A critique of the principle of 'respect for autonomy', grounded in African thought.


:I give an account how the principle of 'respect for autonomy' dominates the field of bioethics, and how it came to triumph over its competitors, 'respect for persons' and 'respect for free power of choice'. I argue that 'respect for autonomy' is unsatisfactory as a basic principle of bioethics because it is grounded in too individualistic a worldview, citing concerns of African theorists and other communitarians who claim that the principle fails to acknowledge the fundamental importance of understanding persons within the nexus of their communal relationships. I defend the claim that 'respect for persons' is a more appropriate principle, as it is able to acknowledge both individual decision making and the essential relationality of persons. I acknowledge that my preference for 'respect for persons' is problematic because of the important debate around the definition of 'personhood' in bioethics discourse. Relying on Thaddeus Metz's conception of moral status, I propose a relational definition of personhood that distinguishes between persons with agency and persons without agency, arguing that we have different moral obligations to these distinct categories of persons. I claim that this conception of personhood is better able to accommodate our moral intuitions than conventional approaches, and that it is able to do so without being speciesist or question-begging.


Dev World Bioeth


Behrens KG




Has Abstract


2018-06-01 00:00:00












  • Ethical considerations in African traditional medicine: a response to Nyika.

    abstract::Like other so-called 'parallel' practices in medicine, traditional medicine (TM) does not avoid criticism or even rejection. Nyika's article 'Ethical and Regulatory Issues Surrounding African Traditional Medicine in the Context of HIV/AIDS' looks at some of the issues from a traditional Western ethical perspective and...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: van Bogaert DK

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Understanding Health Research Ethics in Nepal.

    abstract::Unlike other countries in South Asia, in Nepal research in the health sector has a relatively recent history. Most health research activities in the country are sponsored by international collaborative assemblages of aid agencies and universities. Data from Nepal Health Research Council shows that, officially, 1,212 h...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharma JR,Khatri R,Harper I

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Off-shoring clinical research: exploitation and the reciprocity constraint.

    abstract::The last 20 years have seen a staggering growth in the practice of off-shoring clinical research to low-and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs), a growth that has been matched by the neoliberal policies adopted by host countries towards attracting trials to their shores. A recurring concern in this context is the ...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mitra AG

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Investigating assumptions of vulnerability: A case study of the exclusion of psychiatric inpatients as participants in genetic research in low- and middle-income contexts.

    abstract::Psychiatric genetic research investigates the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders with the aim of more effectively understanding, treating, or, ultimately, preventing such disorders. Given the challenges of recruiting research participants into such studies, the potential for long-term benefits of such research, an...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Palk AC,Bitta M,Kamaara E,Stein DJ,Singh I

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • The therapeutic exception: abortion, sterilization and medical necessity in Costa Rica.

    abstract::Based on the case of Rosa, a nine-year-old girl who was denied a therapeutic abortion, this article analyzes the role played by the social in medical practice. For that purpose, it compares the different application of two similar pieces of legislation in Costa Rica, where both the practice of abortion and sterilizati...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carranza M

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Rights of and duties to non-consenting patients--informed refusal in the developing world.

    abstract::The principle of informed refusal poses a specific problem when it is invoked by a pregnant woman who, in spite of having accepted her pregnancy, refuses the diagnostic and/or therapeutic measures that would ensure the well-being of her endangered fetus. Guidelines issued by professional bodies in the developed world ...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Bogaert LJ

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Considerations for stakeholder engagement and COVID-19 related clinical trials' conduct in sub-Saharan Africa.

    abstract::The aim of this study is to determine how stakeholder engagement can be adapted for the conduct of COVID-19-related clinical trials in sub-Saharan Africa. Nine essential stakeholder engagement practices were reviewed: formative research; stakeholder engagement plan; communications and issues management plan; protocol ...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Folayan MO,Brown B,Haire B,Babalola CP,Ndembi N

    更新日期:2020-08-15 00:00:00

  • Fair trade international surrogacy.

