Bilingualism Is Associated with a Delayed Onset of Dementia but Not with a Lower Risk of Developing it: a Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses.


:Some studies have linked bilingualism with a later onset of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Not all studies have observed such relationships, however. Differences in study outcomes may be due to methodological limitations and the presence of confounding factors within studies such as immigration status and level of education. We conducted the first systematic review with meta-analysis combining cross-sectional studies to explore if bilingualism might delay symptom onset and diagnosis of dementia, AD, and MCI. Primary outcomes included the age of symptom onset, the age at diagnosis of MCI or dementia, and the risk of developing MCI or dementia. A secondary outcome included the degree of disease severity at dementia diagnosis. There was no difference in the age of MCI diagnosis between monolinguals and bilinguals [mean difference: 3.2; 95% confidence intervals (CI): -3.4, 9.7]. Bilinguals vs. monolinguals reported experiencing AD symptoms 4.7 years (95% CI: 3.3, 6.1) later. Bilinguals vs. monolinguals were diagnosed with dementia 3.3 years (95% CI: 1.7, 4.9) later. Here, 95% prediction intervals showed a large dispersion of effect sizes (-1.9 to 8.5). We investigated this dispersion with a subgroup meta-analysis comparing studies that had recruited participants with dementia to studies that had recruited participants with AD on the age of dementia and AD diagnosis between mono- and bilinguals. Results showed that bilinguals vs. monolinguals were 1.9 years (95% CI: -0.9, 4.7) and 4.2 (95% CI: 2.0, 6.4) older than monolinguals at the time of dementia and AD diagnosis, respectively. The mean difference between the two subgroups was not significant. There was no significant risk reduction (odds ratio: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.68-1.16) in developing dementia among bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Also, there was no significant difference (Hedges' g = 0.05; 95% CI: -0.13, 0.24) in disease severity at dementia diagnosis between bilinguals and monolinguals, despite bilinguals being significantly older. The majority of studies had adjusted for level of education suggesting that education might not have played a role in the observed delay in dementia among bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Although findings indicated that bilingualism was on average related to a delayed onset of dementia, the magnitude of this relationship varied across different settings. This variation may be due to unexplained heterogeneity and different sources of bias in the included studies. Registration: PROSPERO CRD42015019100.


Neuropsychol Rev


Neuropsychology review


Brini S,Sohrabi HR,Hebert JJ,Forrest MRL,Laine M,Hämäläinen H,Karrasch M,Peiffer JJ,Martins RN,Fairchild TJ




Has Abstract


2020-03-01 00:00:00














  • Towards a Better Understanding of Cognitive Deficits in Absence Epilepsy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    abstract::Cognition in absence epilepsy (AE) is generally considered undisturbed. However, reports on cognitive deficits in AE in recent years have suggested otherwise. This review systematically assesses current literature on cognitive performance in children with AE. A systematic literature search was performed in Pubmed, Emb...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Fonseca Wald ELA,Hendriksen JGM,Drenthen GS,Kuijk SMJV,Aldenkamp AP,Vles JSH,Vermeulen RJ,Debeij-van Hall MHJA,Klinkenberg S

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of motor functioning in the preschool period.

    abstract::The assessment of motor functioning in young children has become increasingly important in recent years with the acknowledgement that motor impairment is linked with cognitive, language, social and emotional difficulties. However, there is no one gold standard assessment tool to investigate motor ability in children. ...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Piek JP,Hands B,Licari MK

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • White matter: organization and functional relevance.

    abstract::Norman Geschwind's landmark paper in 1965, "Disconnexion Syndromes in Animals and Man," inspired a generation of investigators to consider the effects of focal brain lesions disrupting higher brain functions. Although Geschwind viewed disconnection as resulting from either white or gray matter lesions, his signature a...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Filley CM

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Cerebellar-Subcortical-Cortical Systems as Modulators of Cognitive Functions.

    abstract::Over the past few decades, research has established that the cerebellum is involved in executive functions; however, its specific role remains unclear. There are numerous theories of cerebellar function and numerous cognitive processes falling under the umbrella of executive function, making investigations of the cere...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Clark SV,Semmel ES,Aleksonis HA,Steinberg SN,King TZ

    更新日期:2021-01-29 00:00:00

  • The Role of the Amygdala and the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Emotional Regulation: Implications for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    abstract::The importance of the amygdala as a salience detector and in emotional learning is now well accepted. The mechanisms that regulate and inhibit the amygdala, however, are less well understood. This review provides evidence from imaging and lesion studies to support the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Andrewes DG,Jenkins LM

