Grading of renal cell carcinoma.


:Grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been recognised as a prognostic factor for almost 100 years. Numerous grading systems have been proposed, initially focusing upon a constellation of cytological features and more recently on nuclear morphology. It has been recommended that grading of RCC should be based upon nucleolar prominence/eosinophilia for grades 1-3, while grade 4 requires nuclear anaplasia (including tumour giant cells, sarcomatoid differentiation and/or rhabdoid morphology). The grading system was adopted formally by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) and subsequently by the World Health Organisation (WHO), being designated the WHO/ISUP grading classification in the fourth edition of the WHO classification tumours of the urinary system and male genital organs (2016). This grading system has been validated for both clear cell and papillary RCC. Validation studies for chromophobe RCC failed to demonstrate a correlation between grade and outcome for both the superseded Fuhrman grading system and the WHO/ISUP grading classification, and it has been recommended that these tumours not be graded. The WHO/ISUP system has been incorporated into the structured reports of the International Cancer Collaboration on Cancer Reporting for both clear cell and papillary RCC. It is also noted that other types of RCC may be graded, but it must be emphasised in the report that this is for descriptive and diagnostic purposes, and not outcome prediction. More recent studies have shown the incorporation of the presence of tumour necrosis into RCC grading to improve outcome prediction, and this has been validated in several studies.






Delahunt B,Eble JN,Egevad L,Samaratunga H




Has Abstract


2019-01-01 00:00:00












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    abstract::The published literature is awash with examples of new tissue biomarkers promising to predict responses to therapy in breast cancer patients. However, few, if any, of these progress from the laboratory to the clinic. In this review we discuss some of the reasons for this, illustrating our discussion with a selection o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Faratian D,Bartlett J

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antibodies to cytokeratins bind to epitopes in human uterine smooth muscle cells in normal and pathological pregnancies.

    abstract::Cytokeratin antibodies have been widely used for the identification of trophoblast cells in the placental bed, following their invasion from the developing conceptus. Their identification centres upon the expression of cytokeratin in epithelial cells, from which trophoblast cells are derived. Our recent observations i...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stiemer B,Graf R,Neudeck H,Hildebrandt R,Hopp H,Weitzel HK

    更新日期:1995-11-01 00:00:00

  • Phenotypic and cytotoxic characteristics of peripheral T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas in relation to Epstein-Barr virus association.

    abstract:AIMS:We investigated the phenotypic and cytotoxic characteristics of different types of peripheral T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas and correlated the findings of cytotoxic phenotype with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) association. METHODS AND RESULTS:Eighty cases of peripheral T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas, classified according...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chan AC,Ho JW,Chiang AK,Srivastava G

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Phenotypic characterization of non-haemopoietic small cell tumours of childhood with monoclonal antibodies to leucocytes, epithelial cells and cytoskeletal proteins.

    abstract::Recently, great interest has been shown in the histological identification of small cell tumours of childhood--nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumour), neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma--using immunohistochemical methods. However, several antigens operationally specific for leucocyte typing in blood and marro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pilkington GR,Pallesen G

    更新日期:1989-04-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of activated Notch1 and Hey1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    abstract:AIMS:The Notch signalling pathway is involved in normal development as well as tumorigenesis. However, it is unclear whether Notch activation is related to diverse clinicopathological factors in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). METHODS AND RESULTS:We examined the relationship between clinicopathological factors and ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jung CW,Kong JS,Seol H,Park S,Koh JS,Lee SS,Kim MJ,Choi IJ,Myung JK

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) immunoreactivity is an adverse prognostic factor in endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus.

    abstract:AIMS:It is known that thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is expressed in a small percentage of primary gynaecological adenocarcinomas. Following the observation of TTF-1 positivity in a number of endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus which behaved aggressively, we undertook immunohistochemical staining...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ervine A,Leung S,Gilks CB,McCluggage WG

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Pathological evaluation of the staging axillary lymph nodes for breast cancer: a national survey in the United Kingdom.

    abstract:AIMS:The handling and examination of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) to detect metastasis is critical in the assessment of early breast cancer patients. This survey investigates the variation in practise followed by pathology units across the United Kingdom in the staging evaluation of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs). METHODS...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verma R,Sundara Rajan S,Verghese ET,Horgan K,Hanby AM,Lane S

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • A study of four cases of extra-orbital giant cell angiofibroma with documentation of some unusual features.

    abstract:AIMS:To document the clinical, light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of four cases of extra-orbital giant cell angiofibromas. METHODS AND RESULTS:Sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens were studied by haematoxylin and eosin, reticulin and immunohistochemical stains. Electr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Thomas R,Banerjee SS,Eyden BP,Shanks JH,Bisset DL,Hunt R,Byers RJ,Oogarah P,Harris M

