Evidence of economic deprivation and female foeticide in a United Nations global births by gender data set.


INTRODUCTION:The male-to-female ratio of live births is expressed as the ratio of male births divided by total births (M/F). Males are produced approximately 3% in excess. A large number of factors have been found to influence M/F. Stress and privation reduces M/F. Gender preference (which almost invariably favours males) with selective female foetal abortion increases M/F. This study was carried out in order to assess a United Nations data set for evidence of global trends in M/F in relation to broad socioeconomic conditions and male preference. METHODS:Data (M/F and total births, 1955-2009) was obtained from the United Nations (UN) Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, Population Estimates and Projection Section. The following regions were analysed: more developed countries, less developed countries and least developed countries (as defined by the UN General Assembly). RESULTS:More developed countries: M/F was initially stable at 0.53 up to 1979 then fell to 0.525. Less developed countries: M/F was initially stable at 0.53 then rose after 1984 to 0.545 with a rise in male births and a fall in female births (estimated female birth deficit=48734993). Least developed countries: exhibited a stable M/F of 0.52 (all p<0.001). DISCUSSION:This study has confirmed, on a global scale, that least developed countries have the lowest M/F. The rise in M/F in developed countries (which includes Asia) confirms widespread selective female foeticide due to cultural male preference. The declining trend in M/F in developed countries has been previously noted and remains unexplained.


Early Hum Dev


Early human development


Grech V




Has Abstract


2015-12-01 00:00:00














  • Management of the sick neonate with suspected heart disease.

    abstract::A proportion of symptomatic neonates with congenital heart disease have lesions requiring urgent stabilisation. Despite increasing antenatal diagnoses, the importance of early recognition of symptomatic neonates is highlighted by the fact that up to 10% of all deaths in congenital heart disease continue to occur in ch...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,实务指引,评审


    authors: Brooks PA,Penny DJ

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Neonatal apnea and gastroesophageal reflux (GER): is there a problem?

    abstract::Apnea of prematurity and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) are both common occurrences in preterm infants and widely perceived to be causally related. We seek in this review to provide a potential guideline for neonatal GER non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic therapy. Available physiologic data suggest that when there is ...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Abu Jawdeh EG,Martin RJ

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus - not gone but sometimes forgotten.

    abstract::The introduction of exchange transfusion made it possible to prevent severe hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus, but kernicterus has never completely disappeared and it is still occurring in North America and, more frequently in Western Europe and the developing world. I discuss the epidemiology and major causes of sev...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maisels MJ

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Child developmental screening instrument from six to thirty-six months in Taiwan birth cohort study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A reliable and valid assessing tool to detect the problem before the child becomes deviant is very important. AIM:This study aimed to further test the reliability and validity of developmental screening instrument for follow-up of thirty-six months children in Taiwan. Also, the stability and changes in the ...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lung FW,Chiang TL,Lin SJ,Lee MC,Shu BC

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • A retrospective study of the relationship between birth history and handedness at six years.

    abstract::Bakan's hypothesis that sinistrality is caused by perinatal insult was investigated by attempting to relate the handedness of 1094 six-year-old children to many aspects of their birth history ascertained from hospital records. Handedness of the children and their families was obtained by questionnaire. A secular incre...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smart JL,Jeffery C,Richards B

    更新日期:1980-03-01 00:00:00

  • Hourly fetal urine production rate in the near-term fetus: is it really increased during fetal quiet sleep?

    abstract::Fetal bladder volume and hourly fetal urine production (HFUPR) is calculated on the assumption that the fetal bladder is ellipsoid in shape. A recent validation study demonstrated a progressive overestimation at increasing bladder volumes. This may be due to changes in shape of the fetal bladder at increasing volumes....

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stigter RH,Mulder EJ,Visser GH

    更新日期:1998-02-27 00:00:00

  • Muscle power, sitting unsupported and trunk rotation in pre-term infants.

    abstract::Discrepancies between active and passive muscle power are often seen in pre-term infants over the first year. Generally of a transient nature, they are most obvious in the extensor muscles of the trunk where there is a high active muscle power relative to the passive component. While high active muscle power may not b...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Groot L,Hopkins B,Touwen B

    更新日期:1995-08-30 00:00:00

  • Very low birth weight infants in China: the predictive value of the motor repertoire at 3 to 5months for the motor performance at 12months.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Studies on motor performance and its early markers are rare in China, especially in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. OBJECTIVE:Apart from the assessment of the inter-scorer agreement, we aimed to analyze to what extent the motor repertoire at 10 to 18weeks postterm was related to neonatal complications...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zang FF,Yang H,Han Q,Cao JY,Tomantschger I,Krieber M,Shi W,Luo DD,Zhu M,Einspieler C

