Sunset Yellow and Allura Red modulate Bcl2 and COX2 expression levels and confer oxidative stress-mediated renal and hepatic toxicity in male rats.


:Studies on the adverse health effects caused by azo dyes are insufficient and quite contradictory. This work aims to investigate the possible toxic effect of two types of widely used food additives, Sunset Yellow and Allura Red, by assessing the physiological, histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the liver and kidney. Also, we investigated the genotoxic effect of both dyes on white blood cells. Thirty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 animals each: control (received water), Sunset Yellow-treated (2.5 mg/kg body weight) and Allura Red-treated (seven mg/kg body weight). The doses were orally applied for 4 weeks. Our results indicated an increase in the biochemical markers of hepatic and renal function (Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, uric acid and creatinine) in animals administered with the azo dyes. We also observed a noticeable increase in MDA and a marked decrease in total antioxidant levels in azo dye-treated animals compared to controls. Conversely, both dyes adversely affected the liver and kidney of albino rats and altered their histological and fine structure, with downregulation of Bcl2 and upregulation of COX2 expression. Our comet assay results showed a significant elevation in the fold change of tail moment in response to application of Sunset Yellow but not Allura Red. Collectively, we show that Sunset Yellow and Allura Red cause histopathological and physiological aberrations in the liver and kidney of male Wistar albino rats. Moreover, Sunset Yellow but not Allura Red induces a potential genotoxic effect.






Khayyat LI,Essawy AE,Sorour JM,Soffar A




Has Abstract


2018-09-28 00:00:00












  • Application of a high-quality, high-volume trap-neuter-return model of community cats in Seoul, Korea.

    abstract:Background:This study was performed to determine the characteristics of community cats that were admitted to trap-neuter-return(TNR) programs and the feasibility of the high-quality, high-volume spay/neuter (HQHVSN) model in Seoul, Korea. Methods:TNR programs were performed eight times from 2017 to 2018, and a total o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cho Y,Kim K,Kim MS,Lee I

    更新日期:2020-03-05 00:00:00

  • Establishment and characterization of fantail goldfish fin (FtGF) cell line from goldfish, Carassius auratus for in vitro propagation of Cyprinid herpes virus-2 (CyHV-2).

    abstract:Background:Herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis disease, caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-2 (CyHV-2), is responsible for massive mortalities in the aquaculture of goldfish, Carassius auratus. Permissive cell lines for the isolation and propagation of CyHV-2 have been established from various goldfish tissues by sacrificing...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dharmaratnam A,Kumar R,Valaparambil BS,Sood N,Pradhan PK,Das S,Swaminathan TR

    更新日期:2020-07-14 00:00:00

  • Herbicide injury induces DNA methylome alterations in Arabidopsis.

    abstract::The emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds is a major threat facing modern agriculture. Over 470 weedy-plant populations have developed resistance to herbicides. Traditional evolutionary mechanisms are not always sufficient to explain the rapidity with which certain weed populations adapt in response to herbicide expo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim G,Clarke CR,Larose H,Tran HT,Haak DC,Zhang L,Askew S,Barney J,Westwood JH

    更新日期:2017-07-20 00:00:00

  • Hydrological and soil physiochemical variables determine the rhizospheric microbiota in subtropical lakeshore areas.

    abstract:Background:Due to intensive sluice construction and other human disturbances, lakeshore vegetation has been destroyed and ecosystems greatly changed. Rhizospheric microbiota constitute a key part of a functioning rhizosphere ecosystem. Maintaining rhizosphere microbial diversity is a central, critical issue for sustain...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang X,Wang H,Li Z,Xie J,Ni J

    更新日期:2020-09-29 00:00:00

  • Associations of ADL and IADL disability with physical and mental dimensions of quality of life in people aged 75 years and older.

    abstract:Background:Quality of life is an important health outcome for older persons. It predicts the adverse outcomes of institutionalization and premature death. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the influence of both disability in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily livi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gobbens RJ

    更新日期:2018-08-09 00:00:00

  • Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of rat tissues under physiological and toxicological conditions.

