Detection of chemically induced renal injury: the cascade of degenerative morphological and functional changes that follow the primary nephrotoxic insult and evaluation of these changes by in-vitro methods.


:A diversity of chemicals cause discrete lesions in the kidney by a number of different mechanisms, and similar types of chemicals may give rise to more than one target cell injury. Screening for these lesions in vivo may be unreliable if a single noninvasive or invasive criterion is used. Instead, evidence of nephrotoxicity must be based on an array of tests, applied over a period of time. These should include biochemical, pathological and histochemical tests conducted in tandem. A primary toxic injury to the kidney may give rise to recovery, to permanently altered functional reserve or to a clinically identifiable effect, such as acute or chronic renal failure or malignancy. These clinical effects occur as a result of a cascade of degenerative changes which are a consequence of a primary lesion but also affect other parts of the kidney. A number of factors can modulate the progression of the primary insult to the end-effect. In-vitro nephrotoxicity screening is also difficult, but a rational approach can be based on current understanding of how chemicals target for and damage cells in anatomically well-defined regions of the kidney. In-vitro techniques can provide answers to specific questions about the mechanisms by which chemicals damage these discrete cell types. It is essential that a number of different in-vitro systems be developed in parallel to address the mechanistic aspects and screening of nephrotoxicity properly. Data generated in vitro must be related to the situation in vivo and used to devise reliable noninvasive tests for assessing nephrotoxicity in man.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Bach PH




Has Abstract


1989-03-01 00:00:00














  • Tin decreases femoral calcium independently of calcium homeostasis in rats.

    abstract::Oral administration of stannous chloride (SnCl2) (1.0 mg Sn2$/kg body weight) to rats, twice daily for 28 days, caused a significant increase in the tin (Sn) content and a corresponding decrease of the calcium (Ca) content in the femoral epiphysis, but was without effect on serum Ca, intestinal Ca absorption, and urin...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamaguchi M,Sugii K,Okada S

    更新日期:1982-01-01 00:00:00

  • Lead-induced apoptosis in PC 12 cells: involvement of p53, Bcl-2 family and caspase-3.

    abstract::It has been reported that lead could induce apoptosis in a variety of cell types. Although mitochondrion is regarded as the most pertinent pathway in mediating apoptosis, the exact mechanisms of lead-induced apoptosis are still largely unknown. Furthermore, there is little information about expressions and regulations...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu J,Ji LD,Xu LH

    更新日期:2006-10-10 00:00:00

  • Manganese in exhaled breath condensate: a new marker of exposure to welding fumes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate manganese in exhaled breath condensate (Mn-EBC) as an indicator of exposure to fumes from metal inert gas welding process. METHODS:We collected EBC and urine from 17 welders and 16 unexposed control subjects after 5 days exposure. Concentrations of manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe) and chrom...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hulo S,Chérot-Kornobis N,Howsam M,Crucq S,de Broucker V,Sobaszek A,Edme JL

    更新日期:2014-04-07 00:00:00

  • Detection of kidney damage by malathion impurities using a microdissection technique.

    abstract::O,O,S-Trimethylphosphorothioate (OOS-Me) and O,S,S-trimethylphosphorodithioate (OSS-Me) are impurities in technical grade malathion and related insecticides which have been shown to cause delayed death in rats following a single oral dose of 40-60 mg/kg. In connection with studies on the mode of action of these compou...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keadtisuke S,Dheranetra W,Fukuto TR

    更新日期:1989-04-01 00:00:00

  • Proteomic responses of BEAS-2B cells to nontoxic and toxic chromium: Protein indicators of cytotoxicity conversion.

    abstract::Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is an environmental human carcinogen which primarily targets lungs. Among a variety of toxic mechanisms, disruption of biological pathways via translational and post-translational modifications represents a key mechanism through which Cr (VI) induces cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis. To id...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bruno M,Ross J,Ge Y

    更新日期:2016-12-15 00:00:00

  • Ozone-induced human respiratory dysfunction and disease.

    abstract::Exercising volunteers exposed in chambers to as little as 80 ppb O3 for several hours exhibit impaired lung function and irritative lower airway symptoms. Comparable changes occur among children and young adults exposed to summer smog containing O3. Intensity of the response is reproducible but varies widely among ind...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bromberg PA,Koren HS

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Estrogen receptor alpha in mouse splenic lymphocytes: possible involvement in immunity.

    abstract::To elucidate relevance of estrogens to immune responses, we investigated whether estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) exists in mouse splenic B cells and T cells and the effect of 17beta-estradiol and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on lymphocyte mitogenesis. ERalpha was identified in both male and female mouse spl...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sakazaki H,Ueno H,Nakamuro K

    更新日期:2002-07-21 00:00:00

  • Repeated exposure of C57Bl mice to inhaled benzene at 10 ppm markedly depressed erythropoietic colony formation.

    abstract::Exposure of C57Bl mice to 10 ppm benzene (the current occupational exposure limit) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week causes a progressive depression in the in vitro colony forming ability of one of the erythroid progenitor cells, the colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E). Colony growth of cells from exposed mice was only 5% of...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baarson KA,Snyder CA,Albert RE

    更新日期:1984-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of partial hepatectomy on hepatic metallothionein and glutathione levels and cadmium distribution in different tissues.

    abstract::The changes in hepatic metallothionein (MT) and glutathione levels and cadmium distribution were investigated 72 hr after a subcutaneous administration of 1.5 mg Cd2+/kg as CdCl2H2O to normal and partially hepatectomized rats. Partial hepatectomy had no effect on native metallothionein content. Cadmium and MT content ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asokan P

    更新日期:1982-06-01 00:00:00

  • Role of GABA in the genesis of chemoconvulsant seizures.

    abstract::The direct or indirect interference with GABA-mediated neurotransmission results in convulsive seizure activity in humans and experimental animals. When this convulsant effect is experimentally analyzed, it turns out to be a product of discrete and restricted cerebral sites of drug action. Depending upon the brain cir...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gale K

    更新日期:1992-12-01 00:00:00

  • MCM-2 is a therapeutic target of Trichostatin A in colon cancer cells.

    abstract::Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have recently emerged as a new class of anti-cancer agents. Trichostatin A (TSA), a classical HDAC inhibitor, has been demonstrated to induce cell cycle arrest, promote cell apoptosis, and inhibit metastasis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying TSA function has not been fu...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu Y,He G,Wang Y,Guan X,Pang X,Zhang B

    更新日期:2013-07-31 00:00:00

  • EMP-induced alterations of tight junction protein expression and disruption of the blood-brain barrier.

    abstract::The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical to maintain cerebral homeostasis. In this study, we examined the effects of exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the functional integrity of BBB and, on the localization and expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins (occludin and ZO-1) in rats. Animals were sham or whol...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ding GR,Qiu LB,Wang XW,Li KC,Zhou YC,Zhou Y,Zhang J,Zhou JX,Li YR,Guo GZ

    更新日期:2010-07-15 00:00:00

  • Ethanolamine stimulates repair processes in acute CCl4 damage of mouse liver.

    abstract::Ethanolamine, a positively charged hydrophilic component of the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) which is also a precursor of phosphatidylcholine (PC), enhances the repair processes 24 h after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication of mouse liver. Ethanolamine quickly reduced aminotransferase activity released in the s...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murakami T,Nagamura Y,Hirano K

    更新日期:1998-01-31 00:00:00

  • Fate of the teratogenic and carcinogenic ochratoxin A in human perfused placenta.

    abstract::Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most frequent mycotoxins detected in human blood worldwide. Apart from its well known nephrotoxicity, OTA-induced teratogenicity and carcinogenicity proven in animals are potential effects also in humans. Pregnant women have been exposed to this food contaminant via dietary exposure in...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Woo CS,Partanen H,Myllynen P,Vähäkangas K,El-Nezami H

    更新日期:2012-01-05 00:00:00

  • Assessment of effect levels of chemicals from quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. I. Chronic lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL).

