Serum antinuclear and extractable nuclear antigen antibody prevalence and associated morbidity and mortality in the general population over 15 years.


:The prevalence of ANA and anti-ENA in the general population is not well established, especially their clinical significance in healthy subjects. We herein determined the prevalence and predictive value of serum ANA and anti-ENA for connective tissue diseases (CTD), cancer, and mortality. We took advantage of a randomly selected sample of the 1998 general population (Isola I) consisting of 2828 subjects (53% women, age 43±13 years) from a well-defined Northern Italian area. Serum ANA and anti-ENA were tested on the 2690 samples available in 2012 (Isola II, 50% women, age 58±13 years). Administrative databases were searched for CTD, cancer diagnosis, and death cases occurring between enrollment and December 31, 2013. The hazard ratio (HR) was calculated for incident cases. Serum ANA is positive in 18.1% for any titer and 6.1% for titers ≥1:160, 23% in subjects over 50 years and 13.1% and 6.1% for any titer and titers ≥1:160, respectively, in women. The HR for CTD development was significantly high for all ANA titers, with the highest for ANA ≥1:160 (HR 14.19, 95% CI 3.07-65.68). ANA positivity was not associated with cancer (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.75-1.43), or with mortality (HR adjusted for age and sex 1.40; 95% CI 0.94-2.09). Serum anti-ENA is positive in a minority of subjects with highest figures for anti-nucleosome (1.9%), -histone (1.6%) and -PM/Scl (1.5%). In conclusion, serum ANA prevalence in the general population is highest in senior subjects and in women, while the female predominance is significantly lower compared to overt CTD. Serum ANA is associated with an increased probability of CTD development over time, but does not influence survival or cancer risk.


Autoimmun Rev


Autoimmunity reviews


Selmi C,Ceribelli A,Generali E,Scirè CA,Alborghetti F,Colloredo G,Porrati L,Achenza MI,De Santis M,Cavaciocchi F,Massarotti M,Isailovic N,Paleari V,Invernizzi P,Matthias T,Zucchi A,Meroni PL




Has Abstract


2016-02-01 00:00:00














  • The clinical presentation and therapy of diseases related to anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA).

    abstract::Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are a family of autoantibodies that react with proteins predominantly expressed in cytoplasmic granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs). ANCA was initially detected using indirect immunofluorescence, allowing for different patterns such as p-ANCA (perin...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Weiner M,Segelmark M

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Is there a crossroad between infections, genetics, and Henoch-Schönlein purpura?

    abstract::Henoch-Schönlein purpura is the most common systemic vasculitis in childhood, characterized by the presence of immunoglobulin A deposits in the small vessels of skin, gastrointestinal tube, joints and kidneys. Although there have been great efforts made in elucidating its pathogenic mechanisms, Henoch-Schönlein purpur...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rigante D,Castellazzi L,Bosco A,Esposito S

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • The geoepidemiology of autoimmune muscle disease.

    abstract::Dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), and sporadic inclusion-body myositis (sIBM) constitute a heterogeneous group of subacute or chronic acquired skeletal muscle diseases. Known as idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), they all share the presence of considerable weakness due to muscle inflammation and necrosis...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Prieto S,Grau JM

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Autoimmune blistering diseases of the skin.

    abstract::Autoimmune skin diseases represent a heterogeneous group of disorders with grossly diverging clinical manifestations but partly shared underlying immunological mechanisms. They may affect the skin as an isolated organ or among systemic diseases. In addition unspecific cutaneous symptoms or drug-induced unwanted effect...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sticherling M,Erfurt-Berge C

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • The pipeline of targeted therapies under clinical development for primary Sjögren's syndrome: A systematic review of trials.

    abstract::To date, no immunomodulatory drug has proved efficacious in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). In pSS, difficulties in drug efficacy assessment is related to the large spectrum of clinical involvements (glandular/extraglandular involvement), to the lack of correlation between symptoms of dryness and glandular function ...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Felten R,Scher F,Sibilia J,Gottenberg JE,Arnaud L

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Rituximab treatment for IgA vasculitis: A systematic review.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV) is a systemic small vessel vasculitis for which treatment of severe cases is usually based on glucocorticoids and other conventional immunosuppressive drugs. The role of rituximab for resistant or refractory cases has been explored in isolated case reports and small series....

