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van Oers RF,Feilzer AJ

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Virus removal vs. subsurface water velocity during slow sand filtration.

    abstract::In an attempt to obtain a conservative estimate of virus removal during slow sand and river bank filtration, a somatic phage was isolated with slow decay and poor adsorption to coarse sand. We continuously fed a phage suspension to a 7-m infiltration path and measured the phage removal. In a second set of experiments,...

    journal_title:Journal of water and health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dizer H,Brackmann B,Rahman MA,Szewzyk R,Sprenger C,Holzbecher E,López-Pila JM

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of intraocular pressure and retinal nerve fiber layer, retinal ganglion cell, central macular thickness, and choroidal thickness using optical coherence tomography in obese children and healthy controls.

    abstract:Objective:Obesity affects many organ systems. There have been few studies on the ophthalmological effects of obesity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in the ophthalmological parameters in obese children. Subjects and Methods:The study included 61 obese and 35 age-and gender-matched control sub...

    journal_title:Nigerian journal of clinical practice

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baran RT,Baran SO,Toraman NF,Filiz S,Demirbilek H

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Sexual response in obsessive-compulsive disorder: the role of obsessive beliefs.

    abstract:BACKGROUND.:Sexual response in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) research and practice is overlooked. According to the Dual Control Model, satisfactory sexual response is based upon a balance of sexual excitation and inhibition. The assessment of sexual response in OCD may have clinical implications, such as the inte...

    journal_title:CNS spectrums

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pozza A,Marazziti D,Mucci F,Angelo NL,Prestia D,Dèttore D

    更新日期:2020-07-15 00:00:00

  • An attempt at comparing external changes taking place during maturation of male mice with the development of the process of spermatogenesis.

    abstract::Evaluation of the degree of sexual maturation was performed in male mice of two selected lines differing in respect of body weight. Four developmental stages were distinguished: (1) loosening of the skin between the urinary papilla and the anus, (2) projection of the scrotum, (3) descent of the testes to the scrotum, ...

    journal_title:Folia biologica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wirth-Dzieciołowska E,Sysa PS,Ponimasz A

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • What are the special needs of chronically ill young people?

    abstract::Although significant advances have been made in the treatment of serious disease, there remains much scope for assisting young people in adjusting to life with a chronic medical condition. Commonly, chronically ill young people experience lower emotional well being than their healthy peers. Conventional approaches to ...

    journal_title:Australian family physician

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Olsson CA,Sawyer SM,Boyce M

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Extraction, bioavailability, and bioefficacy of capsaicinoids.

    abstract::Capsaicinoids are active constituents responsible for the pungent and spicy flavor in chili peppers. During the past few decades, various extraction methods of capsaicinoids from peppers have been developed with high yields. Through biological studies, pharmacological benefits have been reported such as pain relief, a...

    journal_title:Journal of food and drug analysis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lu M,Ho CT,Huang Q

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Power to the patient.

    abstract::1. The move to a long-term care facility often strips elders of self-control and decision-making, leading to a sense of powerlessness and low self-esteem. 2. Life is measured day to day. Restoring choices in activities of daily living, nutrition and fluids, and social activities allows clients to function at maximum a...

    journal_title:Journal of gerontological nursing

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tolley M

    更新日期:1997-10-01 00:00:00

  • [Skin cancer and psoralen plus UVA: a retrospective study of 106 patients exposed to a great number of PUVA treatments].

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The benefits of PUVAtherapy in many dermatological affections are well known. Its carcinogenic role in the long term has been assessed varyingly in American and European series. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess the role of PUVA in the onset of cancers of the skin. METHODS:Retrospective study...

    journal_title:Annales de dermatologie et de venereologie

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Raiss M,Templier I,Beani JC

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Model of Intellectual Disability and the Relationship of Attitudes Towards the Sexuality of Persons with an Intellectual Disability.

    abstract::The following article discusses the relationship between the model of intellectual disability and the attitudes towards sexuality of people with disabilities. This correlation has been verified during the author's own research conducted on students of several medical faculties such as nursing, public health, emergency...

