Hydrogen sulfide stimulates xanthine oxidoreductase conversion to nitrite reductase and formation of NO.

Abstract:

:Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide with increased oxidative stress and reduced NO bioavailability serving as key risk factors. For decades, elevation in protein abundance and enzymatic activity of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) under hypoxic/inflammatory conditions has been associated with organ damage and vascular dysfunction. Recent reports have challenged this dogma by identifying a beneficial function for XOR, under similar hypoxic/acidic conditions, whereby XOR catalyzes the reduction of nitrite (NO2-) to nitric oxide (NO) through poorly defined mechanisms. We previously reported that hydrogen sulfide (H2S/sulfide) confers significant vascular benefit under these same conditions via NO2- mediated mechanisms independent of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Here we report for the first time the convergence of H2S, XOR, and nitrite to form a concerted triad for NO generation. Specifically, hypoxic endothelial cells show a dose-dependent, sulfide and polysulfide (diallyl trisulfide (DATS)-induced, NOS-independent NO2- reduction to NO that is dependent upon the enzymatic activity of XOR. Interestingly, nitrite reduction to NO was found to be slower and more sustained with DATS compared to H2S. Capacity for sulfide/polysulfide to produce an XOR-dependent impact on NO generation translates to salutary actions in vivo as DATS administration in cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) knockout mice significantly improved hindlimb ischemia blood flow post ligation, while the XOR-specific inhibitor, febuxostat (Febx), abrogated this benefit. Moreover, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in CSE knockout mice following administration of DATS resulted in greater than 4-fold enhancement in femoral artery dilation while co-treatment with Febx completely completely abrogated this effect. Together, these results identify XOR as a focal point of convergence between sulfide- and nitrite-mediated signaling, as well as affirm the critical need to reexamine current dogma regarding inhibition of XOR in the context of vascular dysfunction.

journal_name

Redox Biol

journal_title

Redox biology

authors

Pardue S,Kolluru GK,Shen X,Lewis SE,Saffle CB,Kelley EE,Kevil CG

doi

10.1016/j.redox.2020.101447

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2020-07-01 00:00:00

pages

101447

issn

2213-2317

pii

S2213-2317(19)31588-5

journal_volume

34

pub_type

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