Hyperbaric oxygen toxicity in brain: A case of hyperoxia induced hypoglycemic brain syndrome.

Abstract:

:Hyperbaric oxygen exposure is a recent hazzard for higher animals that originated as humans began underwater construction, exploration, and sports. Exposure can lead to abnormal brain EEG, convulsions, and death, the time to onset of each stage of pathology decreasing with increase in oxygen pressure. We provide evidence that hyperoxia, through oxidative phosphorylation, increases the energy state ([ATP]/[ADP][Pi]) of cells critical to providing glucose to cells behind the blood brain barrier (BBB). Brain cells without an absolute dependence on glucose metabolism; i.e. those having sufficient ATP synthesis using lactate and glutamate as oxidizable substrates, are not themselves very adversely affected by hyperoxia. The increased energy state and decrease in free [AMP], however, suppress glucose transport through the blood brain barrier (BBB) and into cells behind the BBB. Glucose has to pass in sequence through three steps of transport by facilitated diffusion and transporter activity for each step is regulated in part by AMP dependent protein kinase. The physiological role of this regulation is to increase glucose transport in response to hypoxia and/or systemic hypoglycemia. Hyperoxia, however, through unphysiological decrease in free [AMP] suppresses 1) glucose transport through the BBB (endothelial GLUT1 transporters) into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); 2) glucose transport from CSF into cells behind the BBB (GLUT3 transporters) and (GLUT4 transporters). Cumulative suppression of glucose transport results in local regions of hypoglycemia and induces hypoglycemic failure. It is suggested that failure is initiated at axons and synapses with insufficient mitochondria to meet their energy requirements.

journal_name

Med Hypotheses

journal_title

Medical hypotheses

authors

Wilson DF,Matschinsky FM

doi

10.1016/j.mehy.2019.109375

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2019-11-01 00:00:00

pages

109375

eissn

0306-9877

issn

1532-2777

pii

S0306-9877(19)30737-6

journal_volume

132

pub_type

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