Serum antinuclear and extractable nuclear antigen antibody prevalence and associated morbidity and mortality in the general population over 15 years.


:The prevalence of ANA and anti-ENA in the general population is not well established, especially their clinical significance in healthy subjects. We herein determined the prevalence and predictive value of serum ANA and anti-ENA for connective tissue diseases (CTD), cancer, and mortality. We took advantage of a randomly selected sample of the 1998 general population (Isola I) consisting of 2828 subjects (53% women, age 43±13 years) from a well-defined Northern Italian area. Serum ANA and anti-ENA were tested on the 2690 samples available in 2012 (Isola II, 50% women, age 58±13 years). Administrative databases were searched for CTD, cancer diagnosis, and death cases occurring between enrollment and December 31, 2013. The hazard ratio (HR) was calculated for incident cases. Serum ANA is positive in 18.1% for any titer and 6.1% for titers ≥1:160, 23% in subjects over 50 years and 13.1% and 6.1% for any titer and titers ≥1:160, respectively, in women. The HR for CTD development was significantly high for all ANA titers, with the highest for ANA ≥1:160 (HR 14.19, 95% CI 3.07-65.68). ANA positivity was not associated with cancer (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.75-1.43), or with mortality (HR adjusted for age and sex 1.40; 95% CI 0.94-2.09). Serum anti-ENA is positive in a minority of subjects with highest figures for anti-nucleosome (1.9%), -histone (1.6%) and -PM/Scl (1.5%). In conclusion, serum ANA prevalence in the general population is highest in senior subjects and in women, while the female predominance is significantly lower compared to overt CTD. Serum ANA is associated with an increased probability of CTD development over time, but does not influence survival or cancer risk.


Autoimmun Rev


Autoimmunity reviews


Selmi C,Ceribelli A,Generali E,Scirè CA,Alborghetti F,Colloredo G,Porrati L,Achenza MI,De Santis M,Cavaciocchi F,Massarotti M,Isailovic N,Paleari V,Invernizzi P,Matthias T,Zucchi A,Meroni PL




Has Abstract


2016-02-01 00:00:00














  • The changing faces of IgG4-related disease: Clinical manifestations and pathogenesis.

    abstract::Since the earliest reports in 2001, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease has been defined as an autoimmune systemic disease characterized by the lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of affected tissues leading to fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis along with elevated serum IgG4 levels. Prior to this unifying hypothesis...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Islam AD,Selmi C,Datta-Mitra A,Sonu R,Chen M,Gershwin ME,Raychaudhuri SP

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Anti-annexin V antibodies: are they prothrombotic?

    abstract::Annexin V inhibits prothrombin activation and is able to prevent thrombus formation under normal venous and arterial blood flow conditions. Antibodies to annexin V have been identified in association with several pathological conditions, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with or without anti-phospholipid sy...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Esposito G,Tamby MC,Chanseaud Y,Servettaz A,Guillevin L,Mouthon L

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Exosomes: Effectual players in rheumatoid arthritis.

    abstract::Rheumatoid arthritis is a well-known chronic inflammatory joint disorder. It encompasses systemic inflammation, autoimmunity and development of several joint abnormalities leading to the lifelong disability and increased mortality. Exosomes are nano-sized (30-100 nm) mammalian extracellular particles with essential pr...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tavasolian F,Moghaddam AS,Rohani F,Abdollahi E,Janzamin E,Momtazi-Borojeni AA,Moallem SA,Jamialahmadi T,Sahebkar A

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • P-glycoprotein in autoimmune diseases.

    abstract::Multidrug resistance-1 (MDR-1) is characterized by overfunction of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a pump molecule that decreases intracellular drug concentration by effluxing them from the intracellular space. Broad ranges of structurally unrelated compounds are transported by P-gp, including antineoplastic agents, HIV protea...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Richaud-Patin Y,Soto-Vega E,Jakez-Ocampo J,Llorente L

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • The pathogenesis of inflammatory muscle diseases: on the cutting edge among the environment, the genetic background, the immune response and the dysregulation of apoptosis.

    abstract::Inflammatory muscle diseases (IMD), including dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM), affect skeletal muscle, leading to profound tissue modification. The etiology of IMD is unknown, but multiple steps of the disease pathogenesis have been identified. The main alterations involve the immune response. Cellular infi...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pignone A,Fiori G,Del Rosso A,Generini S,Matucci-Cerinic M

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Environmental risk factors associated with ANCA associated vasculitis: A systematic mapping review.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a rare multi-system autoimmune disease, characterised by a pauci-immune necrotising small-vessel vasculitis, with a relapsing and remitting course. Like many autoimmune diseases, the exact aetiology of AAV, and the factors that influenc...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scott J,Hartnett J,Mockler D,Little MA

