SCARN a Novel Class of SCAR Protein That Is Required for Root-Hair Infection during Legume Nodulation.


:Rhizobial infection of legume root hairs requires a rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton to enable the establishment of plant-made infection structures called infection threads. In the SCAR/WAVE (Suppressor of cAMP receptor defect/WASP family verpolin homologous protein) actin regulatory complex, the conserved N-terminal domains of SCAR proteins interact with other components of the SCAR/WAVE complex. The conserved C-terminal domains of SCAR proteins bind to and activate the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, which can bind to actin filaments catalyzing new actin filament formation by nucleating actin branching. We have identified, SCARN (SCAR-Nodulation), a gene required for root hair infection of Lotus japonicus by Mesorhizobium loti. Although the SCARN protein is related to Arabidopsis thaliana SCAR2 and SCAR4, it belongs to a distinct legume-sub clade. We identified other SCARN-like proteins in legumes and phylogeny analyses suggested that SCARN may have arisen from a gene duplication and acquired specialized functions in root nodule symbiosis. Mutation of SCARN reduced formation of infection-threads and their extension into the root cortex and slightly reduced root-hair length. Surprisingly two of the scarn mutants showed constitutive branching of root hairs in uninoculated plants. However we observed no effect of scarn mutations on trichome development or on the early actin cytoskeletal accumulation that is normally seen in root hair tips shortly after M. loti inoculation, distinguishing them from other symbiosis mutations affecting actin nucleation. The C-terminal domain of SCARN binds to ARPC3 and ectopic expression of the N-terminal SCAR-homology domain (but not the full length protein) inhibited nodulation. In addition, we found that SCARN expression is enhanced by M. loti in epidermal cells and that this is directly regulated by the NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) transcription factor.


PLoS Genet


PLoS genetics


Qiu L,Lin JS,Xu J,Sato S,Parniske M,Wang TL,Downie JA,Xie F




Has Abstract


2015-10-30 00:00:00














  • The Caenorhabditis elegans mucin-like protein OSM-8 negatively regulates osmosensitive physiology via the transmembrane protein PTR-23.

    abstract::The molecular mechanisms of animal cell osmoregulation are poorly understood. Genetic studies of osmoregulation in yeast have identified mucin-like proteins as critical regulators of osmosensitive signaling and gene expression. Whether mucins play similar roles in higher organisms is not known. Here, we show that muta...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rohlfing AK,Miteva Y,Moronetti L,He L,Lamitina T

    更新日期:2011-01-06 00:00:00

  • The secreted immunoglobulin domain proteins ZIG-5 and ZIG-8 cooperate with L1CAM/SAX-7 to maintain nervous system integrity.

    abstract::During nervous system development, neuronal cell bodies and their axodendritic projections are precisely positioned through transiently expressed patterning cues. We show here that two neuronally expressed, secreted immunoglobulin (Ig) domain-containing proteins, ZIG-5 and ZIG-8, have no detectable role during embryon...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bénard CY,Blanchette C,Recio J,Hobert O

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Genomics of Cancer and a New Era for Cancer Prevention.

    abstract::A primary justification for dedicating substantial amounts of research funding to large-scale cancer genomics projects of both somatic and germline DNA is that the biological insights will lead to new treatment targets and strategies for cancer therapy. While it is too early to judge the success of these projects in t...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brennan P,Wild CP

    更新日期:2015-11-05 00:00:00

  • Basement membrane and cell integrity of self-tissues in maintaining Drosophila immunological tolerance.

    abstract::The mechanism underlying immune system recognition of different types of pathogens has been extensively studied over the past few decades; however, the mechanism by which healthy self-tissue evades an attack by its own immune system is less well-understood. Here, we established an autoimmune model of melanotic mass fo...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim MJ,Choe KM

    更新日期:2014-10-16 00:00:00

  • Genomic variation predicts adaptive evolutionary responses better than population bottleneck history.

    abstract::The relationship between population size, inbreeding, loss of genetic variation and evolutionary potential of fitness traits is still unresolved, and large-scale empirical studies testing theoretical expectations are surprisingly scarce. Here we present a highly replicated experimental evolution setup with 120 lines o...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ørsted M,Hoffmann AA,Sverrisdóttir E,Nielsen KL,Kristensen TN

    更新日期:2019-06-12 00:00:00

  • Nonredundant requirement for multiple histone modifications for the early anaphase release of the mitotic exit regulator Cdc14 from nucleolar chromatin.

