HIV-associated pediatric tuberculosis: prevention, diagnosis and treatment.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The detrimental synergy of colliding HIV and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics is most devastating among children and adolescents living with HIV (CALWH) who shoulder a disproportionate burden of all child TB mortality. RECENT FINDINGS:CALWH benefit less from Bacille-Calmette Guerin vaccination than HIV-uninfected children and are not receiving TB preventive therapy despite global recommendations. Further, the predictive utility of most diagnostic tools is reduced in CALWH. Finally, antiretroviral and anti-TB drug interactions continue to complicate cotreatment for children. Despite these challenges, recent data fuel a new awareness of TB as a hidden cause of child mortality and a renewed commitment to TB prevention. New diagnostic approaches using existing tools with novel specimens, such as stool, may improve the diagnosis of TB in CALWH. Further, pharmacokinetic studies and the development of new drug formulations promise better treatment options for CALWH in the near future. SUMMARY:With the awareness that TB is the leading cause of mortality among CALWH, comes a responsibility to accelerate research to prevent, diagnose and treat TB in this vulnerable population. In the present, we must adopt evidence-based preventive and treatment strategies to enhance outcomes of CALWH and combating TB.


Curr Opin HIV AIDS


Kay A,Garcia-Prats AJ,Mandalakas AM




Has Abstract


2018-11-01 00:00:00














  • Can the United States achieve 90-90-90?

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To summarize recent trends in knowledge of HIV status, care and viral suppression, and the status of implementation of relevant contextual requirements for the United States to achieve the 90-90-90 goals. Recently, the US government announced a plan to decrease HIV incidence by over 90% by 2030. Reach...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hall HI,Brooks JT,Mermin J

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Prophylactic antiretroviral regimens for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-limited settings.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:With the large international mobilization against HIV/AIDS, more HIV-infected people in resource-limited settings have access to antiretroviral therapy, including pregnant women. The relevance of simplified prophylactic antiretroviral regimens for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arrivé E,Dabis F

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Transmission of HCV in HIV-positive populations.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV has changed significantly over the past decade. This review will outline the current epidemiology of HCV in HIV infection, focusing on the recent changes and factors which have been related to the increase in HCV transmission in HIV-infected men who h...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Danta M,Rodger AJ

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Soaring antiretroviral prices, TRIPS and TRIPS flexibilities: a burning issue for antiretroviral treatment scale-up in developing countries.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The achievement of significant reductions in the price of antiretroviral drugs constitutes one of the main economic pillars of antiretroviral treatment scale-up in developing countries. Today this economic pillar is threatened. RECENT FINDINGS:The prohibitive prices of newer first-line and second-lin...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Orsi F,d'almeida C

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Aging with HIV: osteoporosis and fractures.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Osteoporosis remains an important focus of contemporary research in HIV, with co-morbidities and mortality from non-AIDS illnesses now a major barrier to normal lifespan in many populations living with HIV. This review outlines the major recent advances in our understanding of osteoporosis and fractur...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mallon PW

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • A pièce de resistance: how HIV-1 escapes small molecule CCR5 inhibitors.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Small molecule inhibitors targeting the CCR5 coreceptor represent a new class of drugs for treating HIV-1 infection. Maraviroc has received regulatory approvals, and vicriviroc is in phase 3 trials. Understanding how resistance to these drugs develops and is diagnosed is essential to guide clinical pr...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Moore JP,Kuritzkes DR

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Mental health and substance use in HIV-infected adolescents.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Adolescents with HIV include both those infected perinatally and behaviourally. This population is confronted by normative challenges and HIV stressors as they move towards becoming increasingly independent adults. This review focuses on mental health and substance use in adolescents with HIV. These a...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Evangeli M

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • More than osteoporosis: age-specific issues in bone health.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The interaction between fall and fracture risk factors is an area of increasing clinical relevance, but little information is known about the age-specific issues in bone health unique to HIV-infected adults. The present review will focus on what is known about falls and fall risk factors among HIV-inf...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Erlandson KM,Guaraldi G,Falutz J

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation and management of early virological failure.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To describe the causes, evaluation, and management of early virological failure in patients treated with their first antiretroviral regimen. RECENT FINDINGS:Combination antiretroviral therapy predictably induces a rapid virological response, with the majority of patients achieving an undetectable HIV...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sax PE

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Next-generation sequencing to assess HIV tropism.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Deep sequencing of the V3 region of the HIV envelope gene can detect minority non-R5 variants in patients with high sensitivity and specificity. As next-generation sequencing approaches have matured, the clinical utility of deep sequencing for HIV tropism has entered the clinic. Accurate and sensitive...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Swenson LC,Däumer M,Paredes R

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Improvements in antiretroviral therapy outcomes over calendar time.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) led to substantial reductions in HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. However, the regimens in the early cART era were cumbersome and toxic. The introduction of new ART agents, fixed-dose combinations and novel strategies for cART delive...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Boyd MA

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Implementing operational research to scale-up access to antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection: lessons learned from the Cameroonian experience.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Given the lack of evidence on how to best design and implement antiretroviral therapy (ART) scaling-up policies, operational research has seen a surge in interest. There is, however, little published information on the contribution of operational research in ART programs' implementation or in improvem...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Boyer S,Koulla-Shiro S,Abé C,Spire B,Moatti JP

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • HIV and ageing: improving quantity and quality of life.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Evidence-based strategies are needed to address the growing complexity of care of those ageing with HIV so that as life expectancy is extended, quality of life is also enhanced. RECENT FINDINGS:Modifiable contributing factors to the quantity and quality of life in adults ageing with HIV include: burd...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Althoff KN,Smit M,Reiss P,Justice AC

