Nonbiological pharmacotherapies for the treatment of diabetic macular edema.


INTRODUCTION:During the past decade, there have been significant advances in the pharmacotherapies for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Among the presently available treatment options, anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGF) agents are the most favored agents due to their efficacy and safety. The index review focuses on nonbiological therapies that have entered in phase 3 clinical trials for DME. AREAS COVERED:An extensive review of the literature was performed to identify various nonbiological immunotherapies i.e., drugs other than '-mAbs' (monoclonal antibodies including anti-VEGF agents), '-mibs' (proteasome inhibitors), '-NAbs' (nanoparticle albumin-bound), and '-nibs' (small molecule inhibitor/tyrosine kinase inhibitors), among others. Extended-release low-dose corticosteroid devices have been recently approved for the treatment of DME. Other compounds such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibody mimetic proteins, nonbiological growth factor inhibitors, and inhibitors of protein kinase C have been described. EXPERT OPINION:A number of therapies are under development for the pharmacological management of DME. Due to the rising healthcare costs associated with anti-VEGF agents, a number of alternate treatment options have been explored recently. Some of these agents have reached phase 3 in clinical trials and appear to have a promising role in the management of DME. As further research is conducted, the role of each individual agent will become more defined, alone or in combination therapy.


Agarwal A,Parriott J,Demirel S,Argo C,Sepah YJ,Do DV,Nguyen QD




Has Abstract


2015-01-01 00:00:00












  • Treatment advances in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    abstract::Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) encompass a heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies with varying natural histories and prognoses. Recent classifications for NHL have defined distinct lymphoma entities based on morphology, immunophenotype, genetic features, clonal cell lineage and clinical features. These new, more ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tan BR,Bartlett NL

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Bendamustine for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) often has an extended disease course. With a median age at diagnosis of 72 years, newer treatment options with less toxicity than standard nucleoside analogue-based regimens are needed. Historically, few therapy options are available once CLL has become refractory to nucl...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chang JE,Kahl BS

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacotherapy of retinal disease with visual cycle modulators.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Pharmacotherapy with visual cycle modulators (VCMs) is under investigation for retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), Stargardt macular dystrophy (SMD) and nonexudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), all blinding diseases that lack effective treatment options. AREAS COVERED:...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hussain RM,Gregori NZ,Ciulla TA,Lam BL

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Can binimetinib, encorafenib and masitinib be more efficacious than currently available mutation-based targeted therapies for melanoma treatment?

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Historically, there were few effective and durable treatments for metastatic melanoma. Recently, mutation based targeted therapies have revolutionized treatment and outcomes for patients with metastatic melanoma. Specifically, inhibitors aimed at BRAF, NRAS, and C-KIT mutations are now commonly used in tre...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Turner MC,Rossfeld K,Salama AK,Tyler D,Beasley G

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolic syndrome management.

    abstract::Overweight, obesity and the metabolic syndrome occur in genetically susceptible individuals with environmental influences, and may be further compounded by other disorders of metabolism or pharmacological therapy that increase insulin resistance or promotes weight gain. Treatment of the metabolic syndrome should focus...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stone NJ,Schmeltz LR

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Differences between long-acting insulins for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD:Most guidelines suggest that failure of oral antidiabetic drugs should be followed by the addition of a basal insulin with aggressive titration of the dose. In most countries, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH)-insulin, glargine and detemir are the only choices. Clinical trials show that the metab...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jensen MG,Hansen M,Brock B,Rungby J

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Clopidogrel in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    abstract::Clopidogrel has become a mainstay in the management of acute coronary syndrome patients over the past decade, as well as an essential component of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) pharmacotherapy. Until recently, no prospective study has evaluated the effectiveness of clopidogrel in the setting of an ST-segmen...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hamdalla H,Moliterno DJ

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • Drug treatment of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    abstract::Non-motor symptoms may considerably reduce parkinsonian quality of life, particularly in advanced stages of the disease. Autonomic features, such as seborrhoea, hyperhidrosis, orthostatic hypotension, excessive salivation, bladder dysfunction and GI disturbances, and neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as depression, slee...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Müller T

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • Current pharmacotherapy of bradykinin-mediated angioedema.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Bradykinin-mediated angioedema is characterized by subcutaneous and/or submucosal edema formation without wheals and pruritus. It is linked to bradykinin-enhanced vascular permeability and, therefore, it does not respond to conventional measures, but requires specific therapy. AREAS COVERED:This summary b...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Farkas H

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Combination dabrafenib and trametinib in the management of advanced melanoma with BRAFV600 mutations.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:In the 40-50% of advanced melanoma patients with tumors harboring BRAF V600E and V600 K mutations, BRAF inhibitors such as dabrafenib are a highly effective treatment. However, most patients develop resistance after several months on treatment. The addition of a MEK inhibitor, such as trametinib, to BRAF i...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Spain L,Julve M,Larkin J

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Safinamide in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    abstract:IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD:Current therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily directed at reversing the motor symptoms that are the consequence of dopamine deficiency and includes levodopa, dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase (MAO) B inhibitors. New drugs offering both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic actions ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Schapira AH

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Needed, new paradigms in antibiotic development.

    abstract::While antibiotic resistance has grabbed the headlines and the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, the lack of susceptibility of biofilms formed both on animate and inanimate surfaces deserve greater attention from the industry, medical practitioners and regulators. The current literature tells us that the inhere...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Ceri H,Olson ME,Turner RJ

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Dehydroepiandrosterone for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    abstract::The adrenal steroidal hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been studied as a potential pharmacological agent in the treatment of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both the endocrine effects (the ability to be converted peripherally to androgenic and oestrogenic sex steroids) and the immun...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van Vollenhoven RF

