The credibility crisis in research: Can economics tools help?


:The issue of nonreplicable evidence has attracted considerable attention across biomedical and other sciences. This concern is accompanied by an increasing interest in reforming research incentives and practices. How to optimally perform these reforms is a scientific problem in itself, and economics has several scientific methods that can help evaluate research reforms. Here, we review these methods and show their potential. Prominent among them are mathematical modeling and laboratory experiments that constitute affordable ways to approximate the effects of policies with wide-ranging implications.


PLoS Biol


PLoS biology


Gall T,Ioannidis JPA,Maniadis Z




Has Abstract


2017-04-26 00:00:00














  • Feminizer and doublesex knock-outs cause honey bees to switch sexes.

    abstract::Honey bees are experts at refuting societal norms. Their matriarchal hives are headed by queens, backed by an all-female workforce, and males die soon after copulation. But the biochemical basis of how these distinct castes and sexes (queens, workers, and drones) arise is poorly understood, partly due to a lack of eff...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: McAfee A,Pettis JS,Tarpy DR,Foster LJ

    更新日期:2019-05-06 00:00:00

  • CEP290 is essential for the initiation of ciliary transition zone assembly.

    abstract::Cilia play critical roles during embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Dysfunction of cilia leads to various human genetic diseases, including many caused by defects in transition zones (TZs), the "gates" of cilia. The evolutionarily conserved TZ component centrosomal protein 290 (CEP290) is the most frequently...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu Z,Pang N,Zhang Y,Chen H,Peng Y,Fu J,Wei Q

    更新日期:2020-12-28 00:00:00

  • A non-natural nucleotide uses a specific pocket to selectively inhibit telomerase activity.

    abstract::Telomerase, a unique reverse transcriptase that specifically extends the ends of linear chromosomes, is up-regulated in the vast majority of cancer cells. Here, we show that an indole nucleotide analog, 5-methylcarboxyl-indolyl-2'-deoxyriboside 5'-triphosphate (5-MeCITP), functions as an inhibitor of telomerase activi...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hernandez-Sanchez W,Huang W,Plucinsky B,Garcia-Vazquez N,Robinson NJ,Schiemann WP,Berdis AJ,Skordalakes E,Taylor DJ

    更新日期:2019-04-05 00:00:00

  • GPCRs Direct Germline Development and Somatic Gonad Function in Planarians.

    abstract::Planarians display remarkable plasticity in maintenance of their germline, with the ability to develop or dismantle reproductive tissues in response to systemic and environmental cues. Here, we investigated the role of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in this dynamic germline regulation. By genome-enabled receptor ...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saberi A,Jamal A,Beets I,Schoofs L,Newmark PA

    更新日期:2016-05-10 00:00:00

  • Combinatorial mutagenesis of rapidly evolving residues yields super-restrictor antiviral proteins.

    abstract::Antagonistic interactions drive host-virus evolutionary arms races, which often manifest as recurrent amino acid changes (i.e., positive selection) at their protein-protein interaction interfaces. Here, we investigated whether combinatorial mutagenesis of positions under positive selection in a host antiviral protein ...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Colón-Thillet R,Hsieh E,Graf L,McLaughlin RN Jr,Young JM,Kochs G,Emerman M,Malik HS

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Adaptation to Temporally Fluctuating Environments by the Evolution of Maternal Effects.

    abstract::All organisms live in temporally fluctuating environments. Theory predicts that the evolution of deterministic maternal effects (i.e., anticipatory maternal effects or transgenerational phenotypic plasticity) underlies adaptation to environments that fluctuate in a predictably alternating fashion over maternal-offspri...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dey S,Proulx SR,Teotónio H

    更新日期:2016-02-24 00:00:00

  • Ethoscopes: An open platform for high-throughput ethomics.

