An update on the pharmacotherapeutic management of lower respiratory tract infections.


INTRODUCTION:Our knowledge about lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) has improved substantially in the last years, but the management of respiratory infections is still a challenge and we are still far from using precision medicine in their treatment. Areas covered: The approaches developed in recent years to improve the pharmacotherapeutic management of LRTIs, such as novel diagnostic assays to facilitate medical decision-making, attempts for selecting an optimal empiric antibiotic regimen, and the role of new and possibly unproven adjunctive therapies, are described. Expert opinion: Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of LRTIs. The updated trend is to apply antimicrobial stewardship principles and initiatives to optimize both the management and the outcomes of LTRIs. Biomarkers, mainly C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT), can improve the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of LRTIs and aid to guide antibiotic therapy. The widespread use of antimicrobial agents has greatly contributed to faster development of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of opportunistic pathogens, which substitute the indigenous microbiota. However, very few new antibiotics in development to overcome existing resistance and ensure continued success in the treatment of LRTIs have been approved, likely because antibiotic stewardship programs discourage the use of new agents.


Cazzola M,Rogliani P,Aliberti S,Blasi F,Matera MG




Has Abstract


2017-07-01 00:00:00












  • Metabolic syndrome management.

    abstract::Overweight, obesity and the metabolic syndrome occur in genetically susceptible individuals with environmental influences, and may be further compounded by other disorders of metabolism or pharmacological therapy that increase insulin resistance or promotes weight gain. Treatment of the metabolic syndrome should focus...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stone NJ,Schmeltz LR

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Imiquimod 3.75% cream (Zyclara) for the treatment of actinic keratoses.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:actinic keratosis is a premalignant disease with a high incidence and is a strong predictor for the development of squamous cell carcinoma. Various treatment options have been established over recent years, including topical treatment with imiquimod, 5-fluorouracil, diclofenac or photodynamic therapy, cryo...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Quist SR,Gollnick HP

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • Dexmethylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Dexmethylphenidate is a single-isomer stimulant medication approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Single-isomer drugs have the potential for decreased undesired effects and improved therapeutic efficacy. Stimulant medications have been the mainstay treatments for ADHD ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coury D

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Antimicrobial treatment of anaerobic infections.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Anaerobes are the most predominant components of normal human skin and mucous membrane bacterial flora and are, therefore, a common cause of endogenous bacterial infections. Because of their fastidious nature, they are difficult to isolate from infectious sites and are often overlooked. Anaerobic infection...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brook I

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Current and future treatments of alopecia areata and trichotillomania in children.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Treatment options for hair disorders are generally very limited. These options are even more limited in children due to the lack of trials and clinical research. Moreover, physicians are sometimes scared to treat children with drugs without safety data, especially because most hair disorders are benign. A...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Iorizzo M,Oranje AP

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacologic treatment of male breast cancer.

    abstract::Male breast cancer is an uncommon condition. It often occurs in settings in which there is an imbalance between androgens and oestrogens. Genetics plays an important role, as many cases are associated with mutations in BRCA2 or other genes. Male breast cancer occurs at an older age than female breast cancer and is fre...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hayes TG

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Abatacept: a novel treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.

    abstract::Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, autoimmune disease that has traditionally been treated with non-biologic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Although these agents have become firmly established as effective RA treatments, some patients do not have an adequate response. The recent appro...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lundquist LM

    更新日期:2007-10-01 00:00:00

  • Antiviral treatment of hepatitis C.

    abstract::Therapy of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may prevent progression to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and end-stage liver disease. The cornerstone of treatment has long been standard IFN-alpha, the use of which was associated with a sustained biochemical and viral response in only a small proportion of patients....