    abstract::In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conserved phosphatase Cdc14 is required for the exit from mitosis. It is anchored on nucleolar chromatin by the Cfi1/Net1 protein until early anaphase, at which time it is released into the nucleoplasm. Two poorly understood, redundant pathways promote Cdc14 release, the FEAR (Cdc four...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hwang WW,Madhani HD

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • RNAi screening implicates a SKN-1-dependent transcriptional response in stress resistance and longevity deriving from translation inhibition.

    abstract::Caenorhabditis elegans SKN-1 (ortholog of mammalian Nrf1/2/3) is critical for oxidative stress resistance and promotes longevity under reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS), dietary restriction (DR), and normal conditions. SKN-1 inducibly activates genes involved in detoxification, protein homeostasis, and other ...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang J,Robida-Stubbs S,Tullet JM,Rual JF,Vidal M,Blackwell TK

    更新日期:2010-08-05 00:00:00

  • Manipulating mtDNA in vivo reprograms metabolism via novel response mechanisms.

    abstract::Mitochondria have been increasingly recognized as a central regulatory nexus for multiple metabolic pathways, in addition to ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Here we show that inducing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) stress in Drosophila using a mitochondrially-targeted Type I restriction endonuclease ...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bahhir D,Yalgin C,Ots L,Järvinen S,George J,Naudí A,Krama T,Krams I,Tamm M,Andjelković A,Dufour E,González de Cózar JM,Gerards M,Parhiala M,Pamplona R,Jacobs HT,Jõers P

    更新日期:2019-10-04 00:00:00

  • High-resolution mapping of expression-QTLs yields insight into human gene regulation.

    abstract::Recent studies of the HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines have identified large numbers of quantitative trait loci for gene expression (eQTLs). Reanalyzing these data using a novel Bayesian hierarchical model, we were able to create a surprisingly high-resolution map of the typical locations of sites that affect mRNA lev...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Veyrieras JB,Kudaravalli S,Kim SY,Dermitzakis ET,Gilad Y,Stephens M,Pritchard JK

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • The small GTPase RAB-35 defines a third pathway that is required for the recognition and degradation of apoptotic cells.

    abstract::In metazoans, apoptotic cells are swiftly engulfed by phagocytes and degraded inside phagosomes. Multiple small GTPases in the Rab family are known to function in phagosome maturation by regulating vesicle trafficking. We discovered rab-35 as a new gene important for apoptotic cell clearance from a genetic screen targ...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haley R,Wang Y,Zhou Z

    更新日期:2018-08-23 00:00:00

  • A Parallel G Quadruplex-Binding Protein Regulates the Boundaries of DNA Elimination Events of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    abstract::Guanine (G)-rich DNA readily forms four-stranded quadruplexes in vitro, but evidence for their participation in genome regulation is limited. We have identified a quadruplex-binding protein, Lia3, that controls the boundaries of germline-limited, internal eliminated sequences (IESs) of Tetrahymena thermophila. Differe...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carle CM,Zaher HS,Chalker DL

    更新日期:2016-03-07 00:00:00

  • Unique genetic signatures of local adaptation over space and time for diapause, an ecologically relevant complex trait, in Drosophila melanogaster.

    abstract::Organisms living in seasonally variable environments utilize cues such as light and temperature to induce plastic responses, enabling them to exploit favorable seasons and avoid unfavorable ones. Local adapation can result in variation in seasonal responses, but the genetic basis and evolutionary history of this varia...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Erickson PA,Weller CA,Song DY,Bangerter AS,Schmidt P,Bergland AO

    更新日期:2020-11-20 00:00:00

  • Exocyst-Dependent Membrane Addition Is Required for Anaphase Cell Elongation and Cytokinesis in Drosophila.

    abstract::Mitotic and cytokinetic processes harness cell machinery to drive chromosomal segregation and the physical separation of dividing cells. Here, we investigate the functional requirements for exocyst complex function during cell division in vivo, and demonstrate a common mechanism that directs anaphase cell elongation a...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Giansanti MG,Vanderleest TE,Jewett CE,Sechi S,Frappaolo A,Fabian L,Robinett CC,Brill JA,Loerke D,Fuller MT,Blankenship JT

    更新日期:2015-11-03 00:00:00

  • Contrasted patterns of crossover and non-crossover at Arabidopsis thaliana meiotic recombination hotspots.

