The mechanisms tumor cells utilize to evade the host's immune system.


:The immune system plays an essential role in the tumor progression; not only can it inhibit tumor growth but it can also promote tumor growth by establishing a favorable environment. Tumor cells utilize several strategies to evade the host's immune system, including expression of immunosuppressive molecules such as PD-L1, IDO and siglec-9. In addition, tumor cells not only regulate the recruitment and development of immunosuppressive forces to influence the tumor microenvironment but also shift the phenotype and function of normal immune cells from a possibly anti-tumor state to a pro-tumor state. As a result, tumor cells evade the host's immune system, leading to metastasis and/or recurrent disease.






Kuol N,Stojanovska L,Nurgali K,Apostolopoulos V




Has Abstract


2017-11-01 00:00:00












  • Current perspectives on the benefits of HRT in menopausal women.

    abstract:AIMS:Women in the West can now expect to live one third of their life in a postmenopausal state, and consequently in a state of estrogen deficiency. This can have a number of consequences, and many women suffer vasomotor symptoms during the climacteric. Estrogen deficiency can also result in changes to the skin, hair, ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Palacios S

    更新日期:1999-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of conjugated estrogens with and without medrogestone: a prospective study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To study the possible changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins during hormone replacement therapy with special emphasis on the possible effects brought about by the progestogen. DESIGN:Open-label randomized prospective comparative study. SETTING:Gynecological outpatient department of an university hospital....


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: van der Mooren MJ,Leuven JA,Rolland R

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term compliance of continuous combined estrogen and progestogen replacement in postmenopausal women.

    abstract::The occurrence of uterine bleeding usually associated with hormonal replacement therapy is not acceptable for many women. Our objective was to review data on compliance and bleeding patterns in 70 postmenopausal women on oral replacement with estradiol 2 mg, estriol 1 mg, and norethisterone acetate 1 mg daily administ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dören M,Schneider HP

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • Adrenocortical steroids, bone mineral content and endometrial condition in post-menopausal women.

    abstract::In 23 post-menopausal women, serum levels of cortisol, unconjugated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS), testosterone, unconjugated and total oestrone and prolactin were measured before and during an ACTH test. Significant positive correlations were found between basal levels of DHA an...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brody S,Carlström K,Lagrelius A,Lunell NO,Rosenborg L

    更新日期:1982-08-01 00:00:00

  • The association between fear of falling and motor imagery abilities in older community-dwelling individuals.

    abstract::We investigated the association between fear of falling (FoF) and motor imagery (MI) abilities in older people. Cross-sectional data from 3552 French older adults were used to conduct a multiple linear regression analysis looking at the association between FoF and MI abilities after controlling for several factors (e....


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grenier S,Richard-Devantoy S,Nadeau A,Payette MC,Benyebdri F,Duhaime MB,Gunther B,Beauchet O

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Bone metabolism during the perimenopausal transition: a prospective study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Changes in biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption were followed over the course of 1 year in premenopausal, perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women. METHODS:Sixty-four subjects were analyzed, grouped according to their menstrual pattern, menopausal complaints and endocrinological paramete...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seifert-Klauss V,Mueller JE,Luppa P,Probst R,Wilker J,Höss C,Treumann T,Kastner C,Ulm K

    更新日期:2002-01-30 00:00:00

  • Multiple sclerosis at menopause: Potential neuroprotective effects of estrogen.

    abstract::Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating and neurodegenerative condition of the central nervous system that preferentially afflicts women more than men. Low estrogen states such as menopause and the postpartum period favor exacerbations of multiple sclerosis in women with the disease. Existing and emergi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Christianson MS,Mensah VA,Shen W

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Conjugated estrogen/progestagen versus tibolone hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: Effects on carbohydrate metabolism and serum sex hormone-binding globulin.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of different types of continuous hormone replacement therapy on carbohydrate metabolism. METHOD:Postmenopausal women were treated with conjugated estrogens, 0.625 mg/medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5 or 5 mg (CEE/MPA) or tibolone 2.5 mg daily for 13 28-day cycles. Serum glucose and insuli...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Odmark IS,Carlström K,Jonsson B,Jonasson AF

    更新日期:2006-01-10 00:00:00

  • Clinical characteristics and the risk for malignancy in postmenopausal women with adnexal torsion.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare clinical characteristics and management of adnexal torsion in postmenopausal patients as compared to premenopausal ones. METHODS:A retrospective 22 year cohort of all cases of surgically verified adnexal torsion in postmenopausal and premenopausal patients, comparing presentation, imaging, surgica...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ganer Herman H,Shalev A,Ginath S,Kerner R,Keidar R,Bar J,Sagiv R

