Quotation accuracy in medical journal articles-a systematic review and meta-analysis.


:Background. Quotations and references are an indispensable element of scientific communication. They should support what authors claim or provide important background information for readers. Studies indicate, however, that quotations not serving their purpose-quotation errors-may be prevalent. Methods. We carried out a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of quotation errors, taking account of differences between studies in error ascertainment. Results. Out of 559 studies screened we included 28 in the main analysis, and estimated major, minor and total quotation error rates of 11,9%, 95% CI [8.4, 16.6] 11.5% [8.3, 15.7], and 25.4% [19.5, 32.4]. While heterogeneity was substantial, even the lowest estimate of total quotation errors was considerable (6.7%). Indirect references accounted for less than one sixth of all quotation problems. The findings remained robust in a number of sensitivity and subgroup analyses (including risk of bias analysis) and in meta-regression. There was no indication of publication bias. Conclusions. Readers of medical journal articles should be aware of the fact that quotation errors are common. Measures against quotation errors include spot checks by editors and reviewers, correct placement of citations in the text, and declarations by authors that they have checked cited material. Future research should elucidate if and to what degree quotation errors are detrimental to scientific progress.






Jergas H,Baethge C




Has Abstract


2015-10-27 00:00:00












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    abstract::Body condition is an important determinant of health, and its evaluation has practical applications for the conservation and management of mammals. We developed a noninvasive method that uses photographs to assess the body condition of free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan...


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    authors: Shirane Y,Mori F,Yamanaka M,Nakanishi M,Ishinazaka T,Mano T,Jimbo M,Sashika M,Tsubota T,Shimozuru M

    更新日期:2020-09-18 00:00:00

  • Ichthyoplankton assemblage structure of springs in the Yangtze Estuary revealed by biological and environmental visions.

    abstract::The ichthyoplankton assemblage structure in the Yangtze Estuary was analyzed based on four springs in 1999, 2001, 2004 and 2007 in order to provide detailed characterizations of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in springs, examine the long-term dynamics of spring ichthyoplankton assemblages, and evaluate the influence o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang H,Xian W,Liu S

    更新日期:2015-08-18 00:00:00

  • Distinct gene expression and secondary metabolite profiles in suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2) tomato mutants having impaired mycorrhizal colonization.

    abstract::Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization, sampled at 32-50 days post-inoculation (dpi), was significantly reduced in suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2) mutant tomato plants impaired in the ω-3 FATTY ACID DESATURASE7 (FAD7) gene that limits the generation of linolenic acid and, consequently, th...


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    authors: Casarrubias-Castillo K,Montero-Vargas JM,Dabdoub-González N,Winkler R,Martinez-Gallardo NA,Zañudo-Hernández J,Avilés-Arnaut H,Délano-Frier JP

    更新日期:2020-04-16 00:00:00

  • Long-term continuously monocropped peanut significantly changed the abundance and composition of soil bacterial communities.

    abstract::Soil sickness is the progressive loss of soil quality due to continuous monocropping. The bacterial populations are critical to sustaining agroecosystems, but their responses to long-term peanut monocropping have not been determined. In this study, based on a previously constructed gradient of continuous monocropped p...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen M,Liu H,Yu S,Wang M,Pan L,Chen N,Wang T,Chi X,Du B

    更新日期:2020-04-28 00:00:00

  • A new species of freshwater crab genus Fredius Pretzmann, 1967 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae) from a naturally isolated orographic forest enclave within the semiarid Caatinga in Ceará, northeastern Brazil.

    abstract::A new species of freshwater crab, Fredius ibiapaba, is described and illustrated from a mid-altitude forested patch in Ipú (Ibiapaba plateau, Ceará, northeastern Brazil), between 635 to 782 m. The new species can be separated from its congeners by the morphology of its first gonopod: proximal half remarkably swollen, ...


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    authors: Santos LC,Tavares M,Silva JRF,Cervini M,Pinheiro AP,Santana W

    更新日期:2020-06-29 00:00:00

  • Synthetic lung surfactants containing SP-B and SP-C peptides plus novel phospholipase-resistant lipids or glycerophospholipids.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This study examines the biophysical and preclinical pulmonary activity of synthetic lung surfactants containing novel phospholipase-resistant phosphonolipids or synthetic glycerophospholipids combined with Super Mini-B (S-MB) DATK and/or SP-Css ion-lock 1 peptides that replicate the functional biophysics of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Notter RH,Gupta R,Schwan AL,Wang Z,Shkoor MG,Walther FJ

    更新日期:2016-10-27 00:00:00

  • Response of marine copepods to a changing tropical environment: winners, losers and implications.

    abstract::Background. Climate change concurrent with anthropogenic disturbances can initiate serial changes that reverberate up the food chain with repercussions for fisheries. To date, there is no information available concerning the combined effects of global warming and human impacts on tropical marine food webs. While tempe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chew LL,Chong VC

    更新日期:2016-05-24 00:00:00

  • Survey of owner motivations and veterinary input of owners feeding diets containing raw animal products.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The practice of feeding of diets containing raw animal products (RAP) to pets (dogs and cats) is discouraged by veterinary organizations and governmental public health organizations. Nevertheless, the practice of feeding RAP to pets is increasing in popularity. Pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets to ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morgan SK,Willis S,Shepherd ML

    更新日期:2017-03-02 00:00:00

  • Harmine stimulates proliferation of human neural progenitors.

    abstract::Harmine is the β-carboline alkaloid with the highest concentration in the psychotropic plant decoction Ayahuasca. In rodents, classical antidepressants reverse the symptoms of depression by stimulating neuronal proliferation. It has been shown that Ayahuasca presents antidepressant effects in patients with depressive ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dakic V,Maciel RM,Drummond H,Nascimento JM,Trindade P,Rehen SK

    更新日期:2016-12-06 00:00:00

  • Effectiveness of winter temperatures for satisfying chilling requirements for reproductive budburst of red alder (Alnus rubra).

    abstract:Background:Experiencing an adequate amount of cold temperatures over winter is necessary for many temperate tree species to break dormancy and flower in spring. Thus, changes in winter and spring temperatures associated with climate change may influence when trees break dormancy and flower in the future. There have bee...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Prevéy JS,Harrington CA

    更新日期:2018-09-25 00:00:00

  • Dynamics in benthic community composition and influencing factors in an upwelling-exposed coral reef on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    abstract::Seasonal upwelling at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica offers the opportunity to investigate the effects of pronounced changes in key water parameters on fine-scale dynamics of local coral reef communities. This study monitored benthic community composition at Matapalo reef (10.539°N, 85.766°W) by weekly obser...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stuhldreier I,Sánchez-Noguera C,Roth F,Jiménez C,Rixen T,Cortés J,Wild C

    更新日期:2015-11-24 00:00:00

  • Why choose Random Forest to predict rare species distribution with few samples in large undersampled areas? Three Asian crane species models provide supporting evidence.

    abstract::Species distribution models (SDMs) have become an essential tool in ecology, biogeography, evolution and, more recently, in conservation biology. How to generalize species distributions in large undersampled areas, especially with few samples, is a fundamental issue of SDMs. In order to explore this issue, we used the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mi C,Huettmann F,Guo Y,Han X,Wen L

    更新日期:2017-01-12 00:00:00

  • A quantitative look on northwestern Tethyan foraminiferal assemblages, Campanian Nierental Formation, Austria.

    abstract::Deposits spanning the Radotruncana calcarata Taxon Range Zone at the Postalm section, Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria) are examined quantitatively for foraminiferal assemblages, especially the planktonic group. This study focuses on establishing a high resolution record spanning an 800 ka long stratigraphic interval...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wolfgring E,Wagreich M

    更新日期:2016-03-08 00:00:00

  • Ixodes scapularis microbiome correlates with life stage, not the presence of human pathogens, in ticks submitted for diagnostic testing.

    abstract::Ticks are globally distributed arthropods and a public health concern due to the many human pathogens they carry and transmit, including the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. As tick species' ranges increase, so do the number of reported tick related illnesses. The microbiome is a critical part of...