    abstract::The vast majority of meiotic recombination events (crossovers (COs) and non-crossovers (NCOs)) cluster in narrow hotspots surrounded by large regions devoid of recombinational activity. Here, using a new molecular approach in plants, called "pollen-typing", we detected and characterized hundreds of CO and NCO molecule...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Drouaud J,Khademian H,Giraut L,Zanni V,Bellalou S,Henderson IR,Falque M,Mézard C

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of Neurod1 contributes to the lineage potential of Neurogenin3+ endocrine precursor cells in the pancreas.

    abstract::During pancreatic development, transcription factor cascades gradually commit precursor populations to the different endocrine cell fate pathways. Although mutational analyses have defined the functions of many individual pancreatic transcription factors, the integrative transcription factor networks required to regul...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mastracci TL,Anderson KR,Papizan JB,Sussel L

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Integrating genetic and network analysis to characterize genes related to mouse weight.

    abstract::Systems biology approaches that are based on the genetics of gene expression have been fruitful in identifying genetic regulatory loci related to complex traits. We use microarray and genetic marker data from an F2 mouse intercross to examine the large-scale organization of the gene co-expression network in liver, and...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ghazalpour A,Doss S,Zhang B,Wang S,Plaisier C,Castellanos R,Brozell A,Schadt EE,Drake TA,Lusis AJ,Horvath S

    更新日期:2006-08-18 00:00:00

  • Systemic Regulation of RAS/MAPK Signaling by the Serotonin Metabolite 5-HIAA.

    abstract::Human cancer is caused by the interplay of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and inherited variations in cancer susceptibility genes. While many of the tumor initiating mutations are well characterized, the effect of genetic background variation on disease onset and progression is less understood. We h...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmid T,Snoek LB,Fröhli E,van der Bent ML,Kammenga J,Hajnal A

    更新日期:2015-05-15 00:00:00

  • Epigenetic regulation by heritable RNA.

    abstract::Genomic concepts are based on the assumption that phenotypes arise from the expression of genetic variants. However, the presence of non-Mendelian inheritance patterns provides a direct challenge to this view and suggests an important role for alternative mechanisms of gene regulation and inheritance. Over the past fe...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Liebers R,Rassoulzadegan M,Lyko F

    更新日期:2014-04-17 00:00:00

  • Mouse pachytene checkpoint 2 (trip13) is required for completing meiotic recombination but not synapsis.

    abstract::In mammalian meiosis, homologous chromosome synapsis is coupled with recombination. As in most eukaryotes, mammalian meiocytes have checkpoints that monitor the fidelity of these processes. We report that the mouse ortholog (Trip13) of pachytene checkpoint 2 (PCH2), an essential component of the synapsis checkpoint in...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li XC,Schimenti JC

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Genome-wide CRISPR-dCas9 screens in E. coli identify essential genes and phage host factors.

    abstract::High-throughput genetic screens are powerful methods to identify genes linked to a given phenotype. The catalytic null mutant of the Cas9 RNA-guided nuclease (dCas9) can be conveniently used to silence genes of interest in a method also known as CRISPRi. Here, we report a genome-wide CRISPR-dCas9 screen using a starti...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rousset F,Cui L,Siouve E,Becavin C,Depardieu F,Bikard D

    更新日期:2018-11-07 00:00:00

  • Gluconeogenesis and PEPCK are critical components of healthy aging and dietary restriction life extension.

    abstract::High glucose diets are unhealthy, although the mechanisms by which elevated glucose is harmful to whole animal physiology are not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, high glucose shortens lifespan, while chemically inflicted glucose restriction promotes longevity. We investigated the impact of glucose metaboli...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Onken B,Kalinava N,Driscoll M

    更新日期:2020-08-25 00:00:00

  • A mutation in the SUV39H2 gene in Labrador Retrievers with hereditary nasal parakeratosis (HNPK) provides insights into the epigenetics of keratinocyte differentiation.

    abstract::Hereditary nasal parakeratosis (HNPK), an inherited monogenic autosomal recessive skin disorder, leads to crusts and fissures on the nasal planum of Labrador Retrievers. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 13 HNPK cases and 23 controls. We obtained a single strong association signal on chromosome...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jagannathan V,Bannoehr J,Plattet P,Hauswirth R,Drögemüller C,Drögemüller M,Wiener DJ,Doherr M,Owczarek-Lipska M,Galichet A,Welle MM,Tengvall K,Bergvall K,Lohi H,Rüfenacht S,Linek M,Paradis M,Müller EJ,Roosje P,Leeb