    abstract::Here, we present the use of ethoscopes, which are machines for high-throughput analysis of behavior in Drosophila and other animals. Ethoscopes provide a software and hardware solution that is reproducible and easily scalable. They perform, in real-time, tracking and profiling of behavior by using a supervised machine...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Geissmann Q,Garcia Rodriguez L,Beckwith EJ,French AS,Jamasb AR,Gilestro GF

    更新日期:2017-10-19 00:00:00

  • Simple nutrients bypass the requirement for HLH-30 in coupling lysosomal nutrient sensing to survival.

    abstract::Lysosomes are ubiquitous acidified organelles that degrade intracellular and extracellular material trafficked via multiple pathways. Lysosomes also sense cellular nutrient levels to regulate target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase, a signaling enzyme that drives growth and suppresses activity of the MiT/TFE family of transc...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murphy JT,Liu H,Ma X,Shaver A,Egan BM,Oh C,Boyko A,Mazer T,Ang S,Khopkar R,Javaheri A,Kumar S,Jiang X,Ory D,Mani K,Matkovich SJ,Kornfeld K,Diwan A

    更新日期:2019-05-14 00:00:00

  • Diverse modes of axon elaboration in the developing neocortex.

    abstract::The development of axonal arbors is a critical step in the establishment of precise neural circuits, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms of axonal elaboration in the neocortex. We used in vivo two-photon time-lapse microscopy to image axons in the neocortex of green fluorescent protein-transgenic mice ...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Portera-Cailliau C,Weimer RM,De Paola V,Caroni P,Svoboda K

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of traits and functional connectivity-based neurotraits of chronic pain.

    abstract::Psychological and personality factors, socioeconomic status, and brain properties all contribute to chronic pain but have essentially been studied independently. Here, we administered a broad battery of questionnaires to patients with chronic back pain (CBP) and collected repeated sessions of resting-state functional ...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vachon-Presseau E,Berger SE,Abdullah TB,Griffith JW,Schnitzer TJ,Apkarian AV

    更新日期:2019-08-20 00:00:00

  • Do plants have a segregated germline?

    abstract::For the last 100 years, it has been uncontroversial to state that the plant germline is set aside late in development, but there is surprisingly little evidence to support this view. In contrast, much evolutionary theory and several recent empirical studies seem to suggest the opposite-that the germlines of some and p...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lanfear R

    更新日期:2018-05-16 00:00:00

  • Heterochromatin delays CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis but does not influence the outcome of mutagenic DNA repair.

    abstract::Genome editing occurs in the context of chromatin, which is heterogeneous in structure and function across the genome. Chromatin heterogeneity is thought to affect genome editing efficiency, but this has been challenging to quantify due to the presence of confounding variables. Here, we develop a method that exploits ...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kallimasioti-Pazi EM,Thelakkad Chathoth K,Taylor GC,Meynert A,Ballinger T,Kelder MJE,Lalevée S,Sanli I,Feil R,Wood AJ

    更新日期:2018-12-12 00:00:00

  • Cyclin-dependent Kinase 1 and Aurora Kinase choreograph mitotic storage and redistribution of a growth factor receptor.

    abstract::Endosomal trafficking of receptors and associated proteins plays a critical role in signal processing. Until recently, it was thought that trafficking was shut down during cell division. Thus, remarkably, the regulation of trafficking during division remains poorly characterized. Here we delineate the role of mitotic ...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cota CD,Dreier MS,Colgan W,Cha A,Sia T,Davidson B

    更新日期:2021-01-04 00:00:00

  • Identification of FAM173B as a protein methyltransferase promoting chronic pain.

    abstract::Chronic pain is a debilitating problem, and insights in the neurobiology of chronic pain are needed for the development of novel pain therapies. A genome-wide association study implicated the 5p15.2 region in chronic widespread pain. This region includes the coding region for FAM173B, a functionally uncharacterized pr...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Willemen HLDM,Kavelaars A,Prado J,Maas M,Versteeg S,Nellissen LJJ,Tromp J,Gonzalez Cano R,Zhou W,Jakobsson ME,Małecki J,Posthuma G,Habib AM,Heijnen CJ,Falnes PØ,Eijkelkamp N

