Development of point following behaviors in shelter dogs.


:Pet dogs are known to be responsive to human pointing gestures, but shelter dogs have repeatedly demonstrated poor abilities to follow human pointing, although they can be explicitly trained quickly. This study evaluated the time course in which shelter dogs learn to follow points without explicit training, when given typical interactions with humans. In a longitudinal evaluation, the development of point following was tracked in seven shelter dogs in a training program (enriched human exposure), seven dogs in a traditional shelter (control population), and evaluated once in pet dogs. Twice a week for 6 weeks, shelter dogs' point-following performance was evaluated in 10 probe trials in which an experimenter pointed to one of two containers equidistant from the dog. To avoid direct training, dogs were given a treat for approaching and touching either container; although correct responses were recorded for touching the pointed-towards container within 30 s. Pet dogs were tested in only one session. All shelter dogs initially showed the expected poor performance. However, enriched shelter dogs receiving enriched human exposure showed significant improvements reaching an identical performance to pet dogs within 7 weeks. In comparison, shelter dogs under standard conditions showed an initial improvement, but performance reached asymptote close to chance levels and lower than that of enriched dogs or pet dogs. Together, these results suggest that enriched experiences with humans, typical of pet dogs, is sufficient for dogs to learn to follow points without explicit training.


Learn Behav


Learning & behavior


Jarvis T,Hall NJ




Has Abstract


2020-09-01 00:00:00














  • The role of category density in pigeons' tracking of relevant information.

    abstract::Prior categorization studies have shown that pigeons reliably track features that are relevant to category discrimination. In these studies, category exemplars contained two relevant and two irrelevant features; therefore, category density (specifically, the relevant to irrelevant information ratio) was relatively hig...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sheridan CL,Castro L,Fonseca S,Wasserman EA

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • What makes a landmark effective in adolescent and adult rats? Sex and age differences in a navigation task.

    abstract::In three experiments, rats of different ages were trained in a circular pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of a single landmark, a cylinder outside the pool. Following training, two main components of the landmark, its shape and pattern, were tested individually. Experiment 1 was perfor...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chamizo VD,Torres MN,Rodríguez CA,Mackintosh NJ

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Animal procrastination: Pigeons choose to defer experiencing an aversive gap or a peck requirement.

    abstract::When humans procrastinate, they delay completing a required relatively aversive task. In the present experiments with pigeons, we considered the possibility that completing the task close to the deadline results in the formation of a stronger conditioned reinforcer. In Experiment 1, pigeons were given a choice between...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zentall TR,Peng D,House D,Halloran M

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • The role of injection cues in the production of the morphine preexposure effect in taste aversion learning.

    abstract::The attenuation of an LiCl-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) by LiCl preexposure is mediated primarily by associative blocking via injection-related cues. Given that preexposure to morphine attenuates morphine-induced CTAs, it was of interest to determine whether injection cues also mediate this effect. Certain...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Davis CM,de Brugada I,Riley AL

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Chimpanzees, cooking, and a more comparative psychology.

    abstract::A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offered alternative explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, and questioned the manner in which the data were used to ex...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beran MJ,Hopper LM,de Waal FB,Brosnan SF,Sayers K

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Protection from extinction provided by a conditioned inhibitor.

    abstract::Three conditioned suppression experiments with rats as subjects investigated the influence of higher order associations in determining the response potential of a target stimulus. In these experiments, a Pavlovian conditioned inhibitor was compounded with the target cue during extinction treatment. In Experiment 1, st...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McConnell BL,Miller RR

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Approaches to the study of traditional behaviors of free-living animals.

    abstract::I review literature on four different approaches to the study of traditions in animals: observation of free-living animals, laboratory experiment, armchair analysis, and field experiment. Because, by definition, a tradition entails social learning of some kind, it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to establish that a ...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Galef BG Jr

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Extinction and blocking of conditioned inhibition in human causal learning.

    abstract::Two experiments investigated extinction and blocking of a conditioned inhibitor in a human contingency-learning task. Lotz and Lachnit (2009) and Melchers, Wolff, and Lachnit (2006) reported extinction of inhibition only when participants experienced outcome levels lower than those used in training. In Experiment 1, w...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baetu I,Baker AG

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Social learning in New Caledonian crows.

    abstract::New Caledonian (NC) crows are the most sophisticated tool manufacturers other than humans. The diversification and geographical distribution of their three Pandanus tool designs that differ in complexity, as well as the lack of ecological correlates, suggest that cumulative technological change has taken place. To inv...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holzhaider JC,Hunt GR,Gray RD

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Signaling a change in cue-outcome relations in human associative learning.

    abstract::In three experiments, we assessed the role of signals for changes in the consequences of cues as a potential account of the renewal effect. Experiment 1 showed recovery of responding following extinction when acquisition, extinction, and test phases occurred in different contexts. In addition, extinction treatment in ...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pineño O,Miller RR

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Transfer of judgments of control to a target stimulus and to novel stimuli through derived relations.

    abstract::Three experiments examined the effect of response-outcome contingencies on human ratings of causal efficacy and demonstrated that such ratings transfer to novel situations through derived stimulus relations. Efficacy ratings generally followed the delta probability rule when positive response-outcome contingencies wer...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Dack C,McHugh L,Reed P

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • The fate of redundant cues: Further analysis of the redundancy effect.

    abstract::Pearce, Dopson, Haselgrove, and Esber (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 38, 167-179, 2012) conducted a series of experiments with rats and pigeons in which the conditioned responding elicited by two types of redundant cue was compared. One of these redundant cues was a blocked cue X from ...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones PM,Pearce JM

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Name that tune: Melodic recognition by songbirds.

    abstract::Recent findings have indicated that European starlings perceive overall spectral shape and use this, rather than absolute pitch or timbre, to generalize between similar melodic progressions. This finding highlights yet another parallel between human and avian vocal communication systems and has many biological implica...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Templeton CN

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of runway shift and stay rules on rats' serial pattern learning in the T-maze.

    abstract::Rats received three-trial series on a T-maze consisting of extended visually distinct left-black and right-striped side runways. During the first phase of training, when allowed to select baited runways within these series, they predominantly alternated their choices. During the second phase, rats received forced-choi...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cohen J,Westlake K,Szelest I

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Enhancing "self-control": The paradoxical effect of delay of reinforcement.

    abstract::Delay of reinforcement is generally thought to be inversely correlated with speed of acquisition. However, in the case of simultaneous discrimination learning, in which choice results in immediate reinforcement, delay of reinforcement can improve acquisition. For example, in the ephemeral reward task, animals are give...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zentall TR

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Selective reinstatement of instrumental performance depends on the discriminative stimulus properties of the mediating outcome.

    abstract::We conducted three experiments to investigate the associative structure underlying the reinstatement of instrumental performance after extinction. In each experiment, rats were initially rewarded on two responses with different outcomes. At test, both responses were extinguished in order to assess the impact of a sing...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ostlund SB,Balline BW

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Competence and performance in causal learning.

    abstract::The dominant theoretical approach to causal learning postulates the acquisition of associative weights between cues and outcomes. This reduction of causal induction to associative learning implies that learners are insensitive to important characteristics of causality, such as the inherent directionality between cause...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Waldmann MR,Walker JM

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • An analysis of visual oddity concept learning in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    abstract::We tested a California sea lion for visual oddity learning by presentingproblems composed ofthree two-dimensional black-and-white stimuli, two identical (S-) and one different (S+). In the first experimental stage, a single problem per session was presented until learning criterion was reached. In the second experimen...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hille P,Dehnhardt G,Mauck B

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Time-course of control by specific stimulus features and relational cues during same-different discrimination training.

    abstract::We trained 7 pigeons to discriminate visual displays of 16 same items from displays of 16 different items. The specific stimulus features of the items and the relations among the items could serve as discriminative stimuli. Unlike in most studies of same-different discrimination behavior, we gave a small number of pro...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gibson BM,Wasserman EA

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Conserving and managing animals that learn socially and share cultures.

    abstract::Socially learned behavior can be a crucial factor in how animals interact with their environment and, thus, in conservation and management. For species in which social learning and culture are important determinants of behavior, several factors complicate conservation and management. These include the rapid spread of ...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Whitehead H

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing object-recognition memory in rats: Pitfalls of the existent tasks and the advantages of a new test.

    abstract::Studies of object-recognition memory in lab rats began in the late 1980s, using variants of the trial-unique delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) task. By the end of the 20th century, most investigators who wanted to study object-recognition in rodents had abandoned the DNMS task in favor of the novel-object-preferenc...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cole E,Simundic A,Mossa FP,Mumby DG

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • The influences of guiding cues on motor skill autonomy in rats.

    abstract::How does the effectiveness of guiding cues influence the development of motor skill autonomy? We utilized two sets of guiding cues (lights vs. reversed-lights conditions) that differed in their effectiveness to control a left-right leverpress sequence in rats. We separately measured the development of stimulus control...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reid AK,Demarco G,Smith K,Fort T,Cousins E

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • CS-US temporal relations in blocking.

    abstract::In four trace-conditioning experiments with rats, the influence on the blocking of differences between the blocking cue-unconditioned stimulus (US) and the blocked cue-US trace intervals was explored. Experiment 1 demonstrated blocking despite the blocked cue's having a shorter trace interval than the blocking cue in ...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amundson JC,Miller RR

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • Decision making by humans in a behavioral task: do humans, like pigeons, show suboptimal choice?

    abstract::Consistent with human gambling behavior but contrary to optimal foraging theory, pigeons show a strong preference for an alternative with low probability and high payoff (a gambling-like alternative) over an alternative with a greater net payoff (Zentall & Stagner, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278, 1203-1208, 2...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Molet M,Miller HC,Laude JR,Kirk C,Manning B,Zentall TR

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Discriminative stimuli that follow the absence of reinforcement are preferred by pigeons over those that follow reinforcement.

    abstract::Clement, Feltus, Kaiser, and Zentall (2000) found that when pigeons have to work to obtain a discriminative stimulus that is followed by reinforcement, they prefer a discriminative stimulus that requires greater effort over one that requires less effort. The authors suggested that such a preference results from the gr...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Friedrich AM,Clement TS,Zentall TR

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Proactive interference of open field on consummatory successive negative contrast.

    abstract::Reactivity to a reward is affected by prior experience with the different reinforcer values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity, which can be studied using the consummatory succesive negative contrast (cSNC) paradigm, in which the performance of animals that receive a 4 % sucrose solution after ...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Justel N,Pautassi R,Mustaca A

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Attention as an acquisition and performance variable (AAPV).

    abstract::This article introduces a new model of Pavlovian conditioning, attention as an acquisition and performance variable (AAPV), which, like several other so-called attentional models, emphasizes the role of variation of cue salience, together with associative strength, in accounting for conditioning phenomena. AAPV is pri...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Craddock P,Miller RR

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Apes track false beliefs but might not understand them.

    abstract::Apes can correctly determine how to help a person with a false belief. But they may not need a concept of belief to do so. ...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Andrews K

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Memories of emotional expressions in horses.

    abstract::Proops, Grounds, Smith, and McComb (2018) suggest that horses remember previous emotional expressions of specific humans, and use these memories to adjust their behavior in future social interactions. Despite some methodological shortcomings, this study raises important questions on the complexity of social interactio...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amici F

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Domestic pigeons (Columba livia) discriminate between photographs of individual pigeons.

    abstract::In two experiments, we examined the discrimination of photographs of individual pigeons by pigeons, using go/no-go discrimination procedures. In Experiments 1A and 1B, the pigeons were trained to discriminate 4 photographs of one pigeon from those of a number of pigeons. The subjects learned the discrimination, but th...

    journal_title:Learning & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakamura T,Croft DB,Westbrook RF

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00