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • A candidate gene approach identifies the CHRNA5-A3-B4 region as a risk factor for age-dependent nicotine addiction.

    abstract::People who begin daily smoking at an early age are at greater risk of long-term nicotine addiction. We tested the hypothesis that associations between nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genetic variants and nicotine dependence assessed in adulthood will be stronger among smokers who began daily nicotine exposure...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Weiss RB,Baker TB,Cannon DS,von Niederhausern A,Dunn DM,Matsunami N,Singh NA,Baird L,Coon H,McMahon WM,Piper ME,Fiore MC,Scholand MB,Connett JE,Kanner RE,Gahring LC,Rogers SW,Hoidal JR,Leppert MF

    更新日期:2008-07-11 00:00:00

  • Differential paralog divergence modulates genome evolution across yeast species.

    abstract::Evolutionary outcomes depend not only on the selective forces acting upon a species, but also on the genetic background. However, large timescales and uncertain historical selection pressures can make it difficult to discern such important background differences between species. Experimental evolution is one tool to c...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanchez MR,Miller AW,Liachko I,Sunshine AB,Lynch B,Huang M,Alcantara E,DeSevo CG,Pai DA,Tucker CM,Hoang ML,Dunham MJ

    更新日期:2017-02-14 00:00:00

  • Systems biology of tissue-specific response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum reveals differentiated apoptosis in the tick vector Ixodes scapularis.

    abstract::Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects cell function in both vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Global tissue-specific response and apoptosis signaling pathways were characterized in I. scapularis...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ayllón N,Villar M,Galindo RC,Kocan KM,Šíma R,López JA,Vázquez J,Alberdi P,Cabezas-Cruz A,Kopáček P,de la Fuente J

    更新日期:2015-03-27 00:00:00

  • The derived allele of a novel intergenic variant at chromosome 11 associates with lower body mass index and a favorable metabolic phenotype in Greenlanders.

    abstract::The genetic architecture of the small and isolated Greenlandic population is advantageous for identification of novel genetic variants associated with cardio-metabolic traits. We aimed to identify genetic loci associated with body mass index (BMI), to expand the knowledge of the genetic and biological mechanisms under...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andersen MK,Jørsboe E,Skotte L,Hanghøj K,Sandholt CH,Moltke I,Grarup N,Kern T,Mahendran Y,Søborg B,Bjerregaard P,Larsen CVL,Dahl-Petersen IK,Tiwari HK,Feenstra B,Koch A,Wiener HW,Hopkins SE,Pedersen O,Melbye M,Boy

    更新日期:2020-01-24 00:00:00

  • Trans-Reactivation: A New Epigenetic Phenomenon Underlying Transcriptional Reactivation of Silenced Genes.

    abstract::In order to study the role played by cellular RNA pools produced by homologous genomic loci in defining the transcriptional state of a silenced gene, we tested the effect of non-functional alleles of the white gene in the presence of a functional copy of white, silenced by heterochromatin. We found that non-functional...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Onorati MC,Arancio W,Cavalieri V,Ingrassia AM,Pavesi G,Corona DF

    更新日期:2015-08-20 00:00:00

  • Reproductive Aging Drives Protein Accumulation in the Uterus and Limits Lifespan in C. elegans.

    abstract::Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans is characterized by widespread physiological and molecular changes, but the mechanisms that determine the rate at which these changes occur are not well understood. In this study, we identify a novel link between reproductive aging and somatic aging in C. elegans. By measuring global ag...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zimmerman SM,Hinkson IV,Elias JE,Kim SK

    更新日期:2015-12-11 00:00:00

  • A groupwise association test for rare mutations using a weighted sum statistic.

    abstract::Resequencing is an emerging tool for identification of rare disease-associated mutations. Rare mutations are difficult to tag with SNP genotyping, as genotyping studies are designed to detect common variants. However, studies have shown that genetic heterogeneity is a probable scenario for common diseases, in which mu...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Madsen BE,Browning SR

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Synonymous mutations make dramatic contributions to fitness when growth is limited by a weak-link enzyme.

    abstract::Synonymous mutations do not alter the specified amino acid but may alter the structure or function of an mRNA in ways that impact fitness. There are few examples in the literature, however, in which the effects of synonymous mutations on microbial growth rates have been measured, and even fewer for which the underlyin...

    journal_title:PLoS genetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kristofich J,Morgenthaler AB,Kinney WR,Ebmeier CC,Snyder DJ,Old WM,Cooper VS,Copley SD

    更新日期:2018-08-27 00:00:00