Human in vivo and in vitro studies on gastrointestinal absorption of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.


:The study was designed to conduct human in vivo and in vitro studies on the gastrointestinal absorption of nanoparticles, using titanium dioxide as a model compound, and to compare nanoparticle behaviour with that of larger particles. A supplier's characterisation data may not fully describe a particle formulation. Most particles tested agreed with their supplied characterisation when assessed by particle number but significant proportions of 'nanoparticle formulations' were particles >100nm when assessed by particle weight. Oral doses are measured by weight and it is therefore important that the weight characterisation is taken into consideration. The human volunteer studies demonstrated that very little titanium dioxide is absorbed gastrointestinally after an oral challenge. There was no demonstrable difference in absorption for any of the three particle sizes tested. All tested formulations were shown to agglomerate in simulated gastric fluid, particularly in the smaller particle formulations. Further agglomeration was observed when dispersing formulations in polymeric or elemental foods. Virtually no translocation of titanium dioxide particles across the cell layer was demonstrated. This study found no evidence that nanoparticulate titanium dioxide is more likely to be absorbed in the gut than micron-sized particles.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Jones K,Morton J,Smith I,Jurkschat K,Harding AH,Evans G




Has Abstract


2015-03-04 00:00:00














  • Effect of sulfur dioxide inhalation on CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in rat liver and lung.

    abstract::Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a ubiquitous air pollutant, presents in low concentrations in the urban air, and in higher concentrations in the working environment. In the present study, male Wistar rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated with 14.00+/-1.53, 28.00+/-2.12 and 56.00+/-4.28 mg/m3 SO2 for 6 h/day for 7 ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Qin G,Meng Z

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  • CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides may be effective for preventing ionizing radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    abstract::Pulmonary fibrosis is a serious adverse effect of radiotherapy for thoracic tumor, which is believed to be a process that is tightly regulated by the phenotype of the developing Th response after radiation. Here, we will investigate whether CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) prevent radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis b...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang C,Zhao H,Li BL,Fu-Gao,Liu H,Cai JM,Zheng M

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  • Vinylphenylmercapturic acids in human urine as biomarkers of styrene ring oxidation.

    abstract::New metabolites of styrene, three isomeric vinylphenylmercapturic acids (2-, 3-, and 4-VPMA), were recently identified by LC-ESI-MS in the urine of mice. In this study, 4-VPMA together with traces of 2- and 3-VPMA were found also in the urine of hand-lamination workers, which were exposed to styrene vapours at concent...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Linhart I,Mráz J,Dabrowská L,Mališ M,Krouželka J,Kořínek M

    更新日期:2012-09-03 00:00:00

  • Cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress in rat brain and liver is prevented by vitamin E or allopurinol.

    abstract::Considering that the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the toxicity of various pesticides, this study was designed to investigate the possibility of oxidative stress induction by cypermethrin, a Type II pyrethroid. Either single (170 mg/kg) or repeated (75 mg/kg per day for 5 days) or...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Giray B,Gürbay A,Hincal F

    更新日期:2001-01-03 00:00:00

  • LLU-alpha, an endogenous metabolite of gamma-tocopherol, is more effective against metal nephrotoxicity in rats than gamma-tocopherol.

    abstract::Antioxidants of the vitamin E family have protective effects against metal toxicity. We examined the protective effect of racemic LLU-alpha [2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman] a metabolite of gamma-tocopherol, in comparison to the effect of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in rats treated with sodium dichro...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Appenroth D,Karge E,Kiessling G,Wechter WJ,Winnefeld K,Fleck C

    更新日期:2001-07-06 00:00:00

  • Genotoxicity induced in cultured Chinese hamster cells exposed to natural or synthetic crude oils and near ultraviolet light.

    abstract::Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were incubated with dilutions of natural or synthetic crude oils and subsequently exposed to near ultraviolet light (NUV). Although the magnitude of photo-induced cytotoxicity in CHO was essentially independent of the source of the oil (within a factor of two), two shale oils...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Strniste GF,Bingham JM,Okinaka RT,Chen DJ

    更新日期:1982-10-01 00:00:00

  • Consideration of individual susceptibility in adverse pesticide effects.

    abstract::The modern environmental awareness leads to the realisation that the human metabolism is stressed by a huge number of chemical substances. Generally, these background exposures, consisting predominantly from natural and partly from industrial as well as life style sources, are tolerated without any adverse effects. Pe...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lewalter J,Leng G

    更新日期:1999-06-30 00:00:00

  • Pipping success and liver mRNA expression in chicken embryos exposed in ovo to C8 and C11 perfluorinated carboxylic acids and C10 perfluorinated sulfonate.