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Hyperglycaemia in preterm neonates: what to know, what to do.

    abstract::Neonatal hyperglycaemia is a frequent complication in VLBW infants during the first week of life. The more common causes include high glucose intake, stress situations such as sepsis, NEC, and surgical treatments, as well as the administration of vasoactive drugs and methylxanthines. The appropriate definition is uncl...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Decaro MH,Vain NE

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Surfactant in the perinatal period.

    abstract::Surfactant is now available for general clinical use in infants with RDS. While surfactant is effective, it does not prevent lung disease in many preterm infants because of other aspects of lung immaturity. In experimental models, corticosteroids alter the fetal lung by improving compliances, increasing lung volumes, ...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jobe AH

    更新日期:1992-06-01 00:00:00

  • Factors influencing birthweight for gestational age, with special respect to risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation.

    abstract::In a prospective clinical study from an unselected, area-based population, the influence on birthweight for gestational age of different factors was studied, with special respect to 15 risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) recognizable in early pregnancy. In the multiple regression analyses performed...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cnattingius S,Axelsson O,Eklund G,Lindmark G,Meirik O

    更新日期:1984-09-01 00:00:00

  • Withholding or withdrawal of life sustaining treatment for newborn infants.

    abstract::In the last two decades the survival of extreme preterm infants and sick newborn infants has improved significantly due to the advances in perinatal medicine. Despite this advance, for some babies, withholding or withdrawal of life sustaining treatment may be the best option in the interest of the baby. An overview of...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Aladangady N,de Rooy L

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Behavioural states in growth-retarded human fetuses.

    abstract::Behavioural state observations were carried out on 12 fetuses which subsequently had birthweights below the 10th percentile. Their gestational ages at the time of study ranged from 32 to 40 weeks. Real-time ultrasound scanning was used to detect fetal body and eye movements, and the fetal heart rate was continuously r...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Vliet MA,Martin CB Jr,Nijhuis JG,Prechtl HF

    更新日期:1985-11-01 00:00:00

  • Global perfusion assessment and tissue oxygen saturation in preterm infants: where are we?

    abstract::Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring is a new challenge for clinicians who deal with early detection of dangerous hypoperfusion in the brain, as well as in splanchnic and renal districts in critically ill preterm infants. Previous studies performed on infants and children with congenital heart disease, demonst...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cerbo RM,Maragliano R,Pozzi M,Strocchio L,Mostert M,Manzoni P,Stronati M

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Early human development: neonatal tumours: vascular tumours.

    abstract::Vascular tumours (haemangiomas and malformations) are common tumours of infancy and childhood. They represent a group of mostly benign conditions, which present early, can grow rapidly and be symptomatic or disfiguring. There are various management options, with different cosmetic and functional outcomes. Haemangiomas...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McHoney M

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Is there a relationship between cord blood pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and birth weight and length?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Infants whose mothers had low serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in the first trimester were observed to have intrauterine growth retardation. AIM:Suggesting that PAPP-A plays an important role in the availability and activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which affect growth, we ...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Senses DA,Coskun A,Kiseli M,Berberoglu M,Kandemir O,Yalvac S,Duran S

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Aerobic exercise during pregnancy influences infant heart rate variability at one month of age.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previously, we reported that regular maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy was associated with lower fetal heart rate (HR) and higher heart rate variability (HRV) at 36weeks gestation. We now report the effect of maternal exercise on infant HR and HRV in subjects who remained active in the study at the ...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: May LE,Scholtz SA,Suminski R,Gustafson KM

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Modifiable risk factors, sleep environment, developmental physiology and common polymorphisms: understanding and preventing sudden infant deaths.

    abstract::Unexpected death in infancy may be a consequence of recognisable pathophysiological processes, or may remain unexplained after thorough investigation. We review the appropriate investigations that should be performed after unexpected infant deaths, and the recent changes to UK law that will make such investigations ma...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fleming P,Tsogt B,Blair PS

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Mother-child interaction and cognitive development in children prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the influence of mother-child interaction on children's cognitive development in a group of children prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine. STUDY DESIGN:The study is part of a prospective longitudinal project investigating the development of children born to women in opioid maintenance t...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Konijnenberg C,Sarfi M,Melinder A

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Neurodevelopmental pathways to preterm children's specific and general mathematic abilities.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Preterm children have problems with mathematics but knowledge about the predictors of specific mathematic abilities in preterm populations is scarce. AIMS:This study investigated neurodevelopmental pathways to children's general and specific mathematic abilities across the full gestational age range. STUDY...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jaekel J,Bartmann P,Schneider W,Wolke D

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Validation of maternal self-report in retrospective studies.

    abstract::Case-control studies are frequently performed in prenatal and perinatal epidemiology. For data collection, these studies often rely on self-administered questionnaires or personal interviews. Although of importance, validation of these measurement instruments received little attention in epidemiologic research so far....