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Aging, training, and the brain: a review and future directions.

    abstract::As the population ages, the need for effective methods to maintain or even improve older adults' cognitive performance becomes increasingly pressing. Here we provide a brief review of the major intervention approaches that have been the focus of past research with healthy older adults (strategy training, multi-modal i...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lustig C,Shah P,Seidler R,Reuter-Lorenz PA

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Olfaction in persons with Alzheimer's disease.

    abstract::The need for low cost, noninvasive procedures for aiding in the diagnosis and understanding of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) has led to theories and procedures examining the role of olfactory disorders because of the finding that the brains of AD patients invariably exhibit neuropathology in the hippocampus and entorhinal ...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Thompson MD,Knee K,Golden CJ

    更新日期:1998-03-01 00:00:00

  • Appraising the Role of Iron in Brain Aging and Cognition: Promises and Limitations of MRI Methods.

    abstract::Age-related increase in frailty is accompanied by a fundamental shift in cellular iron homeostasis. By promoting oxidative stress, the intracellular accumulation of non-heme iron outside of binding complexes contributes to chronic inflammation and interferes with normal brain metabolism. In the absence of direct non-i...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Daugherty AM,Raz N

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • The Use of Electroencephalography as an Informative Tool in Assisting Early Clinical Management after Sport-Related Concussion: a Systematic Review.

    abstract::Sport-related concussion (SRC) is managed primarily through serial clinical evaluations throughout recovery. However, studies suggest that clinical measures may not be suitable to detect subtle alterations in functioning and are limited by numerous internal and external factors. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been u...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Corbin-Berrigan LA,Teel E,Vinet SA,P De Koninck B,Guay S,Beaulieu C,De Beaumont L

    更新日期:2020-06-23 00:00:00

  • The executive functions and self-regulation: an evolutionary neuropsychological perspective.

    abstract::Neuropsychology has customarily taken a molecular and myopic view of executive functioning, concentrating largely on those proximal processes of which it may be comprised. Although commendable as a starting point, such an approach can never answer the question, "Why executive functioning?" The present paper encourages...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Barkley RA

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive rehabilitation therapies for Alzheimer's disease: a review of methods to improve treatment engagement and self-efficacy.

    abstract::Cognitive rehabilitation therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are becoming more readily available to the geriatric population in an attempt to curb the insidious decline in cognitive and functional performance. However, people with AD may have difficulty adhering to these cognitive treatments due to denial of memory...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Choi J,Twamley EW

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • What does diffusion tensor imaging reveal about the brain and cognition in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders?

    abstract::Over the past 5 years, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has begun to provide new evidence about the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on white matter development. DTI, which examines microstructural tissue integrity, is sensitive to more subtle white matter abnormalities than traditional volumetric MRI methods. Thus ...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wozniak JR,Muetzel RL

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • A Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychological Effort Test Performance in Psychotic Disorders.

    abstract::Psychotic disorders are characterized by a generalized neurocognitive deficit (i.e., performance 1.5 SD below controls across neuropsychological domains with no specific profile of differential deficits). A motivational account of the generalized neurocognitive deficit has been proposed, which attributes poor neuropsy...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ruiz I,Raugh IM,Bartolomeo LA,Strauss GP

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Executive Function and Theory of Mind in Children with ADHD: a Systematic Review.

    abstract::In developmental research, the relationship between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) has been extensively assessed, and EF has been considered a condition for ToM. However, few researchers have studied the relationship between EF and ToM in clinical populations, especially that of Attention Deficit Hyp...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pineda-Alhucema W,Aristizabal E,Escudero-Cabarcas J,Acosta-López JE,Vélez JI

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Apraxia and Alzheimer's disease: review and perspectives.

    abstract::Apraxia is one of the cognitive deficits that characterizes Alzheimer's disease. Despite its prevalence and relevance to diagnosing Alzheimer's disease, this topic has received little attention and is without comprehensive review. The review herein is aimed to fill this gap by first presenting an overview of the impai...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lesourd M,Le Gall D,Baumard J,Croisile B,Jarry C,Osiurak F

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Four neuropsychologists.

    abstract::The achievements of Henry Hécaen, Oliver Zangwill, Hans-Lukas Teuber, and Norman Geschwind are reviewed. Each made an enormously significant contribution to the form and content of the field of neuropsychology as we know it today. ...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 传,历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Benton A

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • Disclosure of tests and raw test data to the courts: a need for reform.