    abstract::Several perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that can biomagnify in species at high trophic levels including wild birds. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been detected in wild birds and are known to reduce hatching success of laboratory-expose...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Brien JM,Crump D,Mundy LJ,Chu S,McLaren KK,Vongphachan V,Letcher RJ,Kennedy SW

    更新日期:2009-10-28 00:00:00

  • Lithocholic acid feeding results in direct hepato-toxicity independent of neutrophil function in mice.

    abstract::Lithocholic acid (LCA) supplementation in the diet results in intrahepatic cholestasis and bile infarcts. Previously we showed that an innate immune response is critical for cholestatic liver injury in the bile duct ligated mice. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutrophils in the mechani...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Woolbright BL,Li F,Xie Y,Farhood A,Fickert P,Trauner M,Jaeschke H

    更新日期:2014-07-03 00:00:00

  • Furocoumarins affect hepatic cytochrome P450 and renal organic ion transporters in mice.

    abstract::Furocoumarins are a group of natural products with many biological activities. Clinical evidences have demonstrated the important contribution of furocoumarins to the toxicity of some foods and herbs. In order to assess liver and kidney toxicity of furocoumarins, male mice were orally administrated with psoralen, isop...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang X,Lou YJ,Wang MX,Shi YW,Xu HX,Kong LD

    更新日期:2012-02-25 00:00:00

  • Neurochemical effects of ethylhexyl nitrate in rats.

    abstract::Rats injected i.p. with 100 mg ethylhexyl nitrate/kg body wt excreted 0.3% of the dose in the urine within 24 h. No urinary nitrite was found within 5 postinjection hours while an output of 26.9 +/- 15.8 micrograms nitrite/h X kg body wt. was detected between 5-24 h. Cerebral glutathione concentration was below the co...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Someroja S,Savolainen H

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  • Manganese in exhaled breath condensate: a new marker of exposure to welding fumes.

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hulo S,Chérot-Kornobis N,Howsam M,Crucq S,de Broucker V,Sobaszek A,Edme JL

    更新日期:2014-04-07 00:00:00

  • Chromosomal aberrations and in vitro radiosensitivity: intra-individual versus inter-individual variability.

    abstract::In order to assess the applicability of the micronucleus (MN) and G2 assays as biomarkers of in vitro radiosensitivity and cancer susceptibility, we investigated the inter- and intra-individual variation of these endpoints. For the MN assay unstimulated blood cultures from 57 healthy donors were exposed in vitro to 3....

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vral A,Thierens H,Baeyens A,De Ridder L

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatotoxicity of dimethylnitrosamine in cats and lizards.

    abstract::The hepatotoxic effects of the oral administration of a single dose of 50 mg dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)/kg and daily doses of 5 mg and 1 mg/kg, respectively, to cats and lizards were studied by light microscopy. Centrilobular necrosis was the main alteration detected in the liver of cats as in other animal species stud...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maduagwu EN,Anosa VO

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  • Differences in individual susceptibility to toxic effects of chemicals determine the dose-response relationship and consequences of setting exposure standards.

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lutz WK

    更新日期:2002-02-07 00:00:00

  • Parthenolide reverses doxorubicin resistance in human lung carcinoma A549 cells by attenuating NF-κB activation and HSP70 up-regulation.

    abstract::Chemotherapy resistance represents a major problem for the treatment of patients with lung carcinomas. Parthenolide (PN), a naturally occurring small molecule found in herb feverfew, has been used in clinical treatment. Although its importance in treating the chemotherapy resistance has been shown, the pharmacological...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

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  • Upper respiratory tract nociceptor stimulation and stress response following acute and repeated Cyfluthrin inhalation in normal and pregnant rats: Physiological rat-specific adaptions can easily be misunderstood as adversities.

    abstract::This paper reviews the results from past regulatory and mechanistic inhalation studies in rats with the type II pyrethroid Cyfluthrin. Apart from many chemical irritants, Cyfluthrin was shown to be a neuroexcitatory agent without any inherent tissue-destructive or irritant property. Thus, any Cyfluthrin-induced neuroe...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pauluhn J

    更新日期:2018-01-05 00:00:00

  • Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) synthesis in rat tubular suspension as a system for evaluating gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity.

    abstract::Since guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), a precursor of creatine, is synthesized mainly in the proximal tubule of the kidney where gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity often occurs, GM-induced renal cell damage was investigated using GAA synthesis in tubular suspension as an indicator. Results obtained were as follows: (1) GAA syn...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takeda M,Jung KY,Sekine T,Endou H,Koide H

    更新日期:1995-11-15 00:00:00

  • Genotoxicity--threshold or not? Introduction of cases of industrial chemicals.