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    authors: Gil JC,Helal ZH,Risatti G,Hird SM

    更新日期:2020-12-02 00:00:00

  • Broad cognitive complaints but subtle objective working memory impairment in fibromyalgia patients.

    abstract:Background:Cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia (FM) encompasses objective cognitive difficulties, as measured in neuropsychological tests, and self-reported cognitive complaints. Although it has been suggested that FM patients display problems in working memory, the data are inconsistent, and the overall working memo...


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    authors: Pidal-Miranda M,González-Villar AJ,Carrillo-de-la-Peña MT,Andrade E,Rodríguez-Salgado D

    更新日期:2018-11-21 00:00:00

  • Microgeographic variation in body condition of three Mexican garter snakes in central Mexico.

    abstract:Background:Geographic variation in body size and condition can reveal differential local adaptation to resource availability or climatic factors. Body size and condition are related to fitness in garter snakes (Thamnophis), thus good body condition may increase survival, fecundity in females, and mating success in male...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Valencia-Flores E,Venegas-Barrera CS,Fajardo V,Manjarrez J

    更新日期:2019-03-13 00:00:00

  • TLR2 polymorphism (rs650082970) is associated with somatic cell count in goat milk.

    abstract::Pathogens invading the mammary gland are recognized through a range of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), residing on the plasma membrane of mammary epithelial cells. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signalling is responsible for recognition of Gram-positive bacteria, which are the most common mastitis-causing pathogens...


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    authors: Ogorevc J,Simčič M,Zorc M,Škrjanc M,Dovč P

    更新日期:2019-07-31 00:00:00

  • Optimal control of irrupting pest populations in a climate-driven ecosystem.

    abstract::Irruptions of small consumer populations, driven by pulsed resources, can lead to adverse effects including the decline of indigenous species or increased disease spread. Broad-scale pest management to combat such effects benefits from forecasting of irruptions and an assessment of the optimal control conditions for m...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holland EP,Binny RN,James A

    更新日期:2018-12-20 00:00:00

  • Extraordinary centromeres: differences in the meiotic chromosomes of two rock lizards species Darevskia portschinskii and Darevskia raddei.

    abstract::According to the synthesis of 30 years of multidisciplinary studies, parthenogenetic species of rock lizards of genus Darevskia were formed as a result of different combination patterns of interspecific hybridization of the four bisexual parental species: Darevskia raddei, D. mixta, D. valentini, and D. portschinskii....


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spangenberg V,Arakelyan M,Galoyan E,Pankin M,Petrosyan R,Stepanyan I,Grishaeva T,Danielyan F,Kolomiets O

    更新日期:2019-01-30 00:00:00

  • Transcriptome-wide characterization and functional analysis of MATE transporters in response to aluminum toxicity in Medicago sativa L.

    abstract::Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters contribute to multidrug resistance and play major determinants of aluminum (Al) tolerance in plants. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most extensively cultivated forage crop in the world, yet most alfalfa cultivars are not Al tolerant. The basic knowledge o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Min X,Jin X,Liu W,Wei X,Zhang Z,Ndayambaza B,Wang Y

    更新日期:2019-01-31 00:00:00

  • Mutation of the rice XA21 predicted nuclear localization sequence does not affect resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The rice receptor kinase XA21 confers robust resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae(Xoo). We previously reported that XA21 is cleaved in transgenic plants overexpressing XA21 with a GFP tag (Ubi-XA21-GFP) and that the released C-terminal domain is localized to the nucleus. XA21 car...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wei T,Chen TC,Ho YT,Ronald PC

    更新日期:2016-10-05 00:00:00

  • High-quality genome assembly of Metaphire vulgaris.