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • An immunohistological study of reactive lymphoid tissue.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to document the patterns of cytoplasmic Ig heavy and light chain expression in reactive lymphoid tissue, using single and double immunoenzymatic labelling techniques. This investigation was undertaken, firstly, to provide information on whether the normal counterparts of high grade lymphoma c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morris HB,Mason DY,Stein H,Lennert K

    更新日期:1983-11-01 00:00:00

  • Why did they change that? Practical implications of the evolving classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract.

    abstract::Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) comprise neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). During the last decade the classification and grading of GIT NENs has undergone significant changes, culminating in the World Health Organisation (WHO) 2019 classification. T...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gill AJ

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prognostic significance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in gliomas.

    abstract::The relationship between proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and various clinicopathological indices (age, sex, tumour location, histological type and grade and treatment) and post-operative survival were studied in patients with central nervous system gliomas using univariate and multivariate analysi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Korkolopoulou P,Christodoulou P,Lekka-Katsouli I,Kouzelis K,Papanikolaou A,Panayotides I,Mariatos P,Thomas-Tsagli E,Crocker J

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00

  • Glypican 3 has a higher sensitivity than alpha-fetoprotein for testicular and ovarian yolk sac tumour: immunohistochemical investigation with analysis of histological growth patterns.

    abstract:AIMS:Glypican 3 (GPC3) has been reported to be overexpressed in yolk sac tumour (YST), but the sensitivity has not been compared with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). YST can form numerous growth patterns and the expression of GPC3 in these patterns has not been studied. The aim was to address these aspects. METHODS AND RESUL...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zynger DL,McCallum JC,Luan C,Chou PM,Yang XJ

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • The immunoexpression of bcl-2 and p53 in Kaposi's sarcoma.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of p53 and bcl-2 in Kaposi's sarcoma and relate this with proliferation index (as measured by MIB-1 staining) and clinicopathological subtypes. Twenty formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cases of Kaposi's sarcoma were stained with commercially avail...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dada MA,Chetty R,Biddolph SC,Schneider JW,Gatter KC

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Diversion colitis in children: an iatrogenic appendix vermiformis?

    abstract:AIMS:Diversion colitis (DC) is a localized, relatively benign, iatrogenic condition which occurs in almost 100% of diverted colonic segments in patients who undergo ileostomy/colostomy for various reasons. The aim of this study was to establish histological features of DC in children. METHODS AND RESULTS:Twenty-three ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vujanić GM,Dojcinov SD

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Müllerian adenosarcoma of the uterine body: a report of nine cases.

    abstract::Nine cases of Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterine body, first defined in 1974 by Clement & Scully, are described. The tumour usually occurs in elderly women and appears macroscopically as a polypoid mass filling the uterine cavity. Histologically these neoplasms are characterized by having a benign epithelial compon...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fox H,Harilal KR,Youell A

    更新日期:1979-05-01 00:00:00

  • Rheumatoid arthritis and pigmented villonodular synovitis: comparative analysis of cell polyploidy, cell cycle phases and expression of macrophage and fibroblast markers in proliferating synovial cells.

    abstract:AIMS:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) are aggressive diseases with progressive joint destruction. The present study aims to define cell cycle phases, polyploidy and the immunophenotype of proliferating synovial cells in both diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS:Synovial tissues from patie...


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    authors: Berger I,Weckauf H,Helmchen B,Ehemann V,Penzel R,Fink B,Bernd L,Autschbach F

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Paediatric chondrosarcomas: a retrospective review of 17 cases.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gambarotti M,Righi A,Picci P,Bertoni F,Manfrini M,Donati DM,Dei Tos AP,Vanel D

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Low grade gastric B-cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue in immunocompromised patients.

    abstract::An increased incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is seen in patients with immunodeficiency from any cause. The majority of these are high grade B-cell lymphoma and most are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In post-transplant lymphoma/lymphoproliferative disorders the tumour may regress following reduction...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wotherspoon AC,Diss TC,Pan L,Singh N,Whelan J,Isaacson PG

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular cytogenetics of cutaneous melanocytic lesions - diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects.

    abstract::This review intends to update current knowledge regarding molecular cytogenetics in melanocytic tumours with a focus on cutaneous melanocytic lesions. Advantages and limitations of diverse, already established methods, such as (fluorescence) in situ hybridization and mutation analysis, to detect these cytogenetic alte...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Blokx WA,van Dijk MC,Ruiter DJ