    abstract::Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less th...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Humbyrd C

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Participated without consent: Mandatory authorization of government database for secondary use.

    abstract::Compared with data that is initially collected for research purposes, the mandatory authorization of a government database for secondary use deserves greater scrutiny because it consists of information that is collected initially for administrative purposes. Using the case of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) D...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yeh MJ

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Fairness and equity in the provision of anti-retroviral therapy: some reflections from Lesotho.

    abstract::The number of people in immediate need of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in the southern African region continues to significantly exceed the capacity of health systems there to provide it. Approaches to this complex rationing dilemma have evolved in different directions. The ethical concepts of fairness and equity h...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Armstrong R

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Module six: special issues.

    abstract::The objective of this module is to cover ground that was not covered in-depth in any of the other modules, including: scientific misconduct, issues concerning the publication and ownership of research results (authorship guidelines - who is eligible to be considered an author, or contributor to a scientific paper etc....

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schneider B,Schüklenk U

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Four forward-looking guidance points.

    abstract::Four key guidance points in the UNAIDS guidance document, Ethical Considerations in HIV Preventive Vaccine Research, are compared with analogous statements in three other recently issued documents dealing with international research. Those documents are: the Declaration of Helsinki, as revised in 2000; the report of t...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Macklin R

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • A Scoping Study on the Ethics of Health Systems Research.

    abstract::Currently, health systems research (HSR) is reviewed by the same ethical standards as clinical research, which has recently been argued in the literature to be an inappropriate standard of evaluation. The issues unique to HSR warrant a different review by research ethics committees (RECs), as it does not impose the sa...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bachani AM,Rattani A,Hyder AA

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Animal research ethics in Africa: is Tanzania making progress?

    abstract::The significance of animals in research cannot be over-emphasized. The use of animals for research and training in research centres, hospitals and schools is progressively increasing. Advances in biotechnology to improve animal productivity require animal research. Drugs being developed and new interventions or therap...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seth M,Saguti F

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Opinions of researchers based in the UK on recruiting subjects from developing countries into randomized controlled trials.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Explaining technical terms in consent forms prior to seeking informed consent to recruit into trials can be challenging in developing countries, and more so when the studies are randomized controlled trials. This study was carried out to examine the opinions of researchers on ways of dealing with these chall...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Newton SK,Appiah-Poku J

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Because we can: clashes of perspective over researcher obligation in the failed PrEP trials.

    abstract::This article examines the relationship between bioethics and the therapeutic standards in HIV prevention research in the developing world, focusing on the closure of the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials in the early 2000s. I situate the PrEP trials in the historical context of the vertical transmission debates o...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haire BG

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Emerging technologies and developing countries: stem cell research regulation and Argentina.

    abstract::Given its intimate relationship with the human body and its environment, biotechnology innovation, and more particularly stem cell research innovations as a part thereof, implicate diverse social and moral/ethical issues. This paper explores some of the most important and controversial moral concerns raised by human e...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harmon SH

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Prioritising Healthcare Workers for Ebola Treatment: Treating Those at Greatest Risk to Confer Greatest Benefit.

    abstract::The Ebola epidemic in Western Africa has highlighted issues related to weak health systems, the politics of drug and vaccine development and the need for transparent and ethical criteria for use of scarce local and global resources during public health emergency. In this paper we explore two key themes. First, we argu...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Satalkar P,Elger BE,Shaw DM

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cultural conundrums: the ethics of epidemiology and the problems of population in implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    abstract::The impending implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has prompted complicated bioethical and public health ethics concerns regarding the moral distribution of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) to ostensibly healthy populations as a form of HIV prevention when millions of HIV-positive people still lack acces...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fiereck K

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Research Ethics Education in Post-Graduate Medical Curricula in I.R. Iran.