    更新日期:2018-02-14 00:00:00

  • Selective stalling of human translation through small-molecule engagement of the ribosome nascent chain.

    abstract::Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in regulating the levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Here, we demonstrate that the compound PF-06446846 inhibits translation of PCSK9 by inducing the ribosome to stall around codon 34, mediated by the sequence of the nasc...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lintner NG,McClure KF,Petersen D,Londregan AT,Piotrowski DW,Wei L,Xiao J,Bolt M,Loria PM,Maguire B,Geoghegan KF,Huang A,Rolph T,Liras S,Doudna JA,Dullea RG,Cate JH

    更新日期:2017-03-21 00:00:00

  • Whole-chromosome hitchhiking driven by a male-killing endosymbiont.

    abstract::Neo-sex chromosomes are found in many taxa, but the forces driving their emergence and spread are poorly understood. The female-specific neo-W chromosome of the African monarch (or queen) butterfly Danaus chrysippus presents an intriguing case study because it is restricted to a single 'contact zone' population, invol...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martin SH,Singh KS,Gordon IJ,Omufwoko KS,Collins S,Warren IA,Munby H,Brattström O,Traut W,Martins DJ,Smith DAS,Jiggins CD,Bass C,Ffrench-Constant RH

    更新日期:2020-02-27 00:00:00

  • Serial representation of items during working memory maintenance at letter-selective cortical sites.

    abstract::A key component of working memory is the ability to remember multiple items simultaneously. To understand how the human brain maintains multiple items in memory, we examined direct brain recordings of neural oscillations from neurosurgical patients as they performed a working memory task. We analyzed the data to ident...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bahramisharif A,Jensen O,Jacobs J,Lisman J

    更新日期:2018-08-15 00:00:00

  • Intermingling of chromosome territories in interphase suggests role in translocations and transcription-dependent associations.

    abstract::After mitosis, mammalian chromosomes partially decondense to occupy distinct territories in the cell nucleus. Current models propose that territories are separated by an interchromatin domain, rich in soluble nuclear machinery, where only rare interchromosomal interactions can occur via extended chromatin loops. In co...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Branco MR,Pombo A

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Using structural information to change the phosphotransfer specificity of a two-component chemotaxis signalling complex.

    abstract::Two-component signal transduction pathways comprising histidine protein kinases (HPKs) and their response regulators (RRs) are widely used to control bacterial responses to environmental challenges. Some bacteria have over 150 different two-component pathways, and the specificity of the phosphotransfer reactions withi...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bell CH,Porter SL,Strawson A,Stuart DI,Armitage JP

    更新日期:2010-02-09 00:00:00

  • Polo-like kinase 1 directs assembly of the HsCyk-4 RhoGAP/Ect2 RhoGEF complex to initiate cleavage furrow formation.

    abstract::To complete cell division with high fidelity, cytokinesis must be coordinated with chromosome segregation. Mammalian Polo-like kinase 1, Plk1, may function as a critical link because it is required for chromosome segregation and establishment of the cleavage plane following anaphase onset. A central spindle-localized ...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wolfe BA,Takaki T,Petronczki M,Glotzer M

    更新日期:2009-05-05 00:00:00

  • When it is better to regress: dynamics of vascular pruning.

    abstract::Blood vascular networks in vertebrates are essential to tissue survival. Establishment of a fully functional vasculature is complex and requires a number of steps including vasculogenesis and angiogenesis that are followed by differentiation into specialized vascular tissues (i.e., arteries, veins, and lymphatics) and...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ricard N,Simons M

    更新日期:2015-05-15 00:00:00

  • Low-level toxicity of chemicals: No acceptable levels?

    abstract::Over the past 3 decades, in a series of studies on some of the most extensively studied toxic chemicals and pollutants, scientists have found that the amount of toxic chemical linked with the development of a disease or death-which is central to determining "safe" or "hazardous" levels-is proportionately greater at th...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Lanphear BP