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Hormonal replacement regimens and bleeding.

    abstract::Hormone replacement therapy may increase the quality of life of postmenopausal women. Any regimen need to offer long-term endometrial safety. It is a standard to consider the co-administration of a sequential progestogen when estrogen replacement should be initiated in non-hysterectomized women. It is almost impossibl...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dören M

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • A longitudinal study of the effects of menopause on sexuality.

    abstract::From an initial group of 39, 16 cycling peri-menopausal women completed a longitudinal study in which they recorded menstrual and sexual behavior daily and were interviewed at roughly 4-mth intervals until 1 yr or more without cycling. At each interview women gave 20-ml blood samples, completed sexuality questionnaire...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McCoy NL,Davidson JM

    更新日期:1985-09-01 00:00:00

  • Barriers and facilitators for male carers in accessing formal and informal support: A systematic review.

    abstract::Unpaid, informal carers play a vital role in supporting people with long-term conditions. Being a carer can be challenging and carers may need support but they frequently fail to access it. Compared to research investigating the experiences of female carers, research with male carers is underdeveloped. The available e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Greenwood N,Smith R

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Patients with osteoporosis prefer once weekly to once daily dosing with alendronate.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Once weekly dosing of alendronate has been shown to provide equivalent efficacy to once daily dosing for treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Whether patients will prefer weekly dosing to daily dosing for a chronic condition such as osteoporosis has not been studied. The aim of this internation...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Kendler D,Kung AW,Fuleihan Gel-H,González González JG,Gaines KA,Verbruggen N,Melton ME

    更新日期:2004-07-15 00:00:00

  • Plasma androstenedione and oestrone levels in the climacteric syndrome.

    abstract::Plasma androstenedione (A) and oestrone (E1) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in a group of 78 healthy women who had undergone a natural menopause. Of this total, 23 were symptomless (Group 1), 39 presented with a moderate climacteric syndrome (Group 2) and 16 had a severe climacteric syndrome (Group 3). The a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mango D,Scirpa P,Battaglia F,Bini E

    更新日期:1984-04-01 00:00:00

  • Ovarian cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers: The impact of mutation position and family history on the cancer risk.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Assessing the combined impact of mutation position, regarding the ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR), and type of cancer family history (FH) on age-related penetrance of ovarian cancer (OC) in women from BRCA1/2 families from the northern Netherlands. STUDY DESIGN:A consecutive series of 1763 mutation car...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Teixeira N,Mourits MJ,Vos JR,Kolk DM,Jansen L,Oosterwijk JC,Bock GH

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing predictors of sexual function in mid-aged sexually active women.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess predictors of sexual function in mid-aged women. METHODS:We analyzed data of 262 healthy sexually active women (40-59 years) who filled out the Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and a general questionnaire containing female/partner data. Correlations between t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chedraui P,Pérez-López FR,Mezones-Holguin E,San Miguel G,Avila C,Collaborative Group for Research of the Climacteric in Latin America (REDLINC).

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Endometrial thickness assessed by transvaginal ultrasound insufficiently predicts occurrence of hyperplasia during unopposed oestrogen use.

    abstract::In the present study, unopposed oestrogens were given to 184 non-hysterectomized women, for a duration varying from four weeks to 24 months, while the endometrial responses were monitored by transvaginal sonography (TVS) and backed up by endometrial sampling (conducted when the endometrial thickness reached 8 mm (doub...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meuwissen JH,Oddens BJ,Klinkhamer PJ

    更新日期:1996-05-01 00:00:00

  • Tibolone: a review.

    abstract::Tibolone appears to be at least as efficacious as other forms of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) on climacteric symptoms. It does not cause withdrawal bleeding when used in women with at least 1 year of amenorrhea. It is, therefore, not indicated in perimenopause because it may cause irregular bleeding. The androge...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Albertazzi P,Di Micco R,Zanardi E

    更新日期:1998-11-16 00:00:00

  • Lifestyle and health factors associated with stress urinary incontinence in Japanese women.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Studies focusing on lifestyle and health factors and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) are scarce in Japan. The aim of this study is to examine the association of lifestyle and health factors in SUI. METHODS:Study subjects were retrieved from Japanese women participating in a health checkup program provided...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Masue T,Wada K,Nagata C,Deguchi T,Hayashi M,Takeda N,Yasuda K