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hernández-Rodríguez J,Carbonell C,Mirón-Canelo JA,Diez-Ruiz S,Marcos M,Chamorro AJ

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of neurovascular coupling in autoimmunity to water and ion channels.

    abstract::Much progress has been made in understanding autoimmune channelopathies, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are not always clear due to broad expression of some channel proteins. Recent studies show that autoimmune conditions that interfere with neurovascular coupling in the central nervous system (CNS) can lead...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jukkola P,Gu C

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • The blood nucleome in the pathogenesis of SLE.

    abstract::Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies to DNA among other nuclear molecules. These antibodies can form immune complexes that promote pathogenesis by stimulating cytokine production and depositing in the kidney to instigate nephritis. The an...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pisetsky DS,Ullal AJ

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Myocarditis in auto-immune or auto-inflammatory diseases.

    abstract::Myocarditis is a major cause of heart disease in young patients and a common precursor of heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Some auto-immune and/or auto-inflammatory diseases may be accompanied by myocarditis, such as sarcoidosis, Behçet's disease, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, myositis, an...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Comarmond C,Cacoub P

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • B-cells and mixed cryoglobulinemia.

    abstract::Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) is a systemic small-vessel vasculitis; B-cell expansion is the biological substrate of the disease. It can be regarded as benign lymphoproliferative condition that may evolve to frank lymphoma. HCV infection is the main causative factor of MC, as well as of other overlapping disorders, thro...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ferri C,Antonelli A,Mascia MT,Sebastiani M,Fallahi P,Ferrari D,Giunti M,Pileri SA,Zignego AL

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • New use for an old treatment: Hydroxychloroquine as a potential treatment for systemic vasculitis.

    abstract::Antimalarials have been an effective and safe treatment for autoimmune rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus for more than a hundred years. There are surprisingly few reports of hydroxychloroquine use in the systemic vasculitides. Hydroxychloroquine has antithrombotic, cardiovascular, antimicrobial a...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Casian A,Sangle SR,D'Cruz DP

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • B cells and HCV: an infection model of autoimmunity.

    abstract::In addition to cause acute and chronic liver disease, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently associated to autoimmune disorders, such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, primary glomerulonephritis, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and post-transplant proliferative disorders. Progression to malignant ...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sansonno L,Tucci FA,Sansonno S,Lauletta G,Troiani L,Sansonno D

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Kinin receptors: Key regulators of autoimmunity.

    abstract::The central function of the immune system is to protect the host from environmental agents such as microbes or chemicals, thereby preserving the integrity of the body, and preventing the onset of illness and infection. Moreover, the immune system is constantly challenged to discriminate self vs. non-self and mediate t...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dutra RC

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia.

    abstract::Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a rare autoimmune disease due to an abnormal T cell response, notably supported by splenic T follicular helper cells, that stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of autoreactive B cells. The antiplatelet autoantibodies they produce facilitate platelet phagocytosis by macropha...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Audia S,Mahévas M,Samson M,Godeau B,Bonnotte B

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Associated autoimmune diseases in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

    abstract::Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease with aberrant immune responses to specific β-cell autoantigens, resulting in insulin deficiency. Children and adolescents with T1DM may also develop organ-specific multiple autoimmunity in the context of APS (autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome) type 1, 2 or 3. The most fr...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kakleas K,Soldatou A,Karachaliou F,Karavanaki K

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Hashimoto thyroiditis: clinical and diagnostic criteria.

    abstract::Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), now considered the most common autoimmune disease, was described over a century ago as a pronounced lymphoid goiter affecting predominantly women. In addition to this classic form, several other clinico-pathologic entities are now included under the term HT: fibrous variant, IgG4-related va...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Caturegli P,De Remigis A,Rose NR

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Surviving the butterfly and the wolf: mortality trends in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To address changes in survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to compare mortality statistics with associated disease specific as well as comorbid conditions. METHODS:Review of the international literature on survival of patients with SLE. RESULTS:During the first half of the 20th c...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Borchers AT,Keen CL,Shoenfeld Y,Gershwin ME

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Infectome: a platform to trace infectious triggers of autoimmunity.

    abstract::The "exposome" is a term recently used to describe all environmental factors, both exogenous and endogenous, which we are exposed to in a lifetime. It represents an important tool in the study of autoimmunity, complementing classical immunological research tools and cutting-edge genome wide association studies (GWAS)....