    abstract::In biological research the analysis of gene expression levels in cells and tissues can be a powerful tool to gain insights into biological processes. For this, quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a popular method that often involve the use of constitutively expressed endogenous reference (or 'housekeeping') gene for norm...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Svingen T,Letting H,Hadrup N,Hass U,Vinggaard AM

    更新日期:2015-03-24 00:00:00

  • Back to beaked: Zea mays subsp. mays Rostrata Group in northern Italy, refugia and revival of open-pollinated maize landraces in an intensive cropping system.

    abstract::Crop landraces are fundamental resources to increase the eroded genepool of modern crops in order to adapt agriculture to future challenges; plus, they are of immeasurable heritage and cultural value. Between the 1940s and the 1960s open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) of flint and semi-flint maize in Europe were almost c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ardenghi NMG,Rossi G,Guzzon F

    更新日期:2018-07-04 00:00:00

  • Gene flow relates to evolutionary divergence among populations at the range margin.

    abstract:Background:Morphological differentiation between populations resulting from local adaptations to environmental conditions is likely to be more pronounced in populations with increasing genetic isolation. In a previous study a positive clinal variation in body size was observed in isolated Roesel's bush-cricket, Metriop...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaňuch P,Kiehl B,Cassel-Lundhagen A,Laugen AT,Low M,Berggren Å

    更新日期:2020-10-22 00:00:00

  • Local villagers' perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China.

    abstract::While there have been increasing numbers of reports of human-wolf conflict in China during recent years, little is known about the nature of this conflict. In this study, we used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate local villagers' perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. We ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu Y,Yang B,Dou L

    更新日期:2015-06-09 00:00:00

  • Potential changes in the distribution of Carnegiea gigantea under future scenarios.

    abstract::Over the last decades several studies have identified that the directional changes in climate induced by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are affecting the ecology of desert ecosystems. In the Southwest United States, the impacts of climate change to plant abundance and distribution have already been report...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Albuquerque F,Benito B,Rodriguez MÁM,Gray C

    更新日期:2018-09-19 00:00:00

  • Dynamics of ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in response to compost addition in black soil, Northeast China.

    abstract::Organic fertilizer application could have an impact on the nitrogen cycle mediated by microorganisms in arable soils. However, the dynamics of soil ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in response to compost addition are less understood. In this study, we examined the effect of four compost application rates (0, 11.25, ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang Z,Guan Y,Bello A,Wu Y,Ding J,Wang L,Ren Y,Chen G,Yang W

    更新日期:2020-04-21 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamase and plasmid mediated quinolone resistant genes in strains of Klebsiella pneumonia, Morganella morganii, Leclercia adecarboxylata and Citrobacter freundii isolated from poultry in South Western Nigeria.

    abstract::A serious concern is arising on the coexistence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) producing bacteria in animal husbandry, which could be transferred to humans, especially in strains that may not be routinely screened for resistance. This study therefore tested ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Akinbami OR,Olofinsae S,Ayeni FA

    更新日期:2018-06-22 00:00:00

  • Single cell transcriptional analysis reveals novel innate immune cell types.

    abstract::Single-cell analysis has the potential to provide us with a host of new knowledge about biological systems, but it comes with the challenge of correctly interpreting the biological information. While emerging techniques have made it possible to measure inter-cellular variability at the transcriptome level, no consensu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kippner LE,Kim J,Gibson G,Kemp ML

    更新日期:2014-06-24 00:00:00

  • Hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus - a risky dual gestational endocrinopathy.

    abstract::Objectives. Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypothyroidism are each associated with increased rate of pregnancy complications. However, their combined morbidity during gestation is poorly studied. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of the combined morbidity of DM & hypothyroidism and whether...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tirosh D,Benshalom-Tirosh N,Novack L,Press F,Beer-Weisel R,Wiznitzer A,Mazor M,Erez O

    更新日期:2013-03-19 00:00:00

  • Can we measure beauty? Computational evaluation of coral reef aesthetics.

    abstract::The natural beauty of coral reefs attracts millions of tourists worldwide resulting in substantial revenues for the adjoining economies. Although their visual appearance is a pivotal factor attracting humans to coral reefs current monitoring protocols exclusively target biogeochemical parameters, neglecting changes in...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haas AF,Guibert M,Foerschner A,Co T,Calhoun S,George E,Hatay M,Dinsdale E,Sandin SA,Smith JE,Vermeij MJ,Felts B,Dustan P,Salamon P,Rohwer F

    更新日期:2015-11-10 00:00:00

  • Phylogenomic analyses confirm a novel invasive North American Corbicula (Bivalvia: Cyrenidae) lineage.

    abstract::The genus Corbicula consists of estuarine or freshwater clams native to temperate/tropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Australia that collectively encompass both sexual species and clonal (androgenetic) lineages. The latter have become globally invasive in freshwater systems and they represent some of the most succes...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haponski AE,Ó Foighil D

    更新日期:2019-08-22 00:00:00

  • Data concordance between ESRD Medical Evidence Report and Medicare claims: is there any improvement?

    abstract:Background:Medicare is one of the world's largest health insurance programs. It provides health insurance to nearly 44 million beneficiaries whose entitlements are based on age, disability, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Data of these ESRD beneficiaries are collected in the US Renal Data System (USRDS), which inclu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mu Y,Chin AI,Kshirsagar AV,Bang H

    更新日期:2018-07-27 00:00:00

  • Maxent-directed field surveys identify new populations of narrowly endemic habitat specialists.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Rare or narrowly endemic organisms are difficult to monitor and conserve when their total distribution and habitat preferences are incompletely known. One method employed in determining distributions of these organisms is species distribution modeling (SDM). METHODS:Using two species of narrowly endemic bur...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rhoden CM,Peterman WE,Taylor CA

    更新日期:2017-07-31 00:00:00

  • How many species of mammals are there in Brazil? New records of rare rodents (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Amazonia raise the current known diversity.

    abstract:Background:Since 1996, when Vivo questioned how many species of mammals occur in Brazil, there has been a huge effort to assess this biodiversity. In this contribution, we present new records for rare species of the sigmodontine rodent genera Rhagomys and Neusticomys previously unknown to Brazilian Amazon. We provided ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Percequillo AR,Dalapicolla J,Abreu-Júnior EF,Roth PRO,Ferraz KMPMB,Chiquito EA

    更新日期:2017-12-15 00:00:00

  • High cytoplasmic YAP1 expression predicts a poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    abstract:Purpose:Yes associated protein 1 (YAP1), which is a standout amongst the most essential effectors of the Hippo pathway, assumes a vital part in a few kinds of cancer. However, whether YAP1 is an oncogene in CRC (colorectal cancer) remains controversial, and the association between the subcellular localization of YAP1 a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dong T,Yuan Y,Xiang X,Sang S,Shen H,Wang L,Yang C,Li F,Li H,Zheng S

    更新日期:2020-11-19 00:00:00

  • Forelimb muscle and joint actions in Archosauria: insights from Crocodylus johnstoni (Pseudosuchia) and Mussaurus patagonicus (Sauropodomorpha).

    abstract::Many of the major locomotor transitions during the evolution of Archosauria, the lineage including crocodiles and birds as well as extinct Dinosauria, were shifts from quadrupedalism to bipedalism (and vice versa). Those occurred within a continuum between more sprawling and erect modes of locomotion and involved dras...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Otero A,Allen V,Pol D,Hutchinson JR

    更新日期:2017-11-24 00:00:00

  • Synchrotron scanning reveals the palaeoneurology of the head-butting Moschops capensis (Therapsida, Dinocephalia).

    abstract::Dinocephalian therapsids are renowned for their massive, pachyostotic and ornamented skulls adapted for head-to-head fighting during intraspecific combat. Synchrotron scanning of the tapinocephalid Moschops capensis reveals, for the first time, numerous anatomical adaptations of the central nervous system related to t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Benoit J,Manger PR,Norton L,Fernandez V,Rubidge BS