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Toniutto P,Fabris C,Pirisi M

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Amifostine: chemotherapeutic and radiotherapeutic protective effects.

    abstract::Amifostine (Ethyoltrade mark, Alza Pharmaceuticals) is an inorganic thiophosphate cytoprotective agent known chemically as ethanethiol, 2-[3- aminopropyl)amino]dihydrogen phosphate. It is a prodrug of free thiol (WR-1065) that may act as a scavenger of free radicals generated in tissues exposed to cytotoxic drugs and ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Santini V

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sofosbuvir + velpatasvir + voxilaprevir for the treatment of hepatitis C infection.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Hepatitis C is a disease with a significant global impact. Over the last several years, the treatment of the disease has been revolutionized. Therapy has transformed over the last several years with the approval of second generation direct acting antivirals, and currently utilized medications for the treat...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cory TJ,Mu Y,Gong Y,Kodidela S,Kumar S

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Efficacy of mitiglinide and sitagliptin, alone or in combination, on postprandial excursion and glycemic variability assessed by continuous glucose monitoring: a post hoc analysis with single-day treatment.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare the efficacy of mitiglinide and sitagliptin, alone or in combination, on postprandial excursion and glycemic variability assessed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in a single-day treatment setting. METHODS:This was a post hoc analysis of a randomized crossover study comparing the efficacy of...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Baek JH,Jin SM,Kaku K,Jung JA,Kim JR,Ko JW,Kim MJ,Lee SY,Huh WS,Kim JH

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Moxonidine: some controversy.

    abstract::Initially it was considered that moxonidine, like clonidine, acted at central (2)-adrenoceptors to reduce blood pressure. With the characterisation of imidazoline binding sites distinct from (2)-adrenoceptors, the consensus became that moxonidine was acting predominantly at imidazoline I(1) receptors in the rostral ve...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Doggrell SA

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00

  • Valacyclovir for the treatment of Bell's palsy.

    abstract::Despite recent evidence suggesting that Bell's palsy is associated with reactivation of alfa-herpes viruses, the disease has been treated empirically, and the use of valacyclovir has not been definitively established. In 2007, two prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled trials evaluating valacyclovir were reported...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hato N,Sawai N,Teraoka M,Wakisaka H,Takahashi H,Hinohira Y,Gyo K

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Bipolar disorders: new approaches to therapy.

    abstract::This article reviews the evidence supporting different somatic treatment strategies in the acute and maintenance treatment phases of bipolar disorder. Bipolar affective disorder is a chronic disorder with a life time incidence of 0.3 - 1.5/100 [1]. Severe affective disorder is associated with a risk of completed suici...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Watson S,Young AH

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological management of human respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the primary viral cause of respiratory diseases, leading to bronchiolitis and pneumonia in vulnerable populations. The only current treatment against this virus is palliative, and no efficient and specific vaccine against this pathogen is available. AREAS COVERE...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kalergis AM,Soto JA,Gálvez NMS,Andrade CA,Fernandez A,Bohmwald K,Bueno SM

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Colesevelam HCl: a non-systemic lipid-altering drug.

    abstract::Colesevelam HCl (WelChol, Sankyo Pharmaceuticals Inc.) is a bile acid sequestrant polymer, which has been shown to significantly lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol and favourably affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol blood levels in monotherapy and in combination with statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bays H,Dujovne C

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • Short-term medical management of hydrocephalus.

    abstract::Hydrocephalus is an excess accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in or around the brain that can be produced by a broad spectrum of disorders. It can develop at any age and its incidence is increasing, both in infants and adults. Although the standard treatment of hydrocephalus is cerebrospinal fluid shunting, there are...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Poca MA,Sahuquillo J

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacotherapy of helminth infection.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In the first decade of the 21st century, worm infections are still very common, especially--but not exclusively--in the developing world. OBJECTIVE:To review the current pharmacotherapy of the major trematode, cestode and nematode infections of humans. METHODS:A systematic search of the Cochrane Databank o...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van den Enden E

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Current chemotherapy options for thymic epithelial neoplasms.

