Quotation accuracy in medical journal articles-a systematic review and meta-analysis.


:Background. Quotations and references are an indispensable element of scientific communication. They should support what authors claim or provide important background information for readers. Studies indicate, however, that quotations not serving their purpose-quotation errors-may be prevalent. Methods. We carried out a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of quotation errors, taking account of differences between studies in error ascertainment. Results. Out of 559 studies screened we included 28 in the main analysis, and estimated major, minor and total quotation error rates of 11,9%, 95% CI [8.4, 16.6] 11.5% [8.3, 15.7], and 25.4% [19.5, 32.4]. While heterogeneity was substantial, even the lowest estimate of total quotation errors was considerable (6.7%). Indirect references accounted for less than one sixth of all quotation problems. The findings remained robust in a number of sensitivity and subgroup analyses (including risk of bias analysis) and in meta-regression. There was no indication of publication bias. Conclusions. Readers of medical journal articles should be aware of the fact that quotation errors are common. Measures against quotation errors include spot checks by editors and reviewers, correct placement of citations in the text, and declarations by authors that they have checked cited material. Future research should elucidate if and to what degree quotation errors are detrimental to scientific progress.






Jergas H,Baethge C




Has Abstract


2015-10-27 00:00:00












  • Identification of viruses infecting six plum cultivars in Korea by RNA-sequencing.

    abstract:Background:Plums are a kind of stone fruit, a category that includes peaches, cherries, apricots, and almonds. In Korea, Japanese plum trees are usually cultivated as they best suit the climate. To date, there have been few studies in Korea on viruses infecting plum trees compared to those infecting peach trees. Metho...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jo Y,Choi H,Lian S,Cho JK,Chu H,Cho WK

    更新日期:2020-07-29 00:00:00

  • Genetic recombination and diversity of sapovirus in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis in Thailand, 2010-2018.

    abstract:Background:Human sapovirus (SaV) is an etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in all age groups worldwide. Genetic recombination of SaV has been reported from many countries. So far, none of SaV recombinant strain has been reported from Thailand. This study examined the genetic recombination and genotype divers...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kumthip K,Khamrin P,Ushijima H,Chen L,Li S,Maneekarn N

    更新日期:2020-02-06 00:00:00

  • Genome-wide identification and characterization of GRAS transcription factors in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    abstract::Solanum lycopersicum, belonging to Solanaceae, is one of the commonly used model plants. The GRAS genes are transcriptional regulators, which play a significant role in plant growth and development, and the functions of several GRAS genes have been recognized, such as, axillary shoot meristem formation, radial root pa...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Niu Y,Zhao T,Xu X,Li J

    更新日期:2017-11-08 00:00:00

  • Co-occurrence patterns of litter decomposing communities in mangroves indicate a robust community resistant to disturbances.

    abstract:Background:Mangroves are important coastal ecosystems known for high photosynthetic productivity and the ability to support marine food chains through supply of dissolved carbon or particular organic matter. Most of the carbon found in mangroves is produced by its vegetation and is decomposed in root associated sedimen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taketani RG,Moitinho MA,Mauchline TH,Melo IS

    更新日期:2018-10-04 00:00:00

  • A phylogenetic taxonomy of the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) with descriptions of two new species from Myanmar.

    abstract::A phylogenetic taxonomy of species in the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group from the Ayeyarwady Basin of Myanmar is constructed based on color pattern, morphology, and molecular systematic analyses using the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2. Newly collected samples from the type locality of C. peguensis and...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grismer LL,Wood PL Jr,Quah ESH,Murdoch ML,Grismer MS,Herr MW,Espinoza RE,Brown RM,Lin A

    更新日期:2018-09-19 00:00:00

  • Genomic analysis of P elements in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    abstract::The Drosophila melanogaster P transposable element provides one of the best cases of horizontal transfer of a mobile DNA sequence in eukaryotes. Invasion of natural populations by the P element has led to a syndrome of phenotypes known as P-M hybrid dysgenesis that emerges when strains differing in their P element com...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bergman CM,Han S,Nelson MG,Bondarenko V,Kozeretska I

