Cardiovascular Risk Management and Hepatitis C: Combining Drugs.


:Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are known victims (substrate) and perpetrators (cause) of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). These DAAs are used for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and are highly effective drugs. Drugs used for cardiovascular risk management are frequently used by HCV-infected patients, whom also are treated with DAAs. Therefore, the aim of this review was to describe DDIs between cardiovascular drugs (CVDs) and DAAs. An extensive literature search was performed containing search terms for the marketed DAAs and CVDs (β-blocking agents, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, renin inhibitors, diuretics, calcium channel blockers, statins/ezetimibe, fibrates, platelet aggregation inhibitors, vitamin K antagonists, heparins, direct Xa inhibitors, nitrates, amiodarone, and digoxin). In particular, the drug labels from the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration were used. A main finding of this review is that CVDs are mostly victims of DDIs with DAAs. Therefore, when possible, monitoring of pharmacodynamics is recommended when coadministering these drugs with DAAs. Nevertheless, it is sometimes better to discontinue a drug on a temporary basis (statins, ezetimide). The DAAs are victims of DDIs in combination with bisoprolol, carvedilol, labetalol, verapamil, and gemfibrozil. Despite there are many DDIs predicted in this review, most of these DDIs can be managed by monitoring the efficacy and toxicity of the victim drug or by switching to another CVD/DAA.


Clin Pharmacokinet


Smolders EJ,Ter Horst PJG,Wolters S,Burger DM




Has Abstract


2019-05-01 00:00:00














  • Central nervous system penetration of antiretroviral drugs: pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenomic considerations.

    abstract::The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is increasing despite the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Initial reports suggest that the use of antiretrovirals with good central nervous system (CNS) penetration leads to better neurocognitive outcomes, but this has not yet ...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Decloedt EH,Rosenkranz B,Maartens G,Joska J

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Drug disposition in cystic fibrosis.

    abstract::There are many pathological changes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) which can lead to alterations in drug disposition. Although, in patients with CF, the extent of drug absorption varies widely and the rate of absorption is slower, bioavailability is not altered. Plasma protein binding for the majority of drugs ...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rey E,Tréluyer JM,Pons G

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma level monitoring of antipsychotic drugs. Clinical utility.

    abstract::The steady-state plasma concentrations of antipsychotic drugs show large interpatient variations but remain relatively stable from day to day in each individual patient. Monitoring of antipsychotic drug concentrations in plasma might be of value provided the patients are treated with only 1 antipsychotic drug. Some st...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dahl SG

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen and its enantiomers.

    abstract::Ketoprofen, a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the 2-arylpropionic acid class, has been used clinically for over 15 years in Europe, and has recently been introduced in the United States. Although it possesses a chiral centre, with only the S-enantiomer possessing beneficial pharmacological activi...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jamali F,Brocks DR

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical pharmacokinetics of drugs used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (Part II).

    abstract::Part I of this article, which appeared in the previous issue of the Journal, covered the following agents: histamine H2-receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, nizatidine); muscarinic-M1-receptor antagonists (pirenzepine); proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole); site-protective agents (colloidal bismuth...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lauritsen K,Laursen LS,Rask-Madsen J

    更新日期:1990-08-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma concentration monitoring of busulfan: does it improve clinical outcome?

    abstract::High dosage busulfan (1 mg/kg orally every 6 hours x 16 doses) is frequently used in preparative regimens for haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Busulfan is well absorbed after oral administration, exhibits low protein binding and is metabolised through conjugation with glutathione to form a thiophenium io...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McCune JS,Gibbs JP,Slattery JT

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical pharmacokinetics of nasal nicotine delivery. A review and comparison to other nicotine systems.

    abstract::Rapid drug delivery (arterial "boli') and high drug concentrations occur with nicotine inhaled in smoke. These are believed to be key elements in producing addiction to cigarettes. Preparations which reduce the rate of delivery and/or concentration of nicotine have been introduced as treatments for smoking cessation. ...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Schneider NG,Lunell E,Olmstead RE,Fagerström KO

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • Modelling and simulation of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) time course and dropout hazard in placebo arms of schizophrenia clinical trials.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:The likelihood of detecting a therapeutic signal of an effective drug for schizophrenia is impeded by a high placebo effect and by high dropout of patients. Several unsuccessful trials of schizophrenia, at least partly due to highly variable placebo effects, have indicated the necessity for a ...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pilla Reddy V,Kozielska M,Johnson M,Suleiman AA,Vermeulen A,Liu J,de Greef R,Groothuis GM,Danhof M,Proost JH

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic drug monitoring of imatinib: Bayesian and alternative methods to predict trough levels.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The imatinib trough plasma concentration (C(min)) correlates with clinical response in cancer patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of plasma C(min) is therefore suggested. In practice, however, blood sampling for TDM is often not performed at trough. The corresponding measurement is thus only remotely...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gotta V,Widmer N,Montemurro M,Leyvraz S,Haouala A,Decosterd LA,Csajka C,Buclin T

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with theophylline.

    abstract::Since up to 90% of a theophylline dose is biotransformed, drugs influencing microsomal enzyme systems in the liver may affect the elimination of theophylline. Other integrated mechanisms (e.g. hepatic uptake) may also be altered by concurrent administration of other drugs. Whatever the mechanism, the interaction may b...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jonkman JH,Upton RA

    更新日期:1984-07-01 00:00:00

  • Drug kinetics in childbirth.

    abstract::Drugs from a wide range of pharmacological classes are commonly given to women in childbirth, either for a maternal effect or a fetal/neonatal effect. A number of striking physiological and biochemical changes occur during labour and delivery that might alter drug kinetics. The rate of drug absorption from the gastroi...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nation RL

    更新日期:1980-07-01 00:00:00

  • Differences in cytochrome p450-mediated pharmacokinetics between chinese and caucasian populations predicted by mechanistic physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines emphasize the need for better understanding of the influence of ethnicity on drug response to minimize duplication of clinical studies, thereby expediting drug approval. OBJ...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barter ZE,Tucker GT,Rowland-Yeo K

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Development of Population and Bayesian Models for Applied Use in Patients Receiving Cefepime.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Understanding pharmacokinetic disposition of cefepime, a β-lactam antibiotic, is crucial for developing regimens to achieve optimal exposure and improved clinical outcomes. This study sought to develop and evaluate a unified population pharmacokinetic model in both pediatric and adult patients ...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu J,Neely M,Lipman J,Sime F,Roberts JA,Kiel PJ,Avedissian SN,Rhodes NJ,Scheetz MH

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pegfilgrastim.

    abstract::Pegfilgrastim is a sustained-duration form of filgrastim, a recombinant methionyl form of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), to which a 20  kDa polyethylene glycol molecule is covalently bound to the N-terminal methionine residue. Similar to filgrastim, pegfilgrastim increases the proliferation and d...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yang BB,Kido A

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative study of gentamicin release from normal and low viscosity acrylic bone cement.

    abstract::The pharmacokinetics of gentamicin were studied after total hip joint arthroplasties in 2 groups of 10 patients. The prosthesis was performed in the first group with 'Palacos R plus gentamicin' (normal viscosity), manufactured by Schering, and in the second group with 'Cerafix genta R' (low viscosity) manufactured by ...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bunetel L,Segui A,Cormier M,Langlais F

    更新日期:1990-10-01 00:00:00

  • Drugs and Diseases Interacting with Cigarette Smoking in US Prescription Drug Labelling.

    abstract::The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for industry on drug interaction studies recommends, but does not mandate, that both cigarette smokers and non-smokers can be used to study drug metabolism in clinical trials, and that important results related to smoking should be included in drug labelling to ...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Li H,Shi Q

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic drug monitoring in oncology. Problems and potential in antineoplastic therapy.

    abstract::Therapeutic drug monitoring is now widely used in many areas of medicine. With its proliferation has come an understanding of the clinical situations in which it is likely to be of value. Factors that can limit the usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring and situations where it is less likely to be of benefit have a...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Moore MJ,Erlichman C

    更新日期:1987-10-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic profile of the oral antiplatelet agent ticagrelor.

    abstract::Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remain life-threatening disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality, despite advances in treatment over the last decade. Adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet activation via P2Y(12) receptors plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of ACS. The current standard of treatmen...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Teng R

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Steady-state kinetics and dosage requirements of cimetidine in renal failure.

    abstract::25 patients with different degrees of chronic stable renal failure received oral treatment with cimetidine over 6 days and a final dose in the morning of day 7. The doses of cimetidine were reduced according to the degree of renal failure. Plasma concentrations of cimetidine were determined before the morning dose on ...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Larsson R,Norlander B,Bodemar G,Walan A