    更新日期:2017-08-10 00:00:00

  • Comparison of soil bacterial community and functional characteristics following afforestation in the semi-arid areas.

    abstract::Changes in soil bacterial communities, which are crucial for the assessment of ecological restoration in Chinese plantations, have never been studied in the "Three North Shelterbelt" project in the semi-arid areas. We used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene to investigate the soil bacterial community dive...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deng J,Zhang Y,Yin Y,Zhu X,Zhu W,Zhou Y

    更新日期:2019-06-25 00:00:00

  • Applied phylogeography of Cyclopia intermedia (Fabaceae) highlights the need for 'duty of care' when cultivating honeybush.

    abstract:Background:The current cultivation and plant breeding of Honeybush tea (produced from members of Cyclopia Vent.) do not consider the genetic diversity nor structuring of wild populations. Thus, wild populations may be at risk of genetic contamination if cultivated plants are grown in the same landscape. Here, we invest...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Galuszynski NC,Potts AJ

    更新日期:2020-09-02 00:00:00

  • Comparing the biomechanical characteristics between squat and standing serves in female table tennis athletes.

    abstract:Background:The table tennis serve involves complex spatial movements combined with biomechanial characteristics. Although the differences in lower-limb biomechanial characteristics to a great extent influence the translational and spinning velocity of the ball when using the different styles of table tennis serve, few ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu C,Shao S,Baker JS,Gu Y

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Causes of mortality across different immigrant groups in Northeastern Italy.

    abstract::Background. Despite massive immigration towards Southern Europe in the last two decades, data on mortality by cause among immigrants in Italy are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality from all and from specific causes of death among immigrants residing in the Veneto Region (Northeastern Italy). Me...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fedeli U,Ferroni E,Pigato M,Avossa F,Saugo M

    更新日期:2015-05-21 00:00:00

  • Correction: Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among diabetes mellitus adults in the Jilin province in China: a cross-sectional study.

    abstract::[This corrects the article DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2869.]. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,已发布勘误


    authors: Qiu S,Sun H,Liu Y,Kanu JS,Li R,Yu Y,Huang X,Li B,Zhang X

    更新日期:2017-12-07 00:00:00

  • A horizon scan of future threats and opportunities for pollinators and pollination.

    abstract::Background. Pollinators, which provide the agriculturally and ecologically essential service of pollination, are under threat at a global scale. Habitat loss and homogenisation, pesticides, parasites and pathogens, invasive species, and climate change have been identified as past and current threats to pollinators. Ac...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown MJ,Dicks LV,Paxton RJ,Baldock KC,Barron AB,Chauzat MP,Freitas BM,Goulson D,Jepsen S,Kremen C,Li J,Neumann P,Pattemore DE,Potts SG,Schweiger O,Seymour CL,Stout JC

    更新日期:2016-08-09 00:00:00

  • A taxonomic review of the Late Jurassic eucryptodiran turtles from the Jura Mountains (Switzerland and France).

    abstract::Background. Eucryptodiran turtles from the Late Jurassic (mainly Kimmeridgian) deposits of the Jura Mountains (Switzerland and France) are among the earliest named species traditionally referred to the Plesiochelyidae, Thalassemydidae, and Eurysternidae. As such, they are a reference for the study of Late Jurassic euc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Anquetin J,Püntener C,Billon-Bruyat JP

    更新日期:2014-05-13 00:00:00

  • Novel inflammatory cell infiltration scoring system to investigate healthy and footrot affected ovine interdigital skin.

    abstract::Ovine footrot is a degenerative disease of sheep feet leading to the separation of hoof-horn from the underlying skin and lameness. This study quantitatively examined histological features of the ovine interdigital skin as well as their relationship with pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β) and virulent Dichelobacter nod...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Agbaje M,Rutland CS,Maboni G,Blanchard A,Bexon M,Stewart C,Jones MA,Totemeyer S

    更新日期:2018-07-02 00:00:00