    abstract::With the multitude of new chemicals being synthesized and the paucity of long-term test data on chemicals that could be introduced into the environment, innovative approaches must be developed to determine the health and environmental effects of chemicals. Research was conducted to employ quantitative structure-activi...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mumtaz MM,Knauf LA,Reisman DJ,Peirano WB,DeRosa CT,Gombar VK,Enslein K,Carter JR,Blake BW,Huque KI

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Delayed neurochemical effects of prenatal exposure to MeHg in the cerebellum of developing rats.

    abstract::Human fetuses and neonates are particularly vulnerable to methylmercury (MeHg)-induced brain damage and are sensitive even to low exposure levels. Previous work of our group evidence that prenatal exposure to MeHg causes cognitive and behavioral alterations and disrupt hippocampus signaling. The current study aimed to...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heimfarth L,Delgado J,Mingori MR,Moresco KS,Pureur RP,Gelain DP,Moreira JCF

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Egg white-derived peptides prevent cardiovascular disorders induced by mercury in rats: Role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and NADPH oxidase.

    abstract::The study aimed to investigate the effects of egg white hydrolysate (EWH) on vascular disorders induced by mercury (Hg). For this, male Wistar rats were treated for 60days: Untreated (saline, i.m.); Mercury (HgCl2, i.m., 1st dose 4.6μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07μg/kg/day); Hydrolysate (EWH, gavage, 1g/kg/day); Hydrolys...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rizzetti DA,Martín Á,Corrales P,Fernandez F,Simões MR,Peçanha FM,Vassallo DV,Miguel M,Wiggers GA

    更新日期:2017-11-05 00:00:00

  • Double staining of β-galactosidase with fibrosis and cancer markers reveals the chronological appearance of senescence in liver carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine.

    abstract::Cellular senescence is characterized by irreversible cell arrest and is associated with the development of chronic diseases, including cancer. Here, we investigated the induction of cellular senescence during liver carcinogenesis. Liver cancer was induced in Fischer 344 rats with a weekly intraperitoneal injection of ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pacheco-Rivera R,Fattel-Fazenda S,Arellanes-Robledo J,Silva-Olivares A,Alemán-Lazarini L,Rodríguez-Segura M,Pérez-Carreón J,Villa-Treviño S,Shibayama M,Serrano-Luna J

    更新日期:2016-01-22 00:00:00

  • Effects of cyanobacteria Oscillatoria sp. lipopolysaccharide on B cell activation and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling.

    abstract::Cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae"), such as Oscillatoria sp., are a ubiquitous group of bacteria found in freshwater systems worldwide that are linked to illness and in some cases, death among humans and animals. Exposure to cyanobacteria occurs via ingestion of contaminated water or food-products. Exposure of the gut...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Swanson-Mungerson M,Incrocci R,Subramaniam V,Williams P,Hall ML,Mayer AMS

    更新日期:2017-06-05 00:00:00

  • A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for inhaled ethylene and ethylene oxide in mouse, rat, and human.

    abstract::Ethylene (ET) is the largest volume organic chemical. Mammals metabolize the olefin to ethylene oxide (EO), another important industrial chemical. The epoxide alkylates macromolecules and has mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. In order to estimate the EO burden in mice, rats, and humans resulting from inhalation e...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Filser JG,Klein D

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Lack of effect of perinatal lead exposure on kappa-opioid receptor function.

    abstract::The effects of lead exposure have been studied upon the behavioural and diuretic responses to the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U-50488H in neonatal rats. Lead was administered in the maternal drinking water (100, 300 and 1000 ppm) from conception to postnatal day 14. The hyperactivity, wall climbing behaviours and di...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jackson HC,Kitchen I

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Apoptosis and gene expression in the developing mouse brain of fusarenon-X-treated pregnant mice.

    abstract::Fusarenon-X (FX), a type B trichothecene mycotoxin, is mainly produced by Fusarium crookwellense, which occurs naturally in agricultural commodities, such as wheat and barley. FX has been shown to exert a variety of toxic effects on multiple targets in vitro. However, the embryonic toxicity of FX in vivo remains uncle...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sutjarit S,Nakayama SM,Ikenaka Y,Ishizuka M,Banlunara W,Rerkamnuaychoke W,Kumagai S,Poapolathep A

