Streptococcus pneumoniae stabilizes tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA through a pathway dependent on p38 MAPK but independent of Toll-like receptors.


BACKGROUND:Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogenic bacteria and a major cause of severe invasive diseases, including pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. Infections with S. pneumoniae evoke a strong inflammatory response, which plays a major role in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease. RESULTS:In this study, we have examined how S. pneumoniae affects expression of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, and the molecular mechanisms involved. Secretion of TNF-alpha was strongly induced by S. pneumoniae, which was able to stabilize TNF-alpha mRNA through a mechanism dependent on the viability of the bacteria as well as the adenylate uridylate-rich elements in the 3'untranslated region of TNF-alpha mRNA. The ability of S. pneumoniae to stabilize TNF-alpha mRNA was dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 whereas inhibition of Toll-like receptor signaling via MyD88 did not affect S. pneumoniae-induced mRNA stabilization. P38 was activated through a pathway involving the upstream kinase transforming growth factor-activated kinase 1 and MAPK kinase 3. CONCLUSION:Thus, S. pneumoniae stabilizes TNF-alpha mRNA through a pathway dependent on p38 but independent of Toll-like receptors. Production of TNF-alpha may contribute significantly to the inflammatory response raised during pneumococcal infection.


BMC Immunol


BMC immunology


Mogensen TH,Berg RS,Ostergaard L,Paludan SR




Has Abstract


2008-09-16 00:00:00










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