    更新日期:2017-09-15 00:00:00

  • Distribution patterns of dinoflagellate communities along the Songhua River.

    abstract:Background:Dinoflagellates have the potential to pose severe ecological and economic damages to aquatic ecosystems. It is therefore largely needed to understand the causes and consequences of distribution patterns of dinoflagellate communities in order to manage potential environmental problems. However, a majority of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gao Y,Chen Y,Xiong W,Li S,Zhan A

    更新日期:2019-04-09 00:00:00

  • Neurocognitive effects of six ketamine infusions and the association with antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant bipolar depression: a preliminary study.

    abstract:Objective:The N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype glutamate receptor antagonist ketamine has rapid antidepressant and antisuicidal effects in treating treatment-resistant bipolar depression (TRBD). The neurocognitive effects of repeated ketamine infusions in TRBD are not known. Methods:Six intravenous infusions of ketamine (...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zheng W,Zhou YL,Wang CY,Lan XF,Zhang B,Yang MZ,Nie S,Ning YP

    更新日期:2020-11-03 00:00:00

  • Effect of predation risk and ectoparasitic louse flies on physiological stress condition of the red-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon rubricauda) from Rapa Nui and Salas & Gómez islands.

    abstract:Background:Introduced predators at seabird colonies and parasites may have lethal and/or sub-lethal consequences for bird populations. We assessed the potential sub-lethal negative effects of these stressors in a native seabird listed as vulnerable in its south-eastern pacific distribution. This study was conducted in ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Luna N,Varela AI,Luna-Jorquera G,Brokordt K

    更新日期:2020-07-08 00:00:00

  • Widespread mitovirus sequences in plant genomes.

    abstract::The exploration of the evolution of RNA viruses has been aided recently by the discovery of copies of fragments or complete genomes of non-retroviral RNA viruses (Non-retroviral Endogenous RNA Viral Elements, or NERVEs) in many eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Among the most prominent NERVEs are partial copies of the RNA d...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bruenn JA,Warner BE,Yerramsetty P

    更新日期:2015-04-09 00:00:00

  • Development of an angiogenesis-promoting microvesicle-alginate-polycaprolactone composite graft for bone tissue engineering applications.

    abstract::One of the major challenges of bone tissue engineering applications is to construct a fully vascularized implant that can adapt to hypoxic environments in vivo. The incorporation of proangiogenic factors into scaffolds is a widely accepted method of achieving this goal. Recently, the proangiogenic potential of mesench...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xie H,Wang Z,Zhang L,Lei Q,Zhao A,Wang H,Li Q,Chen Z,Zhang W

    更新日期:2016-05-19 00:00:00

  • Occurrence of Terranova larval types (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Australian marine fish with comments on their specific identities.

    abstract::Pseudoterranovosis is a well-known human disease caused by anisakid larvae belonging to the genus Pseudoterranova. Human infection occurs after consuming infected fish. Hence the presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in the flesh of the fish can cause serious losses and problems for the seafood, fishing and fisheries ind...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shamsi S,Suthar J

    更新日期:2016-03-15 00:00:00

  • Involvement of cortical midline structures in the processing of autobiographical information.

    abstract::The term autobiographical self has been used to refer to a mental state that permits reflection on self-identity and personality and the answer to related questions (Damasio, 1998). It requires the retrieval and integrated assembly of memories of facts and events that define an individual's biography. The neural mecha...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Araujo HF,Kaplan J,Damasio H,Damasio A

    更新日期:2014-07-22 00:00:00

  • Movements and use of space by Mangrove Cuckoos (Coccyzus minor) in Florida, USA.

    abstract::I used radio-telemetry to track the movements of Mangrove Cuckoos (Coccyzus minor) captured in southwest Florida. Relatively little is known about the natural history of Mangrove Cuckoos, and my goal was to provide an initial description of how individuals use space, with a focus on the size and placement of home rang...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lloyd JD

    更新日期:2017-06-30 00:00:00

  • A retrospective study of surgical treatment and outcome among women with adnexal torsion in eastern Taiwan from 2010 to 2015.