    abstract::Thymomas and thymic carcinoma are rare neoplasms. Surgical resection is the cornerstone of effective therapy. Stage I disease is effectively treated by complete surgical resection. The role of radiation therapy in completely resected stage II disease remains controversial. Adjuvant radiation therapy is useful for loca...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Papadopoulos KP,Thomas CR Jr

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Drug-eluting stents for acute myocardial infarction.

    abstract::This is a review of the literature comparing the efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents (DES) versus bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). The present article reviews whether DES are beneficial in the setting of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and this has bee...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yeter E,Kurt M,Silay Y,Anderson HV,Denktas AE

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Seborrhoeic dermatitis: current treatment practices.

    abstract::Seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) is a recurrent, chronic inflammation of the skin that occurs on sebum rich areas such as the face, scalp and chest, characterised by red scaly lesions. The are many studies indicating that Malassezia yeasts play an important role in the aetiology of this condition, most of the evidence for ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gupta AK,Kogan N

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment options for esophageal cancer.

    abstract::There is considerable controversy over the level of evidence from randomized trials underpinning management decisions for patients presenting with localized cancer of the esophagus and esophago-gastric junction. There is also an optimism that new drugs and new approaches, including response prediction based on sequent...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Murphy TJ,Ravi N,Reynolds JV

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic management of psychodermatological disorders.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The skin and the brain interact through psychoneuroimmunoendocrine mechanisms and through behaviors that can strongly influence the initiation or flaring of skin disorders. OBJECTIVE:To obtain knowledge of these factors to assist in designing treatment plans for specific skin disorders. METHODS:Psychocutan...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shenefelt PD

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacotherapy of retinal disease with visual cycle modulators.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Pharmacotherapy with visual cycle modulators (VCMs) is under investigation for retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), Stargardt macular dystrophy (SMD) and nonexudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), all blinding diseases that lack effective treatment options. AREAS COVERED:...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hussain RM,Gregori NZ,Ciulla TA,Lam BL

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected persons.

    abstract::Accumulating evidence suggests that HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This risk seems to be at least partially mediated by dyslipidaemia, which is related to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). As HIV-infected individuals live longer due to HAART, their card...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Manuel O,Thiébaut R,Darioli R,Tarr PE

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • An update on pharmacological treatment of erectile dysfunction with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-i) are used for the oral treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). Since the launch of sildenafil more than 15 years ago, new molecules have become available. At present, in addition to tadalafil and vardenafil, there are three other drugs, udenafil, avanafil and mir...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bruzziches R,Francomano D,Gareri P,Lenzi A,Aversa A

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • The pharmacogenetics of analgesia.

    abstract::Genomic variations influencing response to pharmacotherapy of pain are under investigation. Candidate genes such as (opioid)-receptors, transporters and other molecules important for pharmacotherapy are discussed. Drug metabolising enzymes represent a further major target of ongoing research in order to identify assoc...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stamer UM,Stüber F

    更新日期:2007-10-01 00:00:00

  • Current approaches to therapy for vascular injury.

    abstract::Vascular injury is a ubiquitous phenomenon which can be both occult (such as with hyperlipidemia) and overt (such as with angioplasty). While the exact pathophysiology differs between acute and chronic atherosclerosis, both lesions can be mechanistically explained by the vasculature's exaggerated response to injury. P...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Selzman CH

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

  • Quetiapine for the treatment of acute bipolar mania, mixed episodes and maintenance therapy.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Bipolar disorder is characterized by mood instability, which can be challenging to manage. First-line pharmacological approaches usually involve lithium, anticonvulsants and antipsychotics. Over the past fifteen years, several second-generation antipsychotics have demonstrated benefits for various phases o...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Janicak PG,Rado JT

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • New phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    abstract::Sildenafil revolutionised the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) on its introduction in 1998. Not only is it effective, but is, perhaps even more importantly, an extremely acceptable manner in which to treat ED (i.e., oral pharmacotherapy), compared to the other treatments that were available at that time (e.g., i...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Anderson PC,Gommersall L,Hayne D,Arya M,Patel HR

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00