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Microvessel density for melanoma prognosis.

    abstract:AIMS:Two-hundred and four accessible cases of malignant melanoma from the Grampian region of Scotland, collected over a period of 4 years, were studied for standard prognostic indicators for comparison with microvessel density. METHODS AND RESULTS:The range of tumour thickness varied from in-situ melanoma to 14.8 mm. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Depasquale I,Thompson WD

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative analysis of prognostic histopathologic parameters in subtypes of epithelioid pleural mesothelioma.

    abstract:AIMS:Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy with a dismal prognosis. While the epithelioid type is associated with a more favourable outcome, additional factors are needed to further stratify prognosis and to identify patients who can benefit from multimodal treatment. As epithelioid MPM shows remark...


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    authors: Bilecz A,Stockhammer P,Theegarten D,Kern I,Jakopovic M,Samarzija M,Klikovits T,Hoda MA,Döme B,Oberndorfer F,Muellauer L,Fillinger J,Kovács I,Pirker C,Schuler M,Plönes T,Aigner C,Klepetko W,Berger W,Brcic L,Laszlo

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in the mucosa of the stomach and duodenum during immunosuppressive therapy after renal transplantation.

    abstract::Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination of 40 patients on immunosuppressive therapy after successful kidney transplantation revealed a duodenal ulcer in four cases and duodenal erosions in six. Between four and six biopsies were collected from the antral and the fundal mucosa in each case and from the duodenal m...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Franzin G,Musola R,Mencarelli R

    更新日期:1982-07-01 00:00:00

  • High Wilms' tumour gene (WT1) expression and low mitotic count are independent predictors of survival in diffuse peritoneal mesothelioma.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scattone A,Serio G,Marzullo A,Nazzaro P,Corsi F,Cocca MP,Mattoni M,Punzi A,Gentile M,Buonadonna AL,Pennella A

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • A subset of ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumours of the tongue show EWSR1 rearrangements and are genetically linked to soft tissue myoepithelial neoplasms: a study of 11 cases.

    abstract:AIMS:Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumour (ECT) is a rare, benign intraoral neoplasm showing a predilection for the anterior dorsum of the tongue. The World Health Organization includes ECT in the pathological spectrum of soft tissue myoepithelioma. EWS RNA-binding protein 1 gene (EWSR1) rearrangement is found in 45% o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Argyris PP,Bilodeau EA,Yancoskie AE,Trochesset D,Pambuccian SE,Wetzel SL,Shah SS,Edelman M,Freedman P,Dolan M,Koutlas IG

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Herpetic salpingitis and fallopian tube prolapse.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lefrancq T,Orain I,Michalak S,Hourseau M,Fetissof F

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Quantitative, microscopical, computer-aided diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma in individual patients.

    abstract::There are many significant differences, but also considerable overlap between the quantitative histopathological features of mild and marked atypical endometrial hyperplasias and well and moderately differentiated carcinomas, thus preventing its application to individual patient care. To try to overcome this problem, ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baak JP,Kurver PH,Overdiep SH,Delemarre JF,Boon ME,Lindeman J,Diegenbach PC

    更新日期:1981-11-01 00:00:00

  • Papillary and cystic neoplasm of the pancreas--an acinar cell tumour?

    abstract::Two cases of papillary and cystic neoplasm of the pancreas (PCN) occurring in 17 and 21 year old women are reported with ultrastructural and immunohistochemical findings. A review of the English literature shows that although potentially malignant, PCN, which occurs mainly in young women, is amenable to surgical cure....


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Learmonth GM,Price SK,Visser AE,Emms M

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Autofluorescent granular cells in odontogenic cysts.

    abstract::Three odontogenic cysts, two of dentigerous and one of dental type, are reported in which large numbers of cells containing autofluorescent granules were present, in both the capsule and cyst lining. Histochemical and electron microscopical studies suggest that the granules are composed of lipofuscin. Examination of 3...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Browne RM,Rippin JW

    更新日期:1984-11-01 00:00:00

  • Polypoid mucosal prolapse complicating low rectal adenomas: beware the inflammatory cloacogenic polyp!

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parfitt JR,Shepherd NA

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of the inflammatory infiltrate in ovarian dysgerminoma: an immunocytochemical study.

    abstract::The inflammatory infiltrate has been characterized in 10 cases of ovarian dysgerminoma using a panel of antisera to T-cells, B-cells and macrophages. The expression of Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and the distribution of interferons alpha and gamma were also examined. T-lymphocytes were pre...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stewart CJ,Farquharson MA,Foulis AK

    更新日期:1992-06-01 00:00:00