WITHDRAWN: Psychological interventions for those who have sexually offended or are at risk of offending.


BACKGROUND:Sexual offending is both a social problem and a public health issue. To date, no positive treatment effects have been found in quasi-experimental institutional treatment programmes. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate effects of psychological interventions on target sexual acts, urges or thoughts for people who have been convicted, or cautioned, for sexual offences. SEARCH STRATEGY:33 electronic databases including the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Issue 4, 2002) were searched. Relevant authors and organisations were contacted for additional data. SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults treated in institutional or community settings for sexual behaviours that have resulted in conviction or caution for sexual offences, or offences or violent behaviours with a sexual element. Behavioural, cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic, and psychoanalytic therapies were compared with each other, drug treatment, or standard care. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Independent assessors selected and assessed studies and extracted data. Data were excluded where more than 50% of participants were lost to follow-up. For binary outcomes, standard estimations of risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Where possible, number-needed-to-treat or harm statistics (NNT, NNH) and their 95% CIs were calculated. MAIN RESULTS:We included nine RCTs with over 500 male offenders, 231 of whom have been followed up for a decade. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in groups may reduce re-offence at one year for child molesters when compared with standard care (n=155, 1 RCT, RR any sexual/violent crime - 0.41 CI 0.2 to 0.82, NNT 6 CI 3 to 20). However, when CBT was compared with a trans-theoretical counselling group therapy the former may have increased poor attitudes to treatment (corrected n=38, 1 RCT, RR 2.8 CI 1.26 to 6.22, NNH 2 CI 1 to 5). The largest trial compared broadly psychodynamic group therapy with no treatment for 231 men guilty of paedophilia, exhibitionism or sexual assault. Re-arrest over ten years was greater for those allocated to group therapy (result not statistically significant [n=231, 1 RCT, RR 1.87 CI 0.78 to 4.47]). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Limited data make recommendations difficult. One study suggests that a cognitive approach results in a decline in re-offending after one year. Another large study shows no benefit for group therapy and suggests the potential for harm at ten years. The ethics of providing this still-experimental treatment to a vulnerable and potentially dangerous group of people outside of a well-designed evaluative study are debatable. This review proves such studies are possible.


Kenworthy T,Adams CE,Bilby C,Brooks-Gordon B,Fenton M




Has Abstract


2008-10-08 00:00:00








  • Acellular vaccines for preventing whooping cough in children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Routine use of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines was suspended in some countries in the 1970s and 1980s because of concerns about adverse effects. Following such action, there was a resurgence of whooping cough. Acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, containing purified or recombinant Bordetella pertussis (B. p...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Zhang L,Prietsch SO,Axelsson I,Halperin SA

    更新日期:2012-03-14 00:00:00

  • Antibiotics for infection prevention after excision of the cervical transformation zone.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Excision of the transformation zone of the cervix is the most commonly used approach to treat cervical precancerous lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)) to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer. As the excision of the transformation zone leaves a raw area on the cervix, there is a risk ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Kietpeerakool C,Chumworathayi B,Thinkhamrop J,Ussahgij B,Lumbiganon P

    更新日期:2017-01-21 00:00:00

  • Combination injectable contraceptives for contraception.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Combination injectable contraceptives (CICs) provide a highly effective, reversible method of preventing pregnancy, and they do not require daily administration or use at the time of coitus. Although they are used in many countries, their acceptability could be limited by method characteristics, such as the ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Gallo MF,Grimes DA,Lopez LM,Schulz KF,d'Arcangues C

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Corticosteroids for the treatment of idiopathic acute vestibular dysfunction (vestibular neuritis).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Idiopathic acute vestibular dysfunction (vestibular neuritis) is the second most common cause of peripheral vertigo after benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and accounts for 7% of the patients who present at outpatient clinics specialising in the treatment of dizziness. The exact aetiology of the co...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Fishman JM,Burgess C,Waddell A

    更新日期:2011-05-11 00:00:00

  • Prostacyclin for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterised by pulmonary vascular changes, leads to elevated pulmonary artery pressures, dyspnoea, a reduction in exercise tolerance, right heart failure, and ultimately death.Prostacyclin analogue drugs mimic endogenous prostacyclin which leads to vasodilation, inh...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barnes H,Yeoh HL,Fothergill T,Burns A,Humbert M,Williams T

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Prophylactic antibiotics or G-CSF for the prevention of infections and improvement of survival in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Febrile neutropenia (FN) and other infectious complications are some of the most serious treatment-related toxicities of chemotherapy for cancer, with a mortality rate of 2% to 21%. The two main types of prophylactic regimens are granulocyte (G-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factors (GM-CS...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Herbst C,Naumann F,Kruse EB,Monsef I,Bohlius J,Schulz H,Engert A