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanistic immunological based classification of rheumatoid arthritis.

    abstract::The classical autoimmunity paradigm in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is strongly supported by immunogenetics suggesting follicular helper T-cell responses driving high titre specific autoantibodies that pre-dates disease onset. Using the immunological disease continuum model of inflammation against self with "pure" adapti...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McGonagle D,Watad A,Savic S

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Anti-CD 20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) treatment for inflammatory ocular diseases.

    abstract::Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen expressed on B cells and widely used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis. There is a growing amount of literature which suggests that rituximab may be useful for inflammatory ocular diseases and intraocular lymphoma. F...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Miserocchi E,Pontikaki I,Modorati G,Gattinara M,Meroni PL,Gerloni V

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Impaired clearance of dying cells in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    abstract::Impaired clearance of apoptotic cell material has been implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Besides many other molecules, C1q and DNaseI contribute to an efficient clearance of dying cells. A frequently observed factor in SLE patients is the accumulation of unusually large amounts of a...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gaipl US,Voll RE,Sheriff A,Franz S,Kalden JR,Herrmann M

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Multiple sclerosis: geoepidemiology, genetics and the environment.

    abstract::Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by relapses and remissions. The risk of acquiring this complex disease is associated with exposure to environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. The epidemiology of MS has been exte...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Milo R,Kahana E

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • B-type natriuretic peptide in rheumatic diseases: a cardiac biomarker or a sophisticated acute phase reactant?

    abstract::Natriuretic peptides (NP) are secreted by cardiomyocytes and are reliable markers of cardiac dysfunction and cardiovascular risk by reflecting myocardial stress due to various etiologies. Clinical and occult heart involvement is frequently observed in patients with rheumatic diseases and is associated with increased m...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dimitroulas T,Giannakoulas G,Karvounis H,Garyfallos A,Settas L,Kitas G

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: current views upon safety and immunogenicity.

    abstract::Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory multisystem disease. The onset of viral and bacterial infections may favor the exacerbation of the disease, amplify autoimmune processes and contribute to mortality and morbidity. The prevention of influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae infec...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Murdaca G,Orsi A,Spanò F,Puppo F,Durando P,Icardi G,Ansaldi F

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Childhood- versus Adult-Onset Polyarteritis Nodosa Results from the French Vasculitis Study Group Registry.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate differences between childhood (cPAN)- and adult-onset polyarteritis nodosa (aPAN) patients. METHODS:cPAN patients' clinical findings at onset and outcomes were compared to those of aPAN patients from the French Vasculitis Study Group registry matched for year of enrollment and initial systemic...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Iudici M,Quartier P,Pagnoux C,Merlin E,Agard C,Aouba A,Roblot P,Cohen P,Terrier B,Mouthon L,Guillevin L,Puéchal X,French Vasculitis Study Group.

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • An anatomical view on macrophages in tolerance.

    abstract::Macrophages are divided into several functional subtypes involved in host defence, wound healing and immune regulation. In an alternate view, increased understanding of macrophage biology can also be gained by including anatomical location as a parameter. The focus of this review lies on tolerogenic features of macrop...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wermeling F,Karlsson MC,McGaha TL

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of neurovascular coupling in autoimmunity to water and ion channels.

    abstract::Much progress has been made in understanding autoimmune channelopathies, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are not always clear due to broad expression of some channel proteins. Recent studies show that autoimmune conditions that interfere with neurovascular coupling in the central nervous system (CNS) can lead...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jukkola P,Gu C

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Tools for critical appraisal of evidence in studies of diagnostic accuracy.

    abstract::Studies of accuracy are often more complex to understand than clinical trials, since there can be more than one outcome and scope (screening, diagnosis, and prognosis) and because results have to be reported in more than one way, than in clinical trials (relative risk or odds ratio). Sensitivity and specificity are co...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Giavarina D

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Anti-TNFalpha therapy in a cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients: clinical outcomes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the effectiveness of anti-TNFalpha agents by analysing the principal clinical outcomes in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS:1010 patients who received no clinical benefit from previous treatment with methotrexate and/or other DMARDs, were subsequently treated with one or more ...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Bazzani C,Filippini M,Caporali R,Bobbio-Pallavicini F,Favalli EG,Marchesoni A,Atzeni F,Sarzi-Puttini P,Gorla R

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Importance of the dense fine speckled pattern on HEp-2 cells and anti-DFS70 antibodies for the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune diseases.