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bolt HM

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  • Chloroacetonitrile induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in mouse fetal liver.

    abstract::Chloroacetonitrile (CAN) is a disinfection by-product of chlorination of drinking water. The present study was designed to investigate the potential adverse effects of maternal exposure to CAN on fetal liver in mice. Based on an initial dose-response experiment, CAN (25mg/(kgday)) was given orally to pregnant mice at ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abdel-Naim AB,Nagy AA,Mohamadin AM,El-Mazar HM,Ahmed AE

    更新日期:2009-10-28 00:00:00

  • Risk assessment in combustion toxicology: Should carbon dioxide be recognized as a modifier of toxicity or separate toxicological entity?

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pauluhn J

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pan TL,Wang PW,Aljuffali IA,Leu YL,Hung YY,Fang JY

    更新日期:2014-04-21 00:00:00

  • Inter- and intra-individual variation in urinary biomarker concentrations over a 6-day sampling period. Part 2: personal care product ingredients.

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    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koch HM,Aylward LL,Hays SM,Smolders R,Moos RK,Cocker J,Jones K,Warren N,Levy L,Bevan R

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Reductive activation of HCFC-123 by methaemalbumin.

    abstract::Hydrochlorofluorocarbon 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123), a close structural analogue of the hepatotoxic anaesthetic halotane and a replacement for some ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons, is metabolized by liver cytochrome P450 (P450), both in vitro and in vivo. P450 activates HCFC-123, both oxidatively...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zanovello A,Ferrara R,Manno M

    更新日期:2003-09-15 00:00:00

  • Proteomic responses of BEAS-2B cells to nontoxic and toxic chromium: Protein indicators of cytotoxicity conversion.

    abstract::Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is an environmental human carcinogen which primarily targets lungs. Among a variety of toxic mechanisms, disruption of biological pathways via translational and post-translational modifications represents a key mechanism through which Cr (VI) induces cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis. To id...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bruno M,Ross J,Ge Y

    更新日期:2016-12-15 00:00:00

  • Role of corticosterone in ethyl carbamate-induced immunosuppression in female BALB/c mice.

    abstract::We have recently demonstrated that the antibody response to the T-cell-dependent antigen, sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), was suppressed by ethyl carbamate in female BALB/c mice. At the same doses, ethyl carbamate decreased in the numbers of splenic macrophages, B cells, total T cells, CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cha SW,Lee HJ,Cho MH,Lee MH,Koh WS,Han S,Kim J,Lee E,Nam D,Jeong TC

    更新日期:2001-03-08 00:00:00

  • Clinical relevance of ethanol coingestion in patients with GHB/GBL intoxication.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Ethanol intake can increase the sedative effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate/gamma-butyrolactone (GHB/GBL), although the real clinical impact is unknown. We studied the clinical impact of the co-ingestion of ethanol in patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with acute toxicity related to GHB/GBL us...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Galicia M,Dargan PI,Dines AM,Yates C,Heyerdahl F,Hovda KE,Giraudon I,Euro-DEN Plus Research Group.,Wood DM,Miró Ò,Euro-DEN Plus Research Group.

    更新日期:2019-10-10 00:00:00

  • Disturbance of cellular glucose transport by two prevalently used fluoroquinolone antibiotics ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin involves glucose transporter type 1.

    abstract::Dysglycemia and central nervous system (CNS) complications are the known adverse effects of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin are among the most prescribed antibiotics. In this study we demonstrate that ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin disturb glucose transport into HepG2 cells and such inhibit...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ge DT,Law PY,Kong SK,Ho YY

    更新日期:2009-01-30 00:00:00

  • Effect of 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), a carcinogenic heterocyclic amine present in food, on atherosclerotic plaque development in apoE deficient mice.

    abstract::There is experimental and epidemiological evidence demonstrating that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. However, heterocyclic amines (HAs), a class of carcinogenic compounds present in food, which share many biochemical features with PAHs, have not rec...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lopez-Mendez C,Bermudez-Fajardo A,Ioannides C,Oviedo-Orta E

    更新日期:2009-03-10 00:00:00

  • Activation of styrene to styrene oxide in hepatocytes and subcellular fractions of rat liver.

    abstract::The oxidation of styrene to styrene oxide and the hydration of this metabolite to styrene glycol was investigated in hepatocytes, 9000 x g supernatant (S9) and the microsomal fraction from rat liver. Similar amounts of free styrene oxide were found in microsomes, hepatocytes and S9. However, on the basis of the format...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Belvedere G,Elovaara E,Vainio H

    更新日期:1984-11-01 00:00:00