    更新日期:2009-01-21 00:00:00

  • Fortification of maize flour with iron for controlling anaemia and iron deficiency in populations.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Approximately 800 million women and children have anaemia, a condition thought to cause almost 9% of the global burden of years lived with disability. Around half this burden could be amenable to interventions that involve the provision of iron. Maize (corn) is one of the world's most important cereal grains...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Garcia-Casal MN,Peña-Rosas JP,De-Regil LM,Gwirtz JA,Pasricha SR

    更新日期:2018-12-22 00:00:00

  • Thermotherapy for treating rheumatoid arthritis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Heat and cold therapy are often used as adjuncts in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by rehabilitation specialists. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effects of heat and cold on objective and subjective measures of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched Medline, E...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Welch V,Brosseau L,Shea B,McGowan J,Wells G,Tugwell P

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Family therapy for depression.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:People with depression often experience interpersonal problems. Family therapy for depression is a widely used intervention, but it is unclear whether this is an effective therapy for the treatment of depression. OBJECTIVES:To assess the efficacy of family therapy for depression. SEARCH STRATEGY:The follow...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Henken HT,Huibers MJ,Churchill R,Restifo K,Roelofs J

    更新日期:2007-07-18 00:00:00

  • Inhaled sodium cromoglycate for asthma in children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Sodium cromoglycate has been recommended as maintenance treatment for childhood asthma for many years. Its use has decreased since 1990, when inhaled corticosteroids became popular, but it is still used in many countries. OBJECTIVES:To determine the efficacy of sodium cromoglycate compared to placebo in the...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: van der Wouden JC,Uijen JH,Bernsen RM,Tasche MJ,de Jongste JC,Ducharme F

    更新日期:2008-10-08 00:00:00

  • Hormonal therapy in advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Endometrial cancer is a cancer of the lining of the womb and worldwide is the seventh most common cancer in women. Treatment with hormones is thought to be beneficial in patients with endometrial cancer. OBJECTIVES:To assess the indications, effectiveness and safety of hormone therapy for advanced or recurr...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kokka F,Brockbank E,Oram D,Gallagher C,Bryant A

    更新日期:2010-12-08 00:00:00

  • Antiviral agents for treatment of herpes simplex virus infection in neonates.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a rare but serious neonatal pathogen. Prior to the availability of antiviral drugs the mortality associated with all but localised neonatal infection was high, with 85% of infants with disseminated HSV infection and 50% of infants with encephalitis dying by one year of age. The ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Jones CA,Walker KS,Badawi N

    更新日期:2009-07-08 00:00:00

  • WITHDRAWN: Bed rest for acute low-back pain and sciatica.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Low-back pain (LBP) is a common reason for consulting a general practitioner, and advice on daily activities is an important part of the primary care management of low-back pain. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of advice to rest in bed for patients with acute LBP or sciatica. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched t...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Hagen KB,Hilde G,Jamtvedt G,Winnem M

    更新日期:2010-06-16 00:00:00

  • Dietary advice for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults is a far better option than treatment, to alleviate pressure on health care providers and resources. However, there is no current review of the evidence regarding the efficacy of a diet-only intervention for prevention. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of type and fre...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Nield L,Summerbell CD,Hooper L,Whittaker V,Moore H

    更新日期:2008-07-16 00:00:00

  • Low protein diets for chronic kidney disease in non diabetic adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:For more than fifty years, low protein diets have been proposed to patients with kidney failure. However, the effects of these diets in preventing severe renal failure and the need for maintenance dialysis have not been resolved. OBJECTIVES:To determine the efficacy of low protein diets in delaying the need...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Fouque D,Laville M,Boissel JP

    更新日期:2006-04-19 00:00:00

  • Oestrogens and progestogens for preventing and treating postnatal depression.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Postnatal depression, with a prevalence of at least 10%, is probably the most common complication of the puerperium. A deficiency or imbalance of sex hormones has repeatedly been suggested as a cause. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to evaluate the role of oestrogens and progestogens in the prev...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Lawrie TA,Herxheimer A,Dalton K

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Environmental sanitary interventions for preventing active trachoma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Trachoma is a major cause of avoidable blindness. It is responsible for about six million blind people worldwide, mostly in the poor communities of developing countries. One of the major strategies advocated for the control of the disease is the application of various environmental sanitary measures to such ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Rabiu M,Alhassan M,Ejere H

    更新日期:2007-10-17 00:00:00

  • Drugs for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults after general anaesthesia: a network meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common adverse effect of anaesthesia and surgery. Up to 80% of patients may be affected. These outcomes are a major cause of patient dissatisfaction and may lead to prolonged hospital stay and higher costs of care along with more severe complications. Many antiem...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Weibel S,Rücker G,Eberhart LH,Pace NL,Hartl HM,Jordan OL,Mayer D,Riemer M,Schaefer MS,Raj D,Backhaus I,Helf A,Schlesinger T,Kienbaum P,Kranke P