    abstract::The presence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) is a hallmark of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD). The indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay on HEp-2 cells is a commonly used test for the detection of ANA and was recently recommended as the screening test of choice by a task force of the American College ...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mahler M,Hanly JG,Fritzler MJ

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment with etanercept in six patients with chronic hepatitis C infection and systemic autoimmune diseases.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe the clinical and immunologic features of 6 patients with rheumatic disease and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) chronic infection, treated with anti-TNF alpha drugs. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Six patients, with repeated positive serology for HCV infection, were affected by Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (4 cases), ...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cavazzana I,Ceribelli A,Cattaneo R,Franceschini F

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents for idiopathic recurrent pericarditis.

    abstract::Recurrent pericarditis is a frequent and troublesome complication of acute pericarditis. Aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and colchicine are the mainstay of therapy but few data is available on second-line treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 13 patients, 7 females (54%), median age 40 years...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peiffer-Smadja N,Domont F,Saadoun D,Cacoub P

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • New insights into the pathogenesis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis.

    abstract::Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) directed to proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) or myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) are closely associated with the idiopathic systemic necrotizing vasculitides, in particular Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis and its renal limited manifestation, and Churg Strauss Syndro...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kallenberg CG,Rarok A,Stegeman CA,Limburg PC

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • The etiology of autoimmune diabetes and thyroiditis: evidence for common genetic susceptibility.

    abstract::Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are the most common autoimmune endocrine diseases. Both are organ-specific T-cell mediated diseases. Abundant epidemiological data support a strong genetic basis for both T1D and AITD. Furthermore, both diseases commonly occur in the same individuals and...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Levin L,Tomer Y

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Tight control applied to the biological therapy of rheumatoid arthritis.

    abstract::In the last decade, treatment strategies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have included the early use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, since prompt suppression of disease activity is associated with a reduction in radiological damage. This strategy has now been incorporated into the broader concept of "tight co...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Epis OM,Giacomelli L,Deidda S,Bruschi E

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic and immunological processes in the pathomechanism of gluten-sensitive enteropathy and associated metabolic bone disorders.

    abstract::Celiac disease, or gluten sensitive enteropathy is a relatively common disease of the jejunum, leading to malabsorption. It is an immune mediated disease, induced by gluten on the grounds of a specific genetic makeup. After gluten exposition immune processes are induced mainly by T-cells, causing typical intestinal an...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vereckei E,Szodoray P,Poor G,Kiss E

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Distinct roles of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    abstract::Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute a heterogeneous population of professional antigen presenting cells which are the initiators and key regulators for both immunity and tolerance induction. The significance and impact of DC biology in contemporary immunology and medical research is heightened by the award of the 2011 No...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chan VS,Nie YJ,Shen N,Yan S,Mok MY,Lau CS

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Meniere's disease might be an autoimmune condition?

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To review our current knowledge of the pathogenesis of Meniere's disease, including viral infection and immune system-mediated mechanisms, and to discuss the pathogenesis as it relates to pharmacotherapy. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW METHODOLOGY:Relevant publications on the aetiopathogenesis, molecular biology, geneti...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Greco A,Gallo A,Fusconi M,Marinelli C,Macri GF,de Vincentiis M

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Insights into IL-37, the role in autoimmune diseases.

    abstract::Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the impaired function and the destruction of tissues that are caused by an immune response in which aberrant antibodies are generated and attack the body's own cells and tissues. Interleukin (IL) -37, a new member of the IL-1 family, broadly reduces innate inflammation as well ...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Xu WD,Zhao Y,Liu Y

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Polymerase-1 pathway activation in acute multiple sclerosis relapse.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Increased expression of RNA polymerase 1 (POL1) molecular pathway was reported to be associated with increased disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the operating molecular mechanisms that characterize the pattern of acute MS relapse activity has not been thoroughly studied. OB...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Achiron A,Zilkha-Falb R,Feldman A,Bovim M,Rozen O,Sarova-Pinhas I,Magalashvili D,Dolev M,Menascu S,Gurevich M

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Is primary biliary cirrhosis a model autoimmune disease?

    abstract::Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has been coined a model autoimmune disease. In fact, it does share many similarities with other autoimmune diseases, but there are striking differences that illustrate the uniqueness of the immunopathology. Firstly, similar to other autoimmune diseases, there is an intense humoral and c...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ichiki Y,Shimoda S,Ishibashi H,Gershwin ME

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Haplotype specific alteration of diabetes MHC risk by olfactory receptor gene polymorphism.

    abstract::Evidence for genes associated with risk for Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the extended region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is accumulating. The aim of this study was to investigate the association pattern of the extended MHC region with T1D susceptibility to identify effects independent of well estab...

    journal_title:Autoimmunity reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jahromi MM

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00