Spatial distribution of cellular protein binding to retinoic acid in the chick limb bud.


:Retinoic acid may be the natural morphogen used to generate digit pattern in the chick limb bud. It has been proposed that retinoic acid acts by binding to a cellular retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP) and then entering the nucleus to alter the pattern of gene activity. High-affinity receptors that bind both retinoic acid and DNA and are analogous to the steroid receptors have been identified. But the concentration of endogenous retinoic acid in the limb and the binding coefficient of the nuclear receptors indicate that they are saturated throughout the limb. Here we investigate the CRABP distribution in the developing chick limb bud. We find CRABP in the area of intense morphogenetic activity at the tip, with a differential distribution across the anteroposterior axis, the high point being at the anterior margin. Retinoic acid also forms a concentration gradient across the limb bud, but is highest on the posterior side. We propose that CRABP could be reducing the effective concentration of retinoic acid reaching the nucleus to a level appropriate for the differential regulation of gene transcription, providing a spatially modulated morphogenetic gradient of information for digit formation.






Maden M,Ong DE,Summerbell D,Chytil F




Has Abstract


1988-10-20 00:00:00














  • Emergence of a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate from a Fermi gas.

    abstract::The realization of superfluidity in a dilute gas of fermionic atoms, analogous to superconductivity in metals, represents a long-standing goal of ultracold gas research. In such a fermionic superfluid, it should be possible to adjust the interaction strength and tune the system continuously between two limits: a Barde...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Greiner M,Regal CA,Jin DS

    更新日期:2003-12-04 00:00:00

  • Embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines derived from single mouse blastomeres.

    abstract::The most basic objection to human embryonic stem (ES) cell research is rooted in the fact that ES cell derivation deprives embryos of any further potential to develop into a complete human being. ES cell lines are conventionally isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts and, in a few instances, from cleavage st...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chung Y,Klimanskaya I,Becker S,Marh J,Lu SJ,Johnson J,Meisner L,Lanza R

    更新日期:2006-01-12 00:00:00

  • Firing patterns of motor units in normal rats.

    abstract::Skeletal muscles consist of motor units which may differ considerably in contractile properties and types of usage. Some units participate mainly in relatively rare, quick movements and contract rapidly and are easily fatigued (type FF); others contribute to the maintenance of posture and hence contract slowly and are...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hennig R,Lømo T

    更新日期:1985-03-14 00:00:00

  • The PIE-1 protein and germline specification in C. elegans embryos.

    abstract::Totipotent germline blastomeres in Caenorhabditis elegans contain, but do not respond to, factors that promote somatic differentiation in other embryonic cells. Mutations in the maternal gene pie-1 result in the germline blastomeres adopting somatic cell fates. Here we show that pie-1 encodes a nuclear protein, PIE-1,...


    pub_type: 信件


    authors: Mello CC,Schubert C,Draper B,Zhang W,Lobel R,Priess JR

    更新日期:1996-08-22 00:00:00

  • Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gao F,Bailes E,Robertson DL,Chen Y,Rodenburg CM,Michael SF,Cummins LB,Arthur LO,Peeters M,Shaw GM,Sharp PM,Hahn BH

    更新日期:1999-02-04 00:00:00

  • Modulation of the two promoters of the galactose operon of Escherichia coli.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adhya S,Miller W

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  • Gene conversion between duplicated genetic elements in yeast.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jackson JA,Fink GR

    更新日期:1981-07-23 00:00:00

  • Monophyletic origin of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1988-02-04 00:00:00

  • Amyloidogenic role of cytokine TGF-beta1 in transgenic mice and in Alzheimer's disease.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • How a simple 'thank you' could improve clinical trials.

    abstract:: ...


    pub_type: 社论



    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hall C,Tharakan P,Hallock J,Cleveland C,Jefferson M

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    authors: Pavelka N,Rancati G,Zhu J,Bradford WD,Saraf A,Florens L,Sanderson BW,Hattem GL,Li R

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hartung S,Jaenisch R,Breindl M

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu L,Furukawa S,Middlebrooks JC

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  • Therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule GS-5734 against Ebola virus in rhesus monkeys.

    abstract::The most recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, which was unprecedented in the number of cases and fatalities, geographic distribution, and number of nations affected, highlights the need for safe, effective, and readily available antiviral agents for treatment and prevention of acute Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Warren TK,Jordan R,Lo MK,Ray AS,Mackman RL,Soloveva V,Siegel D,Perron M,Bannister R,Hui HC,Larson N,Strickley R,Wells J,Stuthman KS,Van Tongeren SA,Garza NL,Donnelly G,Shurtleff AC,Retterer CJ,Gharaibeh D,Zamani R

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ponder BA

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lau JA,Chen L,Choudhury A,Schwarzer D,Verma VB,Wodtke AM

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Robertis EM,Sasai Y

    更新日期:1996-03-07 00:00:00