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical audit of estradiol implant therapy: Long duration of action and implications in non-hysterectomised women.

    abstract::We audited the files of 114 postmenopausal women who had been treated with subcutaneous Estrapel (50mg oestradiol implants). Of the 92 women who received more than one implant, the median number of days between implants was 223.5 (range 49-875), with an estimated median time to return to baseline of 311days (range 108...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wheatley S,Bell RJ,Stuckey BG,Robinson PJ,Davis SR

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Climacteric symptoms in a postmenopausal Czech population.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To assess the prevalence of climacteric symptoms and the use of hormone replacement therapy in a former eastern European country. All 55-, 57-, 59- and 61-year-old women in Kladno in the Czech Republic were asked to participate in the study. METHOD:In 1993, 1505 women in Kladno of the Czech Republic were se...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nedstrand E,Pertl J,Hammar M

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive behavior therapy for menopausal hot flashes: two case reports.

    abstract::Two case reports of women treated with an individual cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for menopausal hot flashes are presented. Both women reported substantial improvements in the number of hot flashes experienced as well as in their quality of life as measured by the Menopause Quality of Life Scale (MENQOL), the ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allen LA,Dobkin RD,Boohar EM,Woolfolk RL

    更新日期:2006-04-20 00:00:00

  • A case-control study of endometrial cancer within a cohort.

    abstract::In a population-based prospective study it was shown that weight, height, overweight, total body size, age at first birth, parity and age at menopause are risk factors for the development of endometrial cancer. The finding that the patients had had a higher oestrogen excretion level than the controls some time before ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baanders-van Halewijn EA,Poortman J

    更新日期:1985-05-01 00:00:00

  • Undiagnosing to prevent overprescribing.

    abstract::Health care focuses on controlling symptoms and managing risk factors to improve survival by avoiding future complications. Diagnoses describe a group of signs and symptoms, often implying specific aetiologies and underlying pathophysiological disease processes. The diagnosis provides a tool for the health professiona...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Page A,Etherton-Beer C

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Bone metabolism regulators and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteopontin (OPN) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) are markers of bone metabolism but they are also involved in vascular calcification. However, their precise role is not completely understood. Arterial stiffness is considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and it may be...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Albu A,Fodor D,Bondor C,Crăciun AM

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Endometrial morphology after 12 months of vaginal oestriol therapy in post-menopausal women.

    abstract::The endometrial effect of long-term vaginal oestriol (E3) therapy for urogenital atrophy was assessed in 23 post-menopausal women. Hysteroscopic and histological examinations were performed in each patient to assess endometrial atrophy before treatment and after 6 and 12 months of therapy (0.5 mg vaginal E3 for 21 day...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gerbaldo D,Ferraiolo A,Croce S,Truini M,Capitanio GL

    更新日期:1991-10-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of postmenopausal Vitamin D treatment on vaginal atrophy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the efficacy of Vitamin D for relieving vaginal atrophy. METHODS:In our cross-sectional study, 60 eligible women were consecutively identified among patients who were followed in physical medicine and rehabilitation's outpatient clinic, during the period March June 2001. The sample consisted of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yildirim B,Kaleli B,Düzcan E,Topuz O

    更新日期:2004-12-10 00:00:00

  • Facial wrinkling in postmenopausal women. Effects of smoking status and hormone replacement therapy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is some evidence that hormone replacement therapy may produce significant improvements in fine wrinkling, while aging skin is more frequently found in smokers. However, studies of the combined effect of a protective factor, such as HRT, and a damaging factor, such as smoking, are rare. OBJECTIVES:To d...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Castelo-Branco C,Figueras F,Martínez de Osaba MJ,Vanrell JA

    更新日期:1998-05-20 00:00:00

  • The effects of hormone replacement therapy on plasma lipids in type II diabetes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The effects of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type II diabetes) is uncertain. METHODS:The effects of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT, conjugated equine estrogen0.625mg orally daily), combined estrogen and con...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Manwaring P,Morfis L,Diamond T,Howes LG

    更新日期:2000-03-31 00:00:00

  • Predictive factors for age at menopause in Caucasian females.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Early onset of menopause results in the premature exposure to low estrogen levels and is associated with a number of postmenopausal health problems and higher risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to determine genetic and environmental factors associated with age at natural and surgical menopause. MET...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dvornyk V,Long JR,Liu PY,Zhao LJ,Shen H,Recker RR,Deng HW

    更新日期:2006-04-20 00:00:00