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bogdanos DP,Smyk DS,Invernizzi P,Rigopoulou EI,Blank M,Pouria S,Shoenfeld Y

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • Catastrophic antiphospholipid (Asherson's) syndrome and genetic thrombophilic disorders in obstetrics.

    abstract::Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) (Asherson's Syndrome), is a life-threatening condition characterized by a rapidly progressive thromboses resulting in a multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS), evidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. CAPS d...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Makatsariya A,Asherson RA,Bitsadze V,Baimuradova S,Akinshina S

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • The role of monocytes in ANCA-associated vasculitides.

    abstract::The anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) are a heterogeneous group of diseases causing inflammation in small blood vessels and linked by the presence of circulating ANCA specific for proteinase 3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO). These antigens are present both in the cytoplasmic granu...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brunini F,Page TH,Gallieni M,Pusey CD

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical characteristics and risk factors for low dose methotrexate toxicity: a cohort of 28 patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Low dose (10-25 mg/week) methotrexate is widely used for the management of systemic inflammatory diseases, and is considered to be relatively safe. Toxicity due to low dose MTX has been reported but is poorly characterized. We describe the clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes of low dose MTX toxicity...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kivity S,Zafrir Y,Loebstein R,Pauzner R,Mouallem M,Mayan H

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pathophysiology of myasthenia gravis with antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor, muscle-specific kinase and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4.

    abstract::Myasthenia gravis is caused by antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor, muscle-specific kinase, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4, or possibly yet unidentified antibodies. The mechanisms by which these antibodies interfere with the function of postsynaptic proteins include complement activation, anti...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Verschuuren JJ,Huijbers MG,Plomp JJ,Niks EH,Molenaar PC,Martinez-Martinez P,Gomez AM,De Baets MH,Losen M

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Leflunomide in psoriatic arthritis.

    abstract::Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a common unique form of inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. Its exact prevalence is unknown but 5-30% of the 2-3% of subjects of the general population affected with psoriasis are developing PsA. Typically PsA presents as an oligoarticular asymmetrical arthritis with predomin...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kaltwasser JP

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Tight control applied to the biological therapy of rheumatoid arthritis.

    abstract::In the last decade, treatment strategies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have included the early use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, since prompt suppression of disease activity is associated with a reduction in radiological damage. This strategy has now been incorporated into the broader concept of "tight co...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Epis OM,Giacomelli L,Deidda S,Bruschi E

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Intravenous immunoglobulin - indications and mechanisms in cardiovascular diseases.

    abstract::Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is efficient in various immune mediated conditions. Various cardiovascular diseases are mediated by inflammatory processes and autoimmune mechanisms. Therefore, it seems conceivable to employ IVIG as an immunomodulating therapy in such indications. In this paper we review the possible...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nussinovitch U,Shoenfeld Y

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Multiple sclerosis, the microbiome, TLR2, and the hygiene hypothesis.

    abstract::The pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) involves a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Studies of monozygotic twins suggest a significant role for environmental factors in susceptibility to MS. Numerous studies, driven by the "Hygiene Hypothesis," have focu...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wasko NJ,Nichols F,Clark RB

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies: methodological aspects and clinical significance in systemic vasculitis.

    abstract::Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are the serological hallmark of some idiopathic systemic vasculitides, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and, to a lesser extent, Churg-Strauss syndrome (CCS), the so-called ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV). ANCA were first det...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Radice A,Bianchi L,Sinico RA

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • CD20: a target antigen for immunotherapy of autoimmune diseases.

    abstract::This article reviews the role of CD20 antigen in B cell function and the effectiveness and limits of passive immunotherapy with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (Rituximab) in the treatment of autoimmune (or immune-mediated) diseases. Active immunotherapy is a more feasible way to control these chronic diseases. A peptid...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Perosa F,Favoino E,Caragnano MA,Prete M,Dammacco F

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Risk of scleroderma according to the type of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Among them, ICIs-induced systemic sclerosis (SSc) is poorly known. METHODS:To better characterize this irAE, our comprehensive approach combined the description of ICIs-induced scleroderma cases, the systematic ...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Terrier B,Humbert S,Preta LH,Delage L,Razanamahery J,Laurent-Roussel S,Mestiri R,Beaudeau L,Legendre P,Goupil F,Hadjadj J,Stolzenberg MC,Treluyer JM,Westeel V,Valnet-Rabier MB,Wislez M,Mouthon L,Chouchana L

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical associations of renal involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Renal involvement in anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is associated with significant morbidity and higher mortality rates. This study examined clinical manifestations associated with renal involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitis within a large, international cross-sectional co...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kronbichler A,Shin JI,Lee KH,Nakagomi D,Quintana LF,Busch M,Craven A,Luqmani RA,Merkel PA,Mayer G,Jayne DRW,Watts RA

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00