    abstract::Psychologists' current practices with respect to the disclosure of tests and raw test data to courts are damaging their reputations as scientists, undermining their credibility as honest professionals acting in good faith, and contrary to the best interests of consumers. The profession is conducting itself in a contra...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lees-Haley PR,Courtney JC

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Distinct Activity Patterns of the Human Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Amygdala during Fear Learning.

    abstract::The amygdala and, more recently, also the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, have been widely implicated in fear and anxiety. Much of our current knowledge is derived from animal studies and suggests an intricate convergence and divergence in functions related to defensive responding. In a recent paper, Klumpers and...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Luyck K,Goode TD,Lee Masson H,Luyten L

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Postconcussion symptoms.

    abstract::Research pertaining to the self-report of symptoms after traumatic brain injury was reviewed. Cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors have more relevance than demographic (except for female sex) and personality factors. Specific neuropsychological deficits in attention and memory have been found in the early st...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gasquoine PG

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • A review and critique of the process approach in neuropsychological assessment.

    abstract::This paper surveys the process approach literature with an emphasis on higher level cognitive functions like attention and concentration, learning and memory, and problem solving and executive functioning. In particular, it discusses organizational strategies and kinds of errors found on a variety of tests as well as ...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Erickson RC

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Memory for music in Alzheimer's disease: unforgettable?

    abstract::The notion that memory for music can be preserved in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) has been raised by a number of case studies. In this paper, we review the current research examining musical memory in patients with AD. In keeping with models of memory described in the non-musical domain, we propose that vari...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Baird A,Samson S

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • HIV infection and the central nervous system: a primer.

    abstract::The purpose of this brief review is to prepare readers who may be unfamiliar with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and the rapidly accumulating changes in the epidemic by providing an introduction to HIV disease and its treatment. The general concepts presented here will faci...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ellis RJ,Calero P,Stockin MD

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Adolescent brain development and the risk for alcohol and other drug problems.

    abstract::Dynamic changes in neurochemistry, fiber architecture, and tissue composition occur in the adolescent brain. The course of these maturational processes is being charted with greater specificity, owing to advances in neuroimaging and indicate grey matter volume reductions and protracted development of white matter in r...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bava S,Tapert SF

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of intelligence in the preschool period.

    abstract::Intelligence testing has a long and revered history in psychological measurement in childhood. Yet, the years between infancy and early childhood have been understudied with respect to emergent intellectual and cognitive functioning. Factor analytic models of intelligence that have demonstrated applicability when test...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baron IS,Leonberger KA

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Neuropsychological issues in the assessment of refugees and victims of mass violence.

    abstract::Brain injury, stressor severity, depression, premorbid vulnerabilities, and PTSD are frequently intertwined in trauma populations. This interaction is further complicated when the neuropsychologist evaluates refugees from other cultures. In addition, the observed psychiatric symptoms reported in refugees and victims o...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Weinstein CS,Fucetola R,Mollica R

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Poststroke depression: prevalence, course, and associated factors.

    abstract::Despite the considerable amount of research that has been undertaken on poststroke depression, a review of the literature demonstrates that there are many inconclusive findings in the area. In particular, the causes and course of the disorder remain to be firmly established. While studies of prevalence differ with res...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hosking SG,Marsh NV,Friedman PJ

    更新日期:1996-09-01 00:00:00

  • Alzheimer's disease as a disconnection syndrome?

    abstract::This paper reviews the growing amount of evidence supporting the hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease includes a disconnection syndrome. This evidence came mainly from neuropathological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies. Moreover, a few recent neuropsychological studies have also explored the effects of a...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Delbeuck X,Van der Linden M,Collette F

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Understanding the neuropsychiatric phenotype of fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome: a systematic review.

    abstract::Fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a recently identified X-linked neurodegenerative disorder affecting a proportion of premutation carriers of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Previous research suggests that cognitive and psychiatric features of FXTAS may include primary impairments ...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Birch RC,Cornish KM,Hocking DR,Trollor JN

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluating single-subject treatment research: lessons learned from the aphasia literature.

    abstract::The mandate for evidence-based practice has prompted careful consideration of the weight of the scientific evidence regarding the therapeutic value of various clinical treatments. In the field of aphasia, a large number of single-subject research studies have been conducted, providing clinical outcome data that are po...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Beeson PM,Robey RR

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • A Systematic Review of the Positive Valence System in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    abstract::This review synthesized current literature of behavioral and cognitive studies targeting reward processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Positive Valence System (PVS) domain was used as an overarching framework. The objectives were to deter...

    journal_title:Neuropsychology review

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tschida JE,Yerys BE

    更新日期:2020-11-11 00:00:00