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 评论,信件


    authors: van Gelder MM,Roeleveld N

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the different kinds of feeding on the level of fecal calprotectin.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Controversial results have been reported on the effect of type of feeding on the level of fecal calprotectin in infants. OBJECTIVE:To assess fecal calprotectin levels in breast fed or nonbreast fed healthy infants. DESIGN:A study was conducted to compare fecal calprotectin in infants who were exclusively b...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li F,Ma J,Geng S,Wang J,Ren F,Sheng X

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Amniocentesis for threatened preterm labor with intact membranes and the impact on adverse outcome in infants born at 22 to 28 weeks of gestation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:It remains unclear whether performing amniocentesis to detect intra-amniotic infection is useful for improving neonatal outcomes. AIMS:To determine the efficacy of amniocentesis on the neonatal outcomes in women exhibiting threatened preterm labor and intact membranes. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective cohort stu...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maki Y,Furukawa S,Kodama Y,Sameshima H,Ikenoue T

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospitalized infants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hospitalized infants requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represent a high-risk group. Recent data on risk factors for mortality following CPR in this population are lacking. AIMS:We hypothesized that infant demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and levels of cardiopulmonary support at the time o...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hornik CP,Graham EM,Hill K,Li JS,Ofori-Amanfo G,Clark RH,Smith PB

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Fetal and maternal metabolic responses to exercise during pregnancy.

    abstract::Pregnancy is characterized by physiological, endocrine and metabolic adaptations creating a pseudo-diabetogenic state of progressive insulin resistance. These adaptations occur to sustain continuous fetal requirements for nutrients and oxygen. Insulin resistance develops at the level of the skeletal muscle, and matern...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mottola MF,Artal R

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Towards multimodal brain monitoring in asphyxiated newborns with amplitude-integrated EEG and simultaneous somatosensory evoked potentials.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) offer an additional bedside tool for outcome prediction after perinatal asphyxia. AIMS:To assess the reliability of SEPs recorded with bifrontoparietal amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) brain monitoring setup for outcome prediction in asphyxiated newbo...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nevalainen P,Metsäranta M,Marchi V,Toiviainen-Salo S,Vanhatalo S,Lauronen L

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • Mothers' adaptation to antenatal diagnosis of surgically correctable anomalies.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the applicability of Drotar model when the diagnosis of congenital malformation is made antenatally. METHODS:In a 3-year period (2000-2003) fifty mothers, counselled for fetal malformations amenable to surgical correction at birth, were interviewed. Statistical associations were sought between each...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aite L,Zaccara A,Nahom A,Trucchi A,Iacobelli B,Bagolan P

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Prematurity and neonatal noxious events exert lasting effects on infant pain behaviour.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is concern that exposure of preterm infants to noxious insults over a prolonged period may have long term effects on their developing nervous system. AIMS:To investigate medium and long term effects of heel pricks in infants over the first year of life. STUDY DESIGN:Study 1-a longitudinal study, 2 da...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abdulkader HM,Freer Y,Garry EM,Fleetwood-Walker SM,McIntosh N

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Fetal behaviour does not differ between boys and girls.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Little is known about sex differences in human fetal heart and behaviour. PATIENTS AND METHODS:One hundred twenty-three nulliparous healthy women carrying a male (n=56) or female (n=67) fetus participated in this study. All pregnancies remained uncomplicated and delivery was uneventful. Ultrasound observa...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Robles de Medina PG,Visser GH,Huizink AC,Buitelaar JK,Mulder EJ

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • Foetal size and body proportion at 17-19 weeks of gestation and neonatal size, proportion, and outcome.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether proportionate or disproportionate foetal smallness at 17 to 19 weeks of gestation in low-risk pregnancies was associated with size, body constitution, and adverse outcome at birth. METHODS:We included ultrasound measurements at 17-19 weeks of gestation in 7285 uncomplicated pregnancies w...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rasmussen S,Kiserud T,Albrechtsen S

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00