Curative and palliative surgery in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tract.

Abstract:

:The incidence of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) increases with age. Lately, the diagnosis of NET was mainly caused by early detection of small NET (<1 cm) in the rectum and stomach, which are depicted by chance during routine and prophylactic endoscopy. Also in patients with large and metastatic pancreatic and intestinal tumors thorough pathologic investigation with use of different immunohistologic markers discovers more neuroendocrine tumors with low differentiation grade (G2-G3) and more neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC), nowadays, than in former times. While gastric and rectal NET are discovered as small (<1 cm in diameter) and mainly highly differentiated tumors, demonstrating lymph node metastases in less than 10% of the patients, the majority of pancreatic and small bowel NET have already metastasized at the time of diagnosis. This is of clinical importance, since tumor stage and differentiation grade not only influence prognosis but also surgical procedure and may define whether a combination of surgery with systemic biologic therapy, chemotherapy or local cytoreductive procedures may be used. The indication for surgery and the preferred surgical procedure will have to consider personal risk factors of each patient (i.e. general health, additional illnesses, etc.) and tumor specific factors (i.e. tumor stage, grade of differentiation, functional activity, mass and variety of loco regional as well as distant metastases etc.). Together they define, whether radical curative or only palliative surgery can be applied. Altogether surgery is the only cure for locally advanced NET and helps to increase quality of life and overall survival in many patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. The question of cure versus palliative therapy sometimes only can be answered with time, however. Many different aspects and various questions concerning the indication and extent of surgery and the best therapeutic procedure are still unanswered. Therefore, a close multidisciplinary cooperation of colleagues involved in biochemical and localization diagnostics and those active in various treatment areas is warranted to search for the optimal strategy in each individual patient. How far genetic screening impacts survival remains to be seen. Since surgeons do have a central role in the treatment of NET patients, they have to understand the need for integration into such an interdisciplinary team.

authors

Goretzki PE,Mogl MT,Akca A,Pratschke J

doi

10.1007/s11154-018-9469-9

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2018-06-01 00:00:00

pages

169-178

issue

2

eissn

1389-9155

issn

1573-2606

pii

10.1007/s11154-018-9469-9

journal_volume

19

pub_type

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