    abstract:Background:Adnexal torsion is a gynecologic emergency that requires surgical treatment. In this study, we reviewed the surgical outcomes of women with adnexal torsion in eastern Taiwan (Hualien county, area 4,629 km2, 330,000 residents). Methods:This retrospective study included 42 women diagnosed with surgically-prov...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang C,Hong MK,Chu TY,Ding DC

    更新日期:2018-12-04 00:00:00

  • Enhanced susceptibility to predation in corals of compromised condition.

    abstract::The marine gastropod, Coralliophila abbreviata, is an obligate corallivore that causes substantial mortality in Caribbean Acropora spp. Considering the imperiled status of Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, a better understanding of ecological interactions resulting in tissue loss may enable more effective conservat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bright AJ,Cameron CM,Miller MW

    更新日期:2015-09-10 00:00:00

  • Fecal microbiota in client-owned obese dogs changes after weight loss with a high-fiber-high-protein diet.

    abstract:Background:The fecal microbiota from obese individuals can induce obesity in animal models. In addition, studies in humans, animal models and dogs have revealed that the fecal microbiota of subjects with obesity is different from that of lean subjects and changes after weight loss. However, the impact of weight loss on...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bermudez Sanchez S,Pilla R,Sarawichitr B,Gramenzi A,Marsilio F,Steiner JM,Lidbury JA,Woods GRT,German AJ,Suchodolski JS

    更新日期:2020-10-05 00:00:00

  • Fuel-cell breathalyser use for field research on alcohol intoxication: an independent psychometric evaluation.

    abstract:Background:Several field studies have used fuel-cell breathalysers (FCB) to investigate the prevalence of alcohol intoxication. However, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychometric properties of these breathalysers outside of the forensic disciplines. Methods:The current research describes four studies des...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sorbello JG,Devilly GJ,Allen C,Hughes LRJ,Brown K

    更新日期:2018-03-14 00:00:00

  • A Tournaisian (earliest Carboniferous) conglomerate-preserved non-marine faunal assemblage and its environmental and sedimentological context.

    abstract::A conglomerate bed from the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland preserves a rich array of vertebrate and other nonmarine fossils providing an insight into the wider ecosystem and paleoenvironment that existed during this pivotal stage of Earth history. It challenges hypotheses of a long-lasting post-extinction ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clack JA,Bennett CE,Davies SJ,Scott AC,Sherwin JE,Smithson TR

    更新日期:2019-01-03 00:00:00

  • Unfolding of α-helical 20-residue poly-glutamic acid analyzed by multiple runs of canonical molecular dynamics simulations.

    abstract::Elucidating the molecular mechanism of helix-coil transitions of short peptides is a long-standing conundrum in physical chemistry. Although the helix-coil transitions of poly-glutamic acid (PGA) have been extensively studied, the molecular details of its unfolding process still remain unclear. We performed all-atom c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ogasawara N,Kasahara K,Iwai R,Takahashi T

    更新日期:2018-05-15 00:00:00

  • Transcriptomic profiling of purple broccoli reveals light-induced anthocyanin biosynthetic signaling and structural genes.

    abstract::Purple Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italica) attracts growing attention as a functional food. Its purple coloration is due to high anthocyanin amounts. Light represents a critical parameter affecting anthocyanins biosynthesis. In this study, 'Purple Broccoli', a light-responding pigmentation cultivar, was assess...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu C,Yao X,Li G,Huang L,Xie Z

    更新日期:2020-05-05 00:00:00

  • A Profile Hidden Markov Model to investigate the distribution and frequency of LanB-encoding lantibiotic modification genes in the human oral and gut microbiome.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The human microbiota plays a key role in health and disease, and bacteriocins, which are small, bacterially produced, antimicrobial peptides, are likely to have an important function in the stability and dynamics of this community. Here we examined the density and distribution of the subclass I lantibiotic m...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Walsh CJ,Guinane CM,O' Toole PW,Cotter PD

    更新日期:2017-04-27 00:00:00

  • Comparison of soil bacterial community and functional characteristics following afforestation in the semi-arid areas.