    更新日期:2014-08-17 00:00:00

  • Formation and persistence of O(6)-methylguanine in the mouse colon following treatment with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine as measured by an O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase inactivation assay.

    abstract::Female SWR mice were treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH: 6.8 mg/kg i.p. injection) once weekly for up to 10 weeks, a dosing regime that produced tumours principally within the distal colon (Jackson et al., 1999. Carcinogenesis 20, 509-513). O(6)-Methylguanine (O(6)-MeG) levels, measured using a simple [3H]-based ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jackson PE,Cooper DP,Meyer TA,Wood M,Povey AC,Margison GP

    更新日期:2000-06-05 00:00:00

  • Lactulose attenuates METH-induced neurotoxicity by alleviating the impaired autophagy, stabilizing the perturbed antioxidant system and suppressing apoptosis in rat striatum.

    abstract::Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused psychostimulant. Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar, which effectively decreases METH-induced neurotoxicity in rat. However, the exact mechanisms need further investigation. In this study, 5-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats received METH (15 mg/kg, 8 intraperitoneal injectio...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xie XL,He JT,Wang ZT,Xiao HQ,Zhou WT,Du SH,Xue Y,Wang Q

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl cotreatment on the disposition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in mice.

    abstract::Two groups of C57BL/6J mice received a single oral dose of 1 nmol/kg 2,3,7,8-[3H]tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alone or in combination with 300 mumol/kg 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HxCB). The disposition of TCDD in liver, fat, skin, spleen, lung and blood was studied at days 3, 7, 13 and 34 after dosage. H...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Jongh J,DeVito M,Diliberto J,Van den Berg M,Birnbaum L

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Report from SCOOP task 3.2.10 "collection of occurrence data of Fusarium toxins in food and assessment of dietary intake by the population of EU member states". Subtask: trichothecenes.

    abstract::In 2001 the SCOOP (SCOOP: Scientific Co-operation on Questions relating to Food) task 3.2.10 "Collection of occurrence data of Fusarium toxins in food and assessment of dietary intake by the population of EU Member States" was established. The task was divided in three subtasks (zearalenone, fumonisins and trichothece...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Schothorst RC,van Egmond HP

    更新日期:2004-10-10 00:00:00

  • Inter- and intra-individual variation in urinary biomarker concentrations over a 6-day sampling period. Part 1: metals.

    abstract::The aim of the current HBM-study is to further the understanding of the impact of inter- and intra-individual variability in HBM surveys as it may have implications for the design and interpretation of the study outcomes. As spot samples only provide a snapshot in time of the concentrations of chemicals in an individu...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smolders R,Koch HM,Moos RK,Cocker J,Jones K,Warren N,Levy L,Bevan R,Hays SM,Aylward LL

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of genistein on the expression of hepatic genes in two rat strains (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar).

    abstract::Information about the effects of phytoestrogens in the liver, the main organ of metabolism, is limited. In this study we have examined the dose dependent effects of the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) on gene expression in rat liver in comparison to the potent estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE). Special attention was paid t...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Geis RB,Diel P,Degen GH,Vollmer G

    更新日期:2005-05-16 00:00:00

  • Urinary mutagenicity after controlled exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).

    abstract::20 non-smokers on a defined diet low in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in an unventilated room for 8 h. The urinary mutagenicity in the 24-h urine samples as tested with the Salmonella (TA98) microsome assay did not significantly increase after exposure to eith...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scherer G,Westphal K,Biber A,Hoepfner I,Adlkofer F

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • A novel in vivo model for predicting myelotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents using IL-3/GM-CSF transgenic humanized mice.

    abstract::Evaluating myelotoxicity is essential for ensuring the safety of novel drugs before they are approved for clinical applications. Although in vivo prediction of the maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) of anticancer drugs is usually performed in rodents, the results are not always applicable to clinical treatment because dru...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ito R,Nagai D,Igo N,Okuda Y,Sekine K,Ichimura E,Katano I,Mizushima T,Goto M,Ohnishi Y,Ito M,Okamoto K

    更新日期:2017-11-05 00:00:00