    更新日期:2017-12-19 00:00:00

  • Basic math in monkeys and college students.

    abstract::Adult humans possess a sophisticated repertoire of mathematical faculties. Many of these capacities are rooted in symbolic language and are therefore unlikely to be shared with nonhuman animals. However, a subset of these skills is shared with other animals, and this set is considered a cognitive vestige of our common...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cantlon JF,Brannon EM

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Visual detection is locked to the internal dynamics of cortico-motor control.

    abstract::Movements overtly sample sensory information, making sensory analysis an active-sensing process. In this study, we show that visual information sampling is not just locked to the (overt) movement dynamics but to the internal (covert) dynamics of cortico-motor control. We asked human participants to perform continuous ...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tomassini A,Maris E,Hilt P,Fadiga L,D'Ausilio A

    更新日期:2020-10-20 00:00:00

  • NF1-cAMP signaling dissociates cell type-specific contributions of striatal medium spiny neurons to reward valuation and motor control.

    abstract::The striatum plays a fundamental role in motor learning and reward-related behaviors that are synergistically shaped by populations of D1 dopamine receptor (D1R)- and D2 dopamine receptor (D2R)-expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs). How various neurotransmitter inputs converging on common intracellular pathways are p...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sutton LP,Muntean BS,Ostrovskaya O,Zucca S,Dao M,Orlandi C,Song C,Xie K,Martemyanov KA

    更新日期:2019-10-10 00:00:00

  • Insulin and mTOR Pathway Regulate HDAC3-Mediated Deacetylation and Activation of PGK1.

    abstract::Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphoryl group from 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate (1, 3-BPG) to ADP, producing 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) and ATP. PGK1 plays a key role in coordinating glycolytic energy production with one-carbon metabolism, serine biosynthesis, and cellular redox r...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang S,Jiang B,Zhang T,Liu L,Wang Y,Wang Y,Chen X,Lin H,Zhou L,Xia Y,Chen L,Yang C,Xiong Y,Ye D,Guan KL

    更新日期:2015-09-10 00:00:00

  • Cryptochrome mediates light-dependent magnetosensitivity of Drosophila's circadian clock.

    abstract::Since 1960, magnetic fields have been discussed as Zeitgebers for circadian clocks, but the mechanism by which clocks perceive and process magnetic information has remained unknown. Recently, the radical-pair model involving light-activated photoreceptors as magnetic field sensors has gained considerable support, and ...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yoshii T,Ahmad M,Helfrich-Förster C

    更新日期:2009-04-07 00:00:00

  • Functional dissection of an innate immune response by a genome-wide RNAi screen.

    abstract::The innate immune system is ancient and highly conserved. It is the first line of defense and the only recognizable immune system in the vast majority of metazoans. Signaling events that convert pathogen detection into a defense response are central to innate immunity. Drosophila has emerged as an invaluable model org...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Foley E,O'Farrell PH

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Stratus not altocumulus: a new view of the yeast protein interaction network.

    abstract::Systems biology approaches can reveal intermediary levels of organization between genotype and phenotype that often underlie biological phenomena such as polygenic effects and protein dispensability. An important conceptualization is the module, which is loosely defined as a cohort of proteins that perform a dedicated...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Batada NN,Reguly T,Breitkreutz A,Boucher L,Breitkreutz BJ,Hurst LD,Tyers M

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Gametogenesis in malaria parasites is mediated by the cGMP-dependent protein kinase.

    abstract::Malaria parasite transmission requires differentiation of male and female gametocytes into gametes within a mosquito following a blood meal. A mosquito-derived molecule, xanthurenic acid (XA), can trigger gametogenesis, but the signalling events controlling this process in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falcipa...

    journal_title:PLoS biology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McRobert L,Taylor CJ,Deng W,Fivelman QL,Cummings RM,Polley SD,Billker O,Baker DA

    更新日期:2008-06-03 00:00:00