Epidemiologic trends and geographic patterns of fatal opioid intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997-2007.


BACKGROUND:The leading cause of injury death among adults in Connecticut (CT), USA is drug poisonings. We analyzed the epidemiology and geographic distribution of opioid-involved accidental drug-involved intoxication deaths ("overdoses") in CT over an 11-year period. METHODS:We reviewed data from 1997 to 2007 on all adult accidental/undetermined drug intoxication deaths in CT that were referred to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). Regression analyses were conducted to uncover risk factors for fatal opioid-involved intoxications and to compare heroin- to prescription opioid- and methadone-involved deaths. Death locations were mapped to visualize differences in the geographic patterns of overdose by opioid type. RESULTS:Of the 2900 qualifying deaths, 2231 (77%) involved opioids. Trends over time revealed increases in total opioid-related deaths although heroin-related deaths remained constant. Methadone, oxycodone and fentanyl, the most frequently cited prescription opioids, exhibited significant increases in opioid deaths. Prescription opioid-only deaths were more likely to involve other medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) and to have occurred among residents of a suburban or small town location, compared to heroin-involved or methadone-involved deaths. Heroin-only deaths tended to occur among non-Whites, were more likely to involve alcohol or cocaine and to occur in public locations and large cities. CONCLUSIONS:The epidemiology of fatal opioid overdose in CT exhibits distinct longitudinal, risk factor, and geographic differences by opioid type. Each of these trends has implications for public health and prevention efforts.


Drug Alcohol Depend


Green TC,Grau LE,Carver HW,Kinzly M,Heimer R




Has Abstract


2011-06-01 00:00:00














  • Impact of e-liquid flavors on e-cigarette vaping behavior.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The primary objective of this pilot study was to describe the impact of e-cigarette liquid flavors on experienced e-cigarette users' vaping behavior. METHODS:11 males and 3 females participated in a 3-day inpatient crossover study using e-cigarettes with strawberry, tobacco, and their usual brand e-liquid. N...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: St Helen G,Shahid M,Chu S,Benowitz NL

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • Male solitary drinking and hazardous alcohol use in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Despite evidence that many people engage in solitary drinking and that it might be associated with negative consequences, to date, little research has focused on this form of drinking behaviour. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with solitary drinking, and assessed whether it is linke...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stickley A,Koyanagi A,Roberts B,Murphy A,Kizilova K,McKee M

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatotoxicity in a 52-week randomized trial of short-term versus long-term treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone in HIV-negative injection opioid users in China and Thailand.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NX), an effective treatment for opioid dependence, has been implicated in hepatic toxicity. However, as persons taking BUP/NX have multiple hepatic risk factors, comparative data are needed to quantify the risk of hepatoxicity with BUP/NX. METHODS:We compared rates of alanine ami...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Lucas GM,Young A,Donnell D,Richardson P,Aramrattana A,Shao Y,Ruan Y,Liu W,Fu L,Ma J,Celentano DD,Metzger D,Jackson JB,Burns D,HPTN 058 study group.

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Quitting smoking and change in alcohol consumption in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    abstract::Although frequent heavy drinking has been associated with decreased odds of quitting smoking, the extent to which smoking cessation is associated with decreased alcohol consumption is less clear. The present study examined over a 2-year period whether individuals who quit smoking for at least 6 months, compared to tho...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kahler CW,Borland R,Hyland A,McKee SA,O'Connor RJ,Fong GT,Cummings KM

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cannabis dependence, withdrawal, and reinforcing effects among adolescents with conduct symptoms and substance use disorders.

    abstract::The prevalence of cannabis use is rising among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. However, clinicians who treat adolescent substance users hear frequent reports of serious cannabis-use disorders and problems. This study asked whether cannabis produced dependence and withdrawal among such pat...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crowley TJ,Macdonald MJ,Whitmore EA,Mikulich SK

    更新日期:1998-03-01 00:00:00

  • A comprehensive model of predictors of suicide attempt in heavy drinkers: Results from a national 3-year longitudinal study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Heavy drinkers are at high risk for suicide attempt and suicide. Multiple factors, when examined in isolation, have been implicated in the risk of suicide attempt in this population. In this report, we present a comprehensive model of the 3-year risk of suicide attempt in heavy drinkers using a longitudinal ...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoertel N,Faiz H,Airagnes G,Blanco C,Pascal De Raykeer R,Franco S,Ducoutumany G,Lemogne C,Limosin F

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of selective antagonism of mu(1)-, mu(1/2)-, mu(3)-, and delta-opioid receptors on the locomotor-stimulating actions of ethanol.

    abstract::Previous studies have demonstrated that administration of nonspecific opioid antagonists such as naltrexone or naloxone reduces ethanol-induced locomotor activity in mice. However, because of their broad pharmacological profile, it remains unclear through which opioid receptor this antagonism is achieved. Therefore, t...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pastor R,Sanchis-Segura C,Aragon CM

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Predictors of follow-up health status in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS).

    abstract::This study examined the predictors of self-reported health status at follow-up in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study (DATOS), a longitudinal study of drug abuse treatment programs and patients in 1991-1993. Baseline and follow-up interviews of 2966 patients in 75 programs were performed. The follow-up assessment ...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Friedmann PD,Lemon SC,Anderson BJ,Stein MD,Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS.

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment use, sources of payment, and financial barriers to treatment among individuals with opioid use disorder following the national implementation of the ACA.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Despite increasing rates of opioid misuse and hospitalizations, rates of treatment for those with opioid use disorder (OUD) are very low. This study examined the impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (ACA) insurance expansion on improving rates of insurance, health care access, and tre...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McKenna RM

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Hazardous drinking and its association with homelessness among veterans in care.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:While scholarship on alcohol use and homelessness has focused on the impact of alcohol abuse and dependence, little is known about the effects of lower levels of misuse such as hazardous use. Veterans receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System (VA) constitute a population that is...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ghose T,Fiellin DA,Gordon AJ,Metraux S,Goetz MB,Blackstock O,McInnes K,Rodriguez-Barradas MC,Justice AC

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • A randomized, open label trial of methadone continuation versus forced withdrawal in a combined US prison and jail: Findings at 12 months post-release.

    abstract::Recently, incarcerated individuals are at increased risk of opioid overdose. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is an effective way to address opioid use disorder and prevent overdose; however, few jails and prisons in the United States initiate or continue people who are incarcerated on MMT. In the current study, ...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Brinkley-Rubinstein L,McKenzie M,Macmadu A,Larney S,Zaller N,Dauria E,Rich J

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Perceived risk of harm and intentions of future inhalant use among adolescent inhalant users.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To identify predictors of perceived (a) risk of harm associated with inhalant use and (b) intention to use inhalants among adolescent inhalant users. METHOD:Participants were 279 lifetime inhalant users (M(age)=15.5, 84% male) identified in a statewide survey of 723 adolescents in Missouri Division of Youth ...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perron BE,Howard MO

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Impulsivity and craving in subjects with opioid use disorder on methadone maintenance treatment.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is effective in decreasