Effect of Lipidation on the Localization and Activity of a Lysozyme Inhibitor in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.


:The Gram-negative pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus [Gc]) colonizes lysozyme-rich mucosal surfaces. Lysozyme hydrolyzes peptidoglycan, leading to bacterial lysis. Gc expresses two proteins, SliC and NgACP, that bind and inhibit the enzymatic activity of lysozyme. SliC is a surface-exposed lipoprotein, while NgACP is found in the periplasm and also released extracellularly. Purified SliC and NgACP similarly inhibit lysozyme. However, whereas mutation of ngACP increases Gc susceptibility to lysozyme, the sliC mutant is only susceptible to lysozyme when ngACP is inactivated. In this work, we examined how lipidation contributes to SliC expression, cellular localization, and resistance of Gc to killing by lysozyme. To do so, we mutated the conserved cysteine residue (C18) in the N-terminal lipobox motif of SliC, the site for lipid anchor attachment, to alanine. SliC(C18A) localized to soluble rather than membrane fractions in Gc and was not displayed on the bacterial surface. Less SliC(C18A) was detected in Gc lysates compared to the wild-type protein. This was due in part to some release of the C18A mutant, but not wild-type, protein into the extracellular space. Surprisingly, Gc expressing SliC(C18A) survived better than SliC (wild type)-expressing Gc after exposure to lysozyme. We conclude that lipidation is not required for the ability of SliC to inhibit lysozyme, even though the lipidated cysteine is 100% conserved in Gc SliC alleles. These findings shed light on how members of the growing family of lysozyme inhibitors with distinct subcellular localizations contribute to bacterial defense against lysozyme.IMPORTANCENeisseria gonorrhoeae is one of many bacterial species that express multiple lysozyme inhibitors. It is unclear how inhibitors that differ in their subcellular localization contribute to defense from lysozyme. We investigated how lipidation of SliC, an MliC (membrane-bound lysozyme inhibitor of c-type lysozyme)-type inhibitor, contributes to its localization and lysozyme inhibitory activity. We found that lipidation was required for surface exposure of SliC and yet was dispensable for protecting the gonococcus from killing by lysozyme. To our knowledge, this is the first time the role of lipid anchoring of a lysozyme inhibitor has been investigated. These results help us understand how different lysozyme inhibitors are localized in bacteria and how this impacts resistance to lysozyme.


J Bacteriol


Journal of bacteriology


Ragland SA,Gray MC,Melson EM,Kendall MM,Criss AK




Has Abstract


2020-03-26 00:00:00












  • Effect of nutrient concentration on the growth of Escherichia coli.

    abstract::The relationship between specific growth rate of Escherichia coli and the concentration of limiting nutrient (glucose or phosphate or tryptophan) has been determined for populations in a steady state. At high concentrations the specific growth rate is independent of the concentration of nutrient, but at low concentrat...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shehata TE,Marr AG

    更新日期:1971-07-01 00:00:00

  • Discontinuities in the evolution of Pseudomonas putida cat genes.

    abstract::The organization and transcriptional control of chromosomal cat genes (required for dissimilation of catechol by the beta-ketoadipate pathway) in the Pseudomonas putida biotype strain (ATCC 12633) are reported. Nucleotide sequence reveals that catR is separated by 135 bp from the divergently transcribed catBC,A; catC ...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Houghton JE,Brown TM,Appel AJ,Hughes EJ,Ornston LN

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Occurrence of alpha-tocopherolquinone and alpha-tocopherolquinol in microorganisms.

    abstract::Both alpha-tocopherolquinol and alpha-tocopherolquinone were found in 56 of 93 strains of microorganisms examined. Organisms that contained these compounds included the single example of a eucaryotic alga, a Euglena, and a cyanobacterium (blue-green alga), 22 of 32 genera of bacteria, and 9 genera of yeasts. In the ba...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hughes PE,Tove SB

    更新日期:1982-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cloning and sequence analysis of the muramidase-2 gene from Enterococcus hirae.

    abstract::Extracellular muramidase-2 of Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 was purified to homogeneity by substrate binding, guanidine-HCl extraction, and reversed-phase chromatography. A monoclonal antibody, 2F8, which specifically recognizes muramidase-2, was used to screen a genomic library of E. hirae ATCC 9790 DNA in bacteriopha...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chu CP,Kariyama R,Daneo-Moore L,Shockman GD

    更新日期:1992-03-01 00:00:00

  • Isolation of a metabolite capable of differentially supporting the growth of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide auxotrophs of Escherichia coli.

    abstract::A compound, isolated from the culture fluid of a nadC auxotroph of Escherichia coli grown in a minimal medium, supports the growth of both a nadA and a nadB mutant. This metabolite exhibits an ultraviolet light absorption spectrum and a mass spectrum, different from quinolinic acid. This compound may be the precursor ...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen JL,Tritz GJ

    更新日期:1975-01-01 00:00:00

  • Menaquinone-specific prenyl reductase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus.

    abstract::Four genes that encode the homologues of plant geranylgeranyl reductase were isolated from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, which produces menaquinone with a fully saturated heptaprenyl side chain, menaquinone-7(14H). The recombinant expression of one of the homologues in Escherichia coli led to a ...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hemmi H,Takahashi Y,Shibuya K,Nakayama T,Nishino T

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Novel cellular organization in a gliding mycoplasma, Mycoplasma insons.

    abstract::Mycoplasmas that are known to exhibit gliding motility possess a differentiated tip structure. This polar organelle mediates cytadherence and gliding motor activity and contains a cytoskeleton-like component that provides structural support. Here, we describe gliding motility and a unique cytoskeleton in Mycoplasma in...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Relich RF,Friedberg AJ,Balish MF

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • Role of staphylococcal phage and SaPI integrase in intra- and interspecies SaPI transfer.

    abstract::SaPIbov2 is a member of the SaPI family of staphylococcal pathogenicity islands and is very closely related to SaPIbov1. Typically, certain temperate phages can induce excision and replication of one or more of these islands and can package them into special small phage-like particles commensurate with their genome si...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maiques E,Ubeda C,Tormo MA,Ferrer MD,Lasa I,Novick RP,Penadés JR

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Different roles for KinA, KinB, and KinC in the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    abstract::Activation (phosphorylation) of the transcription factor encoded by spo0A is essential for the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. At least three histidine protein kinases are involved in the phosphorylation of Spo0A. Under some growth conditions, KinA was the primary kinase, but under other conditions, Ki...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: LeDeaux JR,Yu N,Grossman AD

    更新日期:1995-02-01 00:00:00

  • Natural occurrence of four reversible flagellar phases in cultures of Salmonella mikawashima.

    abstract::Edwards, P. R. (Communicable Disease Center, U.S. Public Health Service, Atlanta, Ga.), R. Sakazaki, and I. Kato. Natural occurrence of four reversible flagellar phases in cultures of Salmonella mikawashima. J. Bacteriol. 84:99-103. 1962-Study of cultures of Salmonella mikawashima isolated from reptiles revealed that ...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章



    更新日期:1962-07-01 00:00:00

  • Taxonomy of marine bacteria: Beneckea nigrapulchrituda sp. n.

    abstract::Fourteen bacterial strains of marine origin, which formed colonies containing crystals of a blue-black pigment, were submitted to a morphological, physiological, and nutritional characterization. The results indicated that these organisms form a new species of the genus Beneckea. ...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baumann P,Baumann L,Mandel M,Allen RD

    更新日期:1971-12-01 00:00:00

  • The binding site of the IclR repressor protein overlaps the promoter of aceBAK.

    abstract::In Escherichia coli, repression of the aceBAK operon is mediated by the IclR protein. We used an in vitro oligonucleotide selection technique to determine the consensus recognition sequence for MR. Mutational analysis confirmed the contribution of this sequence to repression in vivo and identified the -35 element of t...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pan B,Unnikrishnan I,LaPorte DC

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • Role of the dinB gene product in spontaneous mutation in Escherichia coli with an impaired replicative polymerase.