    abstract::Research ethics training during post-graduate education is necessary to improve ethical standards in the design and conduct of biomedical research. We studied quality and quantity of research ethics training in the curricula of post-graduate programs in the medical science in I.R. Iran. We evaluated curricula of 125 p...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nikravanfard N,Khorasanizadeh F,Zendehdel K

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Provision of community-wide benefits in public health intervention research: the experience of investigators conducting research in the community setting in South Asia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This article describes the types of community-wide benefits provided by investigators conducting public health research in South Asia as well as their self-reported reasons for providing such benefits. METHODS:We conducted 52 in-depth interviews to explore how public health investigators in low-resource set...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taylor HA,Merritt MW

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Community members' engagement with and involvement in genomic research: lessons to learn from the field.

    abstract::In this paper, we describe the potential role laypersons on ethics committees can play in ensuring community concerns are addressed in the design and implementation of genomic research. We draw inferences from the outcome of an empirical study of the impact of training of laypersons to address community engagement iss...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Folayan MO,Oyedeji KS,Fatusi OA

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Stem cell tourism and future stem cell tourists: policy and ethical implications.

    abstract::Stem cell tourism is a small but growing part of the thriving global medical tourism marketplace. Much stem cell research remains at the experimental stage, with clinical trials still uncommon. However, there are over 700 clinics estimated to be operating in mostly developing countries--from Costa Rica and Argentina t...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Einsiedel EF,Adamson H

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • International service learning programs: ethical issues and recommendations.

    abstract::Inequities in global health are increasingly of interest to health care providers in developed countries. In response, many academic healthcare programs have begun to offer international service learning programs. Participants in these programs are motivated by ethical principles, but this type of work presents signif...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reisch RA

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Unesco's proposed Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights - a bland compromise.

    abstract::The latest (June 2005) draft of UNESCO's proposed Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights is a major disappointment. The committee of government 'experts' that produced it made sure that it would not introduce any new obligations for States, and so the document simply restates existing agreements and lists...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williams JR

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

  • A Look at Uganda's Early HIV Prevention Strategies Through a Moderate 'African' Communitarian Lens.

    abstract::This paper seeks to highlight the benefits of prioritizing moderate African communitarian principles as partly demonstrated in the HIV prevention strategies implemented in Uganda in the late 1980s. Pertinent lessons could be drawn so as to achieve the HIV prevention targets envisioned in the post-2015 development era....

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wathuta J

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Do aid agencies have an ethical duty to comply with researchers? A response to Rennie.

    abstract::Medical AID organisations such as Médecins Sans Frontières receive several requests from individuals and international academic institutions to conduct research at their implementation sites in Africa. Do AID agencies have an ethical duty to comply with research requests? In this paper we respond to the views and cons...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Zachariah R,Janssens V,Ford N

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Evolution of research ethics in a low resource setting: A case for Uganda.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The globalization of clinical research in the last two decades has led to a significant increase in the volume of clinical research in developing countries. As of 2016, Uganda was the third largest destination for clinical trials in Africa. This requires adequate capacity and systems to facilitate ethical pr...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Ochieng J,Mwaka E,Kwagala B,Sewankambo N

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Factors Affecting Women's Autonomous Decision Making In Research Participation Amongst Yoruba Women Of Western Nigeria.

    abstract::Research is a global enterprise requiring participation of both genders for generalizable knowledge; advancement of science and evidence based medical treatment. Participation of women in research is necessary to reduce the current bias that most empirical evidence is obtained from studies with men to inform health ca...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Princewill CW,Jegede AS,Nordström K,Lanre-Abass B,Elger BS

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring the organisational context of research misconduct in higher learning institutions in Malaysia.

    abstract::Due to the financial pressure caused by cutbacks in funding and the race to achieve higher university rankings, researchers are competing for limited funds. These funds enable researchers to contribute to the scientific enterprise and to secure better positions. Given this pressure, there is a need to understand how a...

    journal_title:Developing world bioethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Olesen AP,Amin L,Mahadi Z,Ibrahim M

    更新日期:2020-11-10 00:00:00