    journal_title:Sexuality and disability

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parchomiuk M

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Ethical and legal dilemmas around termination of pregnancy for severe fetal anomalies: A review of two African neonates presenting with ventriculomegaly and holoprosencephaly.

    abstract::Termination of pregnancy (TOP) or feticide for severe fetal anomalies is ethically and morally challenging and maybe considered illegal in countries with restrictive abortion laws. While diagnostic modalities such as fetal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic screening have improved prenatal diagnosis, ...

    journal_title:Nigerian journal of clinical practice

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chima SC,Mamdoo F

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES:The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species of microfilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations. METHODS:From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 μl of day and night blood samples were collected and processed respectively with ...

    journal_title:Journal of vector borne diseases

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Uttah E,Ibeh DC

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Human papillomavirus in female sex workers in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

    abstract::Female sex workers (FSWs) have been considered a key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs); therefore, they are periodically screened as a requirement to obtain a work card. However, there is insufficient epidemiological data on STIs among FSWs in Mexico. The detection of Trichomonas vaginalis is limit...

    journal_title:Revista Argentina de microbiologia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muñoz-Ramírez A,López-Monteon A,Ramos-Ligonio A,Méndez-Bolaina E,Guapillo-Vargas MRB

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Genome editing of different strains of Aureobasidium melanogenum using an efficient Cre/loxp site-specific recombination system.

    abstract::It has been well known that different strains of Aureobasidium spp. can produce commercial pullulan, polymalate, liamocin, intracellular lipids, gluconic acid, siderophore, melanin and various enzymes. In order to fully elucidate their synthetic pathways and regulation, it is necessary to have an efficient gene editin...

    journal_title:Fungal biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang Z,Lu Y,Chi Z,Liu GL,Jiang H,Hu Z,Chi ZM

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • [Identification of treponemes in paraffin-embedded sections, using an anticomplement immunofluorescence technique].

    abstract::Treponema in syphilis or non venereal treponematosis can be demonstrated in paraffin embedded tissues, with immunological techniques. Anti-C3 immunofluorescence shows treponemas in 6 of 12 biopsies from 8 patients suspected of treponematosis. This method is easier and quicker than silver impregnation in spite of weak ...

    journal_title:Annales de pathologie

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heid E,Battistelli-Lux C

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Psychological effects of Yi Ren Medical Qigong and progressive resistance training in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous studies suggest that qigong therapy has physiological benefits for adults with type 2 diabetes; however, information about the psychological benefits of qigong therapy in this population is limited. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this research project was to identify psychological responses to qigong v...

    journal_title:Alternative therapies in health and medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Putiri AL,Lovejoy JC,Gillham S,Sasagawa M,Bradley R,Sun GC

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • A prospective randomised study comparing the jubilee dressing method to a standard adhesive dressing for total hip and knee replacements.

    abstract:AIM OF THE STUDY:It is important to reduce potential wound complications in total hip and total knee arthroplasty procedures. The purpose of this study was to compare the jubilee dressing method to a standard adhesive dressing. METHOD:124 patients (62 total hip replacements and 62 total knee replacements) were randoml...

    journal_title:Journal of tissue viability

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Burke NG,Green C,McHugh G,McGolderick N,Kilcoyne C,Kenny P

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cerebral amyloid angiopathy and microhemorrhages after amyloid beta vaccination: case report and brief review.

    abstract::After the interruption of the international multicenter Phase 2 clinical trial with active immunotherapy based on synthetic Abeta42 (AN1792), few reports about the neuropathological findings in those patients and those from the Phase 1 clinical trial were published. These reports described some pathological similariti...

    journal_title:Clinical neuropathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Uro-Coste E,Russano de Paiva G,Guilbeau-Frugier C,Sastre N,Ousset PJ,da Silva NA,Lavialle-Guillotreau V,Vellas B,Delisle MB

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • True stories.

    abstract::Four stories, all true, all upsetting, all with lessons for the discerning doctor. In this series, life won 3-1. But none of us are immortal, no matter what an over confident American group who call themselves 'The Immortals' I saw on television the other day has to say. Lest we forget--families, friends, patients and...

    journal_title:Australian family physician

    pub_type: 杂志文章



    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00