    abstract::Changes in soil bacterial communities, which are crucial for the assessment of ecological restoration in Chinese plantations, have never been studied in the "Three North Shelterbelt" project in the semi-arid areas. We used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene to investigate the soil bacterial community dive...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deng J,Zhang Y,Yin Y,Zhu X,Zhu W,Zhou Y

    更新日期:2019-06-25 00:00:00

  • Exploration of the effects of a degS mutant on the growth of Vibrio cholerae and the global regulatory function of degS by RNA sequencing.

    abstract:Background:DegS is a periplasmic serine protease that is considered to be the initiator of the σE stress response pathway, and this protein plays an important role in the regulation of the stress response in E. coli. However, knowledge of the biological function and global regulatory network of DegS in Vibrio cholerae ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang J,Chen Y,Chen J,Liu C,Zhang T,Luo S,Huang M,Min X

    更新日期:2019-10-23 00:00:00

  • Dynamics of ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in response to compost addition in black soil, Northeast China.

    abstract::Organic fertilizer application could have an impact on the nitrogen cycle mediated by microorganisms in arable soils. However, the dynamics of soil ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in response to compost addition are less understood. In this study, we examined the effect of four compost application rates (0, 11.25, ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang Z,Guan Y,Bello A,Wu Y,Ding J,Wang L,Ren Y,Chen G,Yang W

    更新日期:2020-04-21 00:00:00

  • A comprehensive investigation of mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    abstract::Although the existence of coral-reef habitats at depths to 165 m in tropical regions has been known for decades, the richness, diversity, and ecological importance of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) has only recently become widely acknowledged. During an interdisciplinary effort spanning more than two decades, we c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pyle RL,Boland R,Bolick H,Bowen BW,Bradley CJ,Kane C,Kosaki RK,Langston R,Longenecker K,Montgomery A,Parrish FA,Popp BN,Rooney J,Smith CM,Wagner D,Spalding HL

    更新日期:2016-10-04 00:00:00

  • Baseline seabed habitat and biotope mapping for a proposed marine reserve.

    abstract::Seabed mapping can quantify the extent of benthic habitats that comprise marine ecosystems, and assess the impact of fisheries on an ecosystem. In this study, the distribution of seabed habitats in a proposed no-take Marine Reserve along the northeast coast of Great Barrier Island, New Zealand, was mapped using underw...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee ST,Kelly M,Langlois TJ,Costello MJ

    更新日期:2015-12-10 00:00:00

  • Transcriptome for the breast muscle of Jinghai yellow chicken at early growth stages.

    abstract:Background:The meat quality of yellow feathered broilers is better than the quality of its production. Growth traits are important in the broiler industry. The exploration of regulation mechanisms for the skeletal muscle would help to increase the growth performance of chickens. At present, some progress has been made ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu P,Zhang X,Zhang G,Chen F,He M,Zhang T,Wang J,Xie K,Dai G

    更新日期:2020-04-15 00:00:00

  • The tetrapod fauna of the upper Permian Naobaogou Formation of China: 3. Jiufengia jiai gen. et sp. nov., a large akidnognathid therocephalian.

    abstract::Recent field trips to Member III of the Naobaogou Formation, Nei Mongol, China yielded new fossil discoveries, increasing our knowledge of the late Permian continental fauna from China. We present here a new large therocephalian, Jiufengia jiai gen. et sp. nov., represented by a partial skull with mandibles and part o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu J,Abdala F

    更新日期:2019-02-22 00:00:00

  • Measuring the well-being of health care professionals in the Punjab: a psychometric evaluation of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale in a Pakistani population.

    abstract::Background. There is growing awareness of the public health importance of mental well-being both in the general population and in specific groups. The well-being of health professionals is likely to influence the quality of the care they deliver. This study was carried out to examine the well-being of Pakistani health...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Waqas A,Ahmad W,Haddad M,Taggart FM,Muhammad Z,Bukhari MH,Sami SA,Batool SM,Najeeb F,Hanif A,Rizvi ZA,Ejaz S

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00