    更新日期:2020-10-19 00:00:00

  • Scopolamine (hyoscine) for preventing and treating motion sickness.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Motion sickness - the discomfort experienced when perceived motion disturbs the organs of balance - may include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, pallor, cold sweats, hypersalivation, hyperventilation and headaches. The control and prevention of these symptoms have included pharmacological, behavioural and ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Spinks AB,Wasiak J,Villanueva EV,Bernath V

    更新日期:2007-07-18 00:00:00

  • Supported housing for people with severe mental disorders.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There has been a significant reduction in the number of people with severe mental illness who spend extended periods in long-stay hospitals. District health authorities, local authorities, housing associations and voluntary organisations are jointly expected to provide support for people with severe mental d...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Chilvers R,Macdonald GM,Hayes AA

    更新日期:2006-10-18 00:00:00

  • Physical training for asthma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Physical training programmes have been designed for asthmatic subjects with the aim of improving physical fitness, neuromuscular coordination and self-confidence. Habitual physical activity increases physical fitness and lowers ventilation during mild and moderate exercise thereby reducing the likelihood of ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Ram FS,Robinson SM,Black PN,Picot J

    更新日期:2005-10-19 00:00:00

  • Pin site care for preventing infections associated with external bone fixators and pins.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Metal pins are used to apply skeletal traction or external fixation devices in the management of orthopaedic fractures. These pins protrude through the skin (described as 'percutaneous') and the way in which they are treated after insertion may affect the incidence of pin site infection. This review set out ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Lethaby A,Temple J,Santy J

    更新日期:2008-10-08 00:00:00

  • Iodine fortification of foods and condiments, other than salt, for preventing iodine deficiency disorders.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect close to 1.9 billion people worldwide, and are a major public health concern in many countries. Among children, iodine deficiency is the main cause of potentially preventable deficits of central nervous system development and impairment of cognitive function, as well ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Santos JAR,Christoforou A,Trieu K,McKenzie BL,Downs S,Billot L,Webster J,Li M

    更新日期:2019-02-12 00:00:00

  • Interventions for improving outcomes for pregnant women who have experienced genital cutting.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Female genital cutting (FGC) refers to all procedures that involve the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons. There are no known medical benefits to FGC, and it can be potentially dangerous for the...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Balogun OO,Hirayama F,Wariki WM,Koyanagi A,Mori R

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  • Pharmacological interventions for clozapine-induced hypersalivation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Clozapine is widely used for people with schizophrenia. Although agranulocytosis, weight gain, and cardiac problems are serious problems associated with its use, hypersalivation, sometimes of a gross and socially unacceptable quantity, is also common (30-80%). OBJECTIVES:To determine the clinical effects of...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Syed R,Au K,Cahill C,Duggan L,He Y,Udu V,Xia J

    更新日期:2008-07-16 00:00:00

  • Abiraterone acetate in combination with androgen deprivation therapy compared to androgen deprivation therapy only for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Systemic androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), also referred to as hormone therapy,àhas long been the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. Additional agents have been reserved for the castrate-resistant disease stage when ADT start becoming less effective. Abiraterone is an agent with an establi...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Sathianathen NJ,Oestreich MC,Brown SJ,Gupta S,Konety BR,Dahm P,Kunath F

    更新日期:2020-12-12 00:00:00

  • Chronotherapy versus conventional statins therapy for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Elevated levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein play an important role in the development of atheromas and, therefore, in cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol biosynthesis follows a circadian rhythm and is principally produced at night (between 12:00 am and 6:00 am). The adjustment of hypoli...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Izquierdo-Palomares JM,Fernandez-Tabera JM,Plana MN,Añino Alba A,Gómez Álvarez P,Fernandez-Esteban I,Saiz LC,Martin-Carrillo P,Pinar López Ó

    更新日期:2016-11-26 00:00:00

  • Macrolide antibiotics for bronchiectasis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Kelly C,Chalmers JD,Crossingham I,Relph N,Felix LM,Evans DJ,Milan SJ,Spencer S

    更新日期:2018-03-15 00:00:00

  • Pentoxifylline for endometriosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Endometriosis is a chronic, recurring condition that occurs during the reproductive years. It is characterized by endometrial tissue developing outside the uterine cavity. This endometrial tissue development is dependent on oestrogen produced primarily by the ovaries and, therefore, traditional management ha...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Lu D,Song H,Li Y,Clarke J,Shi G

    更新日期:2012-01-18 00:00:00

  • Positive airway pressure therapy for the treatment of central sleep apnoea associated with heart failure.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Ischaemic heart disease including heart failure is the most common cause of death in the world, and the incidence of the condition is rapidly increasing. Heart failure is characterised by symptoms such as fatigue and breathlessness during light activity, as well as disordered breathing during sleep. In parti...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Yamamoto S,Yamaga T,Nishie K,Nagata C,Mori R

    更新日期:2019-12-04 00:00:00