Metabolomics analysis to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl.

Abstract:

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE:Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl (C. camphora) is one of the oldest herbal medicines used as a traditional medicine, owning a wide range of biological functions including anti-bacterial, anti-oxidative, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal and repellent activities. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of the essential oil (EO) from C. camphora. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The EO was isolated from the leaves of C. camphora by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions of the EO were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the EO were estimated by the microbroth dilution method. Growth curve was investigated by turbidimetry. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Morphological change of bacteria was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The integrity of cell membrane was evaluated by NanoDrop and BCA Protein Assay Kit. The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) metabolic profile in the presence of the EO was explored by GC-MS-based metabolomics. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and malic dehydrogenase (MDH) activities were detected by commercial kits. RESULTS:The main components of the EO from the leaves of C. camphora were identified to be linalool (26.6%), eucalyptol (16.8%), α-terpineol (8.7%), isoborneol (8.1%), β-phellandrene (5.1%), and camphor (5.0%). The EO had good activity against MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella gallinarum and Escherichia coli. MRSA was selected as the model bacterium to illustrate antibacterial mechanism of action of the EO, and the MIC and MBC values was 0.8 and 1.6 mg/mL, respectively. Apoptosis rate of MRSA increased in a concentration-dependent manner after the addition of EO. The cell morphology was damaged by the EO. There were 74 significantly different metabolites, including 29 upregulated and 45 downregulated metabolites in the result of metabolomics evaluation. Seven pathways were enriched by shared differential metabolites. The EO enhanced the activity of ICDH by 47.35%, while weaken MDH, SDH and α-KGDH by 72.63%, 31.52% and 63.29%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The EO from C. camphora showed anti-MRSA activity via damaging cell membranes and disturbing the amino metabolism.

journal_name

J Ethnopharmacol

authors

Chen J,Tang C,Zhang R,Ye S,Zhao Z,Huang Y,Xu X,Lan W,Yang D

doi

10.1016/j.jep.2020.112652

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2020-05-10 00:00:00

pages

112652

eissn

0378-8741

issn

1872-7573

pii

S0378-8741(19)34171-6

journal_volume

253

pub_type

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