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Emerging HIV-1 drug resistance after roll-out of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review provides an update of recent data on the development of HIV-1 drug resistance during treatment and its transmission in sub-Saharan Africa after the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). RECENT FINDINGS:Evidence is accumulating of a rising prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hamers RL,Sigaloff KC,Kityo C,Mugyenyi P,de Wit TF

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • HIV-1 replicative fitness in elite controllers.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Differential rates of disease progression are obviously multifactorial, but the virulence of the actual infecting virus is most frequently ignored as potential source of slow or rapid disease progression. In this review, the argument will be made that nearly all elite suppressors are infected by weak ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lobritz MA,Lassen KG,Arts EJ

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • Low dead-space syringes for preventing HIV among people who inject drugs: promise and barriers.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review examines evidence regarding the differential effects of high dead-space syringes (HDSS) and low dead-space syringes (LDSS) on HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). It also identifies areas for additional research and examines potential barriers to interventions that promot...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zule WA

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Youth-friendly services and differentiated models of care are needed to improve outcomes for young people living with HIV.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Outcomes among young people living with HIV (YPLWH) remain disturbingly poor. We summarize recent research on youth-friendly services (YFS) and adolescent-specific differentiated care models, which may improve outcomes across the HIV care continuum for this vulnerable population. We further emphasize ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Reif LK,McNairy ML,Lamb MR,Fayorsey R,Elul B

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • The HIV treatment cascade in acutely infected people: informing global guidelines.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Acute and early HIV (AHI) is a pivotal time during HIV infection, yet there remain major shortfalls in diagnosis, linkage to care, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation during AHI. We introduce an AHI-specific cascade, review recent evidence pertaining to the unique challenges of AHI, and discus...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rutstein SE,Sellers CJ,Ananworanich J,Cohen MS

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • HIV infection and immune activation: the role of coinfections.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This article explores new data from recent studies addressing the role of coinfections in immune activation in HIV-1-infected patients, with a focus on immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), an aberrant inflammatory response occurring shortly after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation....

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Boulougoura A,Sereti I

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical approach to drug resistance interpretation: expert advice.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The body of knowledge regarding antiretroviral drug resistance is rapidly evolving as a result of extensive research and the continuous availability of new antiretroviral drugs. The interpretation of drug resistance tests may be difficult for clinicians not working in highly specialized healthcare env...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clotet B,Paredes R

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • HIV treatment cascade in tuberculosis patients.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Globally, the number of deaths associated with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV coinfection remains unacceptably high. We review the evidence around the impact of strengthening the HIV treatment cascade in TB patients and explore recent findings about how best to deliver integrated TB/HIV services. RECENT F...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lessells RJ,Swaminathan S,Godfrey-Faussett P

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • The role of Fc receptors in HIV infection and vaccine efficacy.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:In this review, the roles of Fc-gamma receptor polymorphisms are discussed in regards to HIV-1 vaccine efficacy, HIV acquisition, and disease progression. In addition, the significance of the neonatal immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc receptor and potential effects of the aggregated immunoglobulin A Fc recept...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cocklin SL,Schmitz JE

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Microbicides: chemistry, structure, and strategy.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To highlight promising areas of research and preview future generations of microbicides, this review will focus on reports that described new cellular or viral targets, drug substances, or strategies that are specifically intended for topical microbicides. Those reports that dealt with the design, dis...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zydowsky TM

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Dual HIV risk and vulnerabilities among women who use or inject drugs: no single prevention strategy is the answer.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This article examines the dual HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk behaviors engaged in by women who use or inject drugs; the individual, social, and structural drivers of HIV and STI risk; prevention strategies; and the implications for multilevel, combined, sex-specific HIV prevention ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: El-Bassel N,Wechsberg WM,Shaw SA

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Antiretroviral therapy-induced lipid alterations: in-vitro, animal and human studies.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To describe the clinical features, pathogenesis and therapeutic options for the dyslipidaemia commonly seen in HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy. RECENT FINDINGS:Dyslipidaemia associated with antiretroviral therapy is characterized by elevations in total and low-density lipo...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mallon PW

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Pipeline of drugs for related diseases: tuberculosis.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:For the first time in decades, there are multiple new drugs in the pipeline for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). In addition, existing drugs are being repurposed or optimized for TB with the goal of shortened treatment duration for drug-sensitive TB and safer, shorter treatments for multidrug-resis...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dooley KE,Nuermberger EL,Diacon AH

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Development of replication-competent viral vectors for HIV vaccine delivery.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To briefly describe some of the replication-competent vectors being investigated for development of candidate HIV vaccines focusing primarily on technologies that have advanced to testing in macaques or have entered clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS:Replication-competent viral vectors have advanced to...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Parks CL,Picker LJ,King CR

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Evolving clinical phenotypes in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To describe the changes in the presentation of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) comparing the current combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) treatment era to the pre-cART era. RECENT FINDINGS:The frequency of the most severe stage of HAND, HIV-associated dementia (HAD), has decreased...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sacktor N,Robertson K

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Preclinical primate studies of HIV-1-envelope-based vaccines: towards human clinical trials.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:There is growing debate on how nonhuman primate models of AIDS can best guide and facilitate clinical development of HIV vaccines. This review covers the simian/human immunodeficiency virus primate model and its strategic use in guiding the development and selection of HIV-1-envelope-based vaccine can...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heeney JL

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • Guiding the long way to broad HIV neutralization.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:It has been demonstrated that extensive virus diversification and antibody coevolution are necessary to give rise to broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the envelope protein of HIV-1. Here, we discuss recent progress of vaccine design approaches aiming on strategies to initiate and guide B-cell ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Peterhoff D,Wagner R

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00