Visual Outcome and Millimeter Incremental Risk of Metastasis in 1780 Patients With Small Choroidal Melanoma Managed by Plaque Radiotherapy.


Importance:Early detection of choroidal melanoma at a small tumor size is emphasized in the literature. However, there is little published information on the specific risks of plaque-irradiated small choroidal melanoma on visual acuity and metastasis. Objective:To analyze outcomes of plaque radiotherapy for small choroidal melanoma 3 mm in thickness or less. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective noncomparative series at a tertiary referral center included 1780 consecutive patients who had received plaque radiotherapy treatment for small choroidal melanoma. Main Outcomes and Measures:Visual acuity outcomes and melanoma-associated metastasis, assessed by Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results:The mean (SD) patient age at melanoma diagnosis was 58 (14) years. Of 1780 patients, 908 were female (51.0%), and 1752 were white (98.4%). Visual acuity was 20/40 OU or better in 1276 of the patients (71.7%), and the mean (SD) visual acuity was 20/40 (20/50) OU (median, 20/30; range, 20/20 to counting fingers). The mean (SD) tumor basal dimension was 8.8 (2.9) mm (median, 8.0 mm; range, 2.0-20.0 mm) and mean (SD) tumor thickness was 2.6 (0.5) mm (median, 2.7; range, 0.2-3.4 mm). Mean (SD) distance to the foveola was 3.4 (3.9) mm and to the optic disc was 3.7 (3.7) mm. The Kaplan-Meier rate of visual acuity loss (≥3 Snellen lines) was 9.5% (95% CI, 8.2%-11.0%) at 1 year, 39.2% (95% CI, 36.5%-42.0%) at 5 years, and 48.9% (95% CI, 45.6%-52.3%) at 10 years, whereas poor visual acuity (≤20/200) was 7.1% (95% CI, 5.9%-8.4%) at 1 year, 38.2% (95% CI, 35.5%-41.1%) at 5 years, and 53.5% (95% CI, 50.1%-57.1%) at 10 years. Regarding melanoma-associated metastasis, the rate was 0.2% (95% CI, 0.09%-0.6%) at 1 year, 4.5% (95% CI, 3.4%-5.9%) at 5 years, and 8.8% (95% CI, 6.9%-11.1%) at 10 years. Using 1.0-mm thickness increments, the 10-year risk for metastasis was 25.0% (95% CI, 3.9%-87.2%) at 0-mm to 1.0-mm thickness, 5.9% (95% CI, 2.5%-13.5%) at 1.1-mm to 2.0-mm thickness, 8.1% (95% CI, 5.9%-11.0%) at 2.1-mm to 3.0-mm thickness, and 13.4% (95% CI, 8.7%-20.4%) at thicknesses greater than 3.0 mm. The greater relative risk (RR) for metastasis in thinnest tumors was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.09-3.07), which likely represented more aggressive diffuse (flat) melanoma. By multivariable analysis, clinical features predictive of melanoma-associated metastasis included increasing patient age (RR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.07-1.63] per decade; P = .01), tumor diameter (RR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.06-1.24] per mm; P < .001), tumor thickness (RR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.22-4.05] per mm; P = .01), photopsia symptoms (RR, 2.45 [95% CI, 1.35-4.43]; P = .003), and prior treatment before plaque radiotherapy (RR, 3.31 [95% CI, 1.31-8.33]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance:This retrospective study suggests that small choroidal melanoma treated with plaque radiotherapy has a 10-year risk for visual acuity loss of 48.9% (95% CI, 45.6%-52.3%) and a 10-risk of systemic metastasis of 8.8% (95% CI, 6.9%-11.1%). In this analysis, each millimeter of increasing thickness and diameter contributed risk for metastatic disease.


JAMA Ophthalmol


JAMA ophthalmology


Shields CL,Sioufi K,Srinivasan A,Di Nicola M,Masoomian B,Barna LE,Bekerman VP,Say EAT,Mashayekhi A,Emrich J,Komarnicky L,Shields JA




Has Abstract


2018-12-01 00:00:00














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