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacotherapy of post-transplant viral infections.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Management of a number of significant viral pathogens in transplant recipients remains challenging. OBJECTIVES:To define an optimal antiviral approach to the management of cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6), Epstein-Barr (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sun HY,Singh N

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Tolterodine extended-release for overactive bladder.

    abstract::Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common problem. Affected individuals suffer decreased quality of life and productivity. The mainstay of pharmacological treatment of OAB is antimuscarinic agents. Tolterodine was the first antimuscarinic drug designed specifically for treating OAB. Compared with the immediate-release (IR)...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chung DE,Te AE

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Sorafenib in liver cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:With growing knowledge of the molecular pathway of carcinogenesis, targeted therapies have become the 'blue ocean' of cancer treatment. sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (Raf/MEK/ERK) and several ty...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Woo HY,Heo J

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Exemestane in postmenopausal women with early or advanced breast cancer: a review.

    abstract:IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD:Inhibition of the aromatase enzyme in postmenopausal women reduces levels of estrogens, which is of therapeutic value in hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Exemestane is a third-generation steroidal irreversible inactivator of the aromatase enzyme used in early and advanced breast cancer for the t...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bertelli G,Gangadhara S

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • A review of the clinical efficacy and tolerability of almotriptan in acute migraine.

    abstract::Almotriptan is a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT)(1B/1D)-receptor agonist approved for the acute treatment of migraine. In 3500 acute migraine patients enrolled in short-term trials and 1500 patients in long-term open-label trials, almotriptan 12.5 mg was effective and well-tolerated. Almotriptan maintains a consi...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dodick DW

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • Vaginal ring delivery of hormone replacement therapy--a review.

    abstract::Vaginal ring delivery systems are a highly promising approach to hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The vagina is an excellent route for steroid absorption. Menopausal vaginal rings can be designed to allow very low dose local delivery of oestrogen to the vagina for the large percentage of postmenopausal women experie...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dezarnaulds G,Fraser IS

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Apremilast as a treatment for psoriasis.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Psoriasis is a common skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammatory lesions that are frequently vexing for patients and difficult for physicians to treat. Although multiple therapeutic options are available, all have limitations. Topical preparations have issues with patient adherence, as compared to...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shutty B,West C,Pellerin M,Feldman S

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Ombitasvir (ABT-267), a novel NS5A inhibitor for the treatment of hepatitis C.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Chronic hepatitis C infection is a global disease with 160 million people infected worldwide. Until recently, therapy was characterized by long duration, suboptimal success rates and significant adverse drug reactions. The development of direct-acting antivirals initiated a dramatic change in the treatment...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stirnimann G

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment options for esophageal cancer.

    abstract::There is considerable controversy over the level of evidence from randomized trials underpinning management decisions for patients presenting with localized cancer of the esophagus and esophago-gastric junction. There is also an optimism that new drugs and new approaches, including response prediction based on sequent...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Murphy TJ,Ravi N,Reynolds JV

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Empagliflozin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Despite the availability of numerous anti-diabetes drugs and treatment guidelines, many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not reach recommended targets for glycemic control. There remains an unmet need for effective and well-tolerated anti-diabetes agents that can be used as monotherapy or i...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jahagirdar V,Barnett AH

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pediatric status epilepticus: improved management with new drug therapies?

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Status Epilepticus (SE) is the most common neurological emergency of childhood. It requires prompt administration of appropriately selected anti-seizure medications. Areas covered: Following a distinction between estabilished and emergent drugs, we present pharmacological treatment options and their clinic...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Verrotti A,Ambrosi M,Pavone P,Striano P

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Alprazolam extended-release in panic disorder.

    abstract::Alprazolam-XR is an extended-release formulation of alprazolam designed to deliver sustained therapeutic concentrations for 24 h after once-daily dosing. Plasma concentrations gradually decline as the time for the next dose approaches, but still remain above therapeutic minimum levels. The anti-panic efficacy of alpra...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Rickels K

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • New treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus: combined therapy with sitagliptin.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Sitagliptin is a highly selective oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor. This drug increases the plasma concentration of active glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. These two hormones then simulate the secretion of insulin in a glucose-dependent manner and inhibit glu...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gagliardino JJ,Santoro S,Arellano S,Di Girolamo G

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of 24-week treatment with ipragliflozin on proinsulin/C-peptide ratio in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Chronic hyperglycemia has an adverse influence on beta-cell function, which is known as 'glucotoxicity'. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors lower the blood glucose concentration by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. This study was performed to clarify the influence of the SGLT2 inhibitor ipr...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Nagai Y,Ohta A,Sada Y,Kato H,Tanaka Y

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in the treatment of cancers of the breast and ovary.

    abstract::Peglyated liposomal doxorubicin was developed to maintain or enhance the demonstrated antineoplastic effects of doxorubicin, while improving the toxicity profile associated with this important cytotoxic agent. Accumulating clinical data have confirmed the activity of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in cancers of the b...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Markman M

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • Chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer.

    abstract::Chemoradiotherapy is a standard treatment for both unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy yields a 5-year survival rate of approximately 15% for patients with unresectable locally advanced non...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ohe Y

    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • Apomorphine in the treatment of Parkinson disease and other movement disorders.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Apomorphine, a medication that has been studied intensively over the years, is available in the US as intermittent subcutaneous injections for treatment of 'off' motor states in Parkinson disease. OBJECTIVE:The clinical literature is summarized with particular focus on randomized controlled studies of apomo...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gunzler SA

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00