    更新日期:1981-07-01 00:00:00

  • A mechanistic approach for the scaling of clearance in children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Clearance is an important pharmacokinetic concept for scaling dosage, understanding the risks of drug-drug interactions and environmental risk assessment in children. Accurate clearance scaling to children requires prior knowledge of adult clearance mechanisms and the age-dependence of physiolo...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Edginton AN,Schmitt W,Voith B,Willmann S

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Dose linearity of lacidipine pharmacokinetics after single and repeated oral doses in healthy volunteers.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the dose proportionality of lacidipine after single and repeated oral doses, and to obtain new information on the pharmacokinetics of the compound since improvement of the plasma assay method. DESIGN:Open, randomised, four-way cross-over trial. PARTICIPANTS:24 healthy male and female volunteers, a...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Da Ros L,Squassante L,Milleri S

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Lack of Clinical Pharmacokinetic Studies to Optimize the Treatment of Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect more than one billion people, mainly living in developing countries. For most of these NTDs, treatment is suboptimal. To optimize treatment regimens, clinical pharmacokinetic studies are required where they have not been previously conducted to enable the use of ph...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Verrest L,Dorlo TPC

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical role of protein binding of quinolones.

    abstract::Protein binding of antibacterials in plasma and tissues has long been considered a component of their pharmacokinetic parameters, playing a potential role in distribution, excretion and therapeutic effectiveness. Since the beginning of the 'antibacterial era', this factor has been extensively analysed for all antibact...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bergogne-Bérézin E

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of cephradine and cefazolin in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    abstract::The pharmacokinetics of cephradine, a cephalosporin with a low degree of protein binding, was studied in 12 women after oral and intravenous administration of the drug during and after pregnancy. Six of the 12 women also received a cephalosporin with a high degree of protein binding, cefazolin, intravenously during an...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Philipson A,Stiernstedt G,Ehrnebo M

    更新日期:1987-02-01 00:00:00

  • Crushed Versus Integral Tablets of Ticagrelor in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: A Randomized Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior of ticagrelor administered either as crushed (in the semi-upright sitting position) or as integral (in the supine position) tablets in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percu...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Alexopoulos D,Barampoutis N,Gkizas V,Vogiatzi C,Tsigkas G,Koutsogiannis N,Davlouros P,Hahalis G,Nylander S,Parodi G,Xanthopoulou I

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Use of in vitro and in vivo data to estimate the likelihood of metabolic pharmacokinetic interactions.

    abstract::This article reviews the information available to assist pharmacokineticists in the prediction of metabolic drug interactions. Significant advances in this area have been made in the last decade, permitting the identification in early drug development of dominant cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform(s) metabolising a particu...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bertz RJ,Granneman GR

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of stereoselectivity on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antiarrhythmic drugs.

    abstract::Many antiarrhythmic drugs introduced into the market during the past three decades have a chiral centre in their structure and are marketed as racemates. Most of these agents, including disopyramide, encainide, flecainide, mexiletine, propafenone and tocainide, belong to class I antiarrhythmics, whereas verapamil is a...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mehvar R,Brocks DR,Vakily M

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of commonly used anticancer drugs.

    abstract::With the use of combination chemotherapy as well as a wide range of symptomatic therapies (e.g. analgesics and antiemetics) for the treatment of patients with cancer, the field of oncology practises polypharmacy to an extreme degree. The risk for a drug interaction under these conditions is high, and the pharmacologic...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Balis FM

    更新日期:1986-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of hepatic and renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of dalcetrapib: altered distribution of the active thiol?

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Dalcetrapib, a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) modulator, is a thioester pro-drug that is rapidly hydrolysed to generate a pharmacologically active thiol. The thiol covalently binds to plasma proteins as mixed disulfides, extensively distributes into plasma lipoprotein fractions, and ...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Phelan M,Anzures-Cabrera J,Carlile DJ,Rowell L,Kuhlmann O,Arold G,Robson R,Bentley D

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Author's Reply to Reith: "Morbidly Obese Patients Exhibit Increased CYP2E1-Mediated Oxidation of Acetaminophen".

    abstract:: ...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 评论,信件


    authors: van Rongen A,Välitalo PAJ,Knibbe CAJ

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00