    abstract::We isolated several new mutator mutations of the Escherichia coli replicative polymerase dnaE subunit alpha and used them and a previously reported dnaE mutation to study spontaneous frameshift and base substitution mutations. Two of these dnaE strains produce many more mutants when grown on rich (Luria-Bertani) than ...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Strauss BS,Roberts R,Francis L,Pouryazdanparast P

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Multicellular stalk-like structures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    abstract::Stalk formation is a novel pattern of multicellular organization. Yeast cells which survive UV irradiation form colonies that grow vertically to form very long (0.5 to 3.0 cm) and thin (0.5 to 4 mm in diameter) multicellular structures. We describe the conditions required to obtain these stalk-like structures reproduc...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Engelberg D,Mimran A,Martinetto H,Otto J,Simchen G,Karin M,Fink GR

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • Role of plant root exudate and Sym plasmid-localized nodulation genes in the synthesis by Rhizobium leguminosarum of Tsr factor, which causes thick and short roots on common vetch.

    abstract::In a previous paper it was shown that cocultivation of Rhizobium leguminosarum with the plant Vicia sativa subsp. nigra on solid medium causes a changed mode of growth of the plant roots, resulting in thick and short roots (Tsr). The Sym plasmid present in the bacterium appeared to be essential for causing Tsr (A. A. ...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van Brussel AA,Zaat SA,Cremers HC,Wijffelman CA,Pees E,Tak T,Lugtenberg BJ

    更新日期:1986-02-01 00:00:00


    abstract::Falcone, Giuseppe (Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N.J.), and Walter J. Nickerson. Reduction of selenite by intact yeast cells and cell-free preparations. J. Bacteriol. 85:754-762. 1963.-Nonproliferating cell suspensions of Candida albicans rapidly reduced selenite to red, metallic selenium in the absenc...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章



    更新日期:1963-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate on the ultrastructure of Escherichia coli.

    abstract::An electron microscopy study has been made of the effects of dissolution of the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the organization of the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. The alterations observed in time course experiments were related to absorbance changes and to release of macrom...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Woldringh CL,van Iterson W

    更新日期:1972-09-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of tetracycline resistance encoded by transposon Tn10: deletion mapping of tetracycline-sensitive point mutations and identification of two structural genes.

    abstract::Deletions in the tet genes derived from Tn10 were formed from different tet::Tn5 insertion mutations by removing DNA sequences located between a HindIII site in Tn5 and a HindIII site adjacent to the tet genes. Tetracycline-sensitive point mutations were mapped in recombination tests with the deletions and were thus a...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coleman DC,Chopra I,Shales SW,Howe TG,Foster TJ

    更新日期:1983-02-01 00:00:00

  • Hairy root: plasmid encodes virulence traits in Agrobacterium rhizogenes.

    abstract::Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834, which incites hairy root disease in plants, harbors three large plasmids: pAr15834a (107 x 10(6) daltons), pAr15834b (154 x 10(6) daltons), and pAr15834c (258 x 10(6) daltons). Kanamycin-resistant transconjugants were selected in a cross of kanamycin-resistant derivate of strain ...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: White FF,Nester EW

    更新日期:1980-03-01 00:00:00

  • Lysis protein S of phage lambda functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    abstract::The lambda S lysis gene was cloned into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression vector under GAL1 control. Induction with galactose in S. cerevisiae terminated cell growth and prevented colony formation. Several membrane proteins immunoreactive with anti-S antibody accumulated in the membranes, indicating that sodium do...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garrett J,Bruno C,Young R

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • Homologous c-di-GMP-Binding Scr Transcription Factors Orchestrate Biofilm Development in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    abstract::The marine bacterium and human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus rapidly colonizes surfaces by using swarming motility and forming robust biofilms. Entering one of the two colonization programs, swarming motility or sessility, involves differential regulation of many genes, resulting in a dramatic shift in physiology a...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kimbrough JH,Cribbs JT,McCarter LL

    更新日期:2020-02-25 00:00:00


    abstract::Wiebers, Joyce L. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind.), and Harold R. Garner. Use of S-methylcysteine and cystathionine by methionineless Neurospora mutants. J. Bacteriol. 88:1798-1804. 1964.-Radioactive methionine was found in hydrolysates of various strains of Neurospora crassa when either S-methylcysteine (SMC...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章



    更新日期:1964-12-01 00:00:00

  • Chlamydial hemagglutinin identified as lipopolysaccharide.

    abstract::Chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) agglutinated mouse and rabbit erythrocytes but not human, guinea pig, or pronghorn antelope erythrocytes. Hemagglutination was not specific for Chlamydia spp., as rough LPSs from Coxiella burnetii and Escherichia coli also agglutinated erythrocytes from the same animal species. Nona...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watkins NG,Caldwell HD,Hackstadt T

    更新日期:1987-08-01 00:00:00

  • Role of the cytoplasmic membrane in the synthesis of ribonucleic acid by disrupted spheroplasts of Pseudomonas schuylkilliensis.

    abstract::Disrupted spheroplast preparations of Pseudomonas schuylkilliensis strain P contained fragments of cytoplasmic membrane and approximately 82% of the total cellular phospholipid. The protoplast-bursting factor (PB-factor), partially purified from pig pancreas, and a heat-treated pancreatic lipase fraction both inhibite...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mizuno S,Maruo B

    更新日期:1972-01-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of the novel benzylsuccinate synthase reaction for anaerobic toluene activation based on structural studies of the product.

    abstract::Recent studies of anaerobic toluene catabolism have demonstrated a novel reaction for anaerobic hydrocarbon activation: the addition of the methyl carbon of toluene to fumarate to form benzylsuccinate. In vitro studies of the anaerobic benzylsuccinate synthase reaction indicate that the H atom abstracted from the tolu...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beller HR,Spormann AM

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of a protein of 15,000 daltons related to isoleucine-valine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12.

    abstract::The effect of the ilvG671, ilvG468, and ilvG603 mutations (phenotype, IlvG+ Valr; formerly ilvO) upon proteins synthesized was determined by infection of irradiated Escherichia coli K-12 cells, using specifically constructed derivatives of lambda dilv phage. These ilvG alleles are similar to the previously studied ilv...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gray JE,Wallen JW,Calhoun DH

    更新日期:1982-07-01 00:00:00

  • Multiple promoter inversions generate surface antigenic variation in Mycoplasma penetrans.

    abstract::Mycoplasma penetrans is a newly identified species of the genus MYCOPLASMA: It was first isolated from a urine sample from a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient. M. penetrans changes its surface antigen profile with high frequency. The changes originate from ON<==>OFF phase variations of the P35 family...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Horino A,Sasaki Y,Sasaki T,Kenri T

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence for the existence of two arginyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase activities in Escherichia coli.

    abstract::Two arginyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase (EC, arginine: ribonucleic acid ligase adenosine monophosphate) activities were found in extracts of Escherichia coli strains AB1132 and NP2. The two arginyl-tRNA synthetase activities in extracts of strain AB1132 were found to be separable by diethylami...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yem DW,Williams LS

    更新日期:1973-02-01 00:00:00

  • Coupling of asymmetric division to polar placement of replication origin regions in Bacillus subtilis.

    abstract::Entry into sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is characterized by the formation of a polar septum, which asymmetrically divides the developing cell into forespore (the smaller cell) and mother cell compartments, and by migration of replication origin regions to extreme opposite poles of the cell. Here we show that polar...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Graumann PL,Losick R

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Functional analysis of OleY L-oleandrosyl 3-O-methyltransferase of the oleandomycin biosynthetic pathway in Streptomyces antibioticus.

    abstract::Oleandomycin, a macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces antibioticus, contains two sugars attached to the aglycon: L-oleandrose and D-desosamine. oleY codes for a methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of L-oleandrose. This gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli to form inclusion bodies and in Strept...

    journal_title:Journal of bacteriology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodríguez L,Rodríguez D,Olano C,Braña AF,Méndez C,Salas JA

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00