    abstract::Earthworms enrich the soil and protect the health of their ecological environment. Previous studies on these invertebrates determined their protein content, hormone secretions, medicinal value, and ecological habits, but their whole genomic sequence remains incomplete. We performed whole genome sequencing of Metaphire...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jin F,Zhou Z,Guo Q,Liang Z,Yang R,Jiang J,He Y,Zhao Q,Zhao Q

    更新日期:2020-11-12 00:00:00

  • Integumentary structure and composition in an exceptionally well-preserved hadrosaur (Dinosauria: Ornithischia).

    abstract::Preserved labile tissues (e.g., skin, muscle) in the fossil record of terrestrial vertebrates are increasingly becoming recognized as an important source of biological and taphonomic information. Here, we combine a variety of synchrotron radiation techniques with scanning electron and optical microscopy to elucidate t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barbi M,Bell PR,Fanti F,Dynes JJ,Kolaceke A,Buttigieg J,Coulson IM,Currie PJ

    更新日期:2019-10-16 00:00:00

  • Bioinformatics analysis identifies several intrinsically disordered human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases.

    abstract::The ubiquitin-proteasome system targets misfolded proteins for degradation. Since the accumulation of such proteins is potentially harmful for the cell, their prompt removal is important. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases mediate substrate ubiquitination by bringing together the substrate with an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boomsma W,Nielsen SV,Lindorff-Larsen K,Hartmann-Petersen R,Ellgaard L

    更新日期:2016-02-25 00:00:00

  • Recruitment of cognitive control regions during effortful self-control is associated with altered brain activity in control and reward systems in dieters during subsequent exposure to food commercials.

    abstract::Engaging in effortful self-control can sometimes impair people's ability to resist subsequent temptations. Existing research has shown that when chronic dieters' self-regulatory capacity is challenged by prior exertion of effort, they demonstrate disinhibited eating and altered patterns of brain activity when exposed ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lopez RB,Courtney AL,Wagner DD

    更新日期:2019-02-28 00:00:00

  • Students distracted by electronic devices perform at the same level as those who are focused on the lecture.

    abstract::Background. Little is known about the characteristics of internet distractions that students may engage in during lecture. The objective of this pilot study is to identify some of the internet-based distractions students engage in during in-person lectures. The findings will help identify what activities most commonly...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nalliah RP,Allareddy V

    更新日期:2014-09-16 00:00:00

  • Kelpie: generating full-length 'amplicons' from whole-metagenome datasets.

    abstract:Introduction:Whole-metagenome sequencing can be a rich source of information about the structure and function of entire metagenomic communities, but getting accurate and reliable results from these datasets can be challenging. Analysis of these datasets is founded on the mapping of sequencing reads onto known genomic r...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Greenfield P,Tran-Dinh N,Midgley D

    更新日期:2019-01-30 00:00:00

  • Sponge exhalent seawater contains a unique chemical profile of dissolved organic matter.

    abstract::Sponges are efficient filter feeders, removing significant portions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM) from the water column. While the assimilation and respiration of POM and DOM by sponges and their abundant microbial symbiont communities have received much attention, there is virtually no inform...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fiore CL,Freeman CJ,Kujawinski EB

    更新日期:2017-01-11 00:00:00

  • Spatial variation in the littoral vertebrate community of a reservoir relative to physical and biological gradients.

    abstract::Reservoirs possess gradients in conditions and resources along their long (deep-shallow) axis, but the response of littoral vertebrates (fish and turtles) to these gradients is poorly understood. We have quantified the littoral vertebrate communities throughout a small reservoir in Southeastern Ohio during July and Au...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruhl N,Soski JJ,Roosenburg WM

    更新日期:2014-12-11 00:00:00

  • Exercise mode and attentional networks in older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    abstract:Background:Previous studies have indicated that physical exercise enhances attentional function; however, the relationship between exercise mode and attentional networks has not been clarified for older adults (>60 years old). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between attentional networks and different e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang B,Guo W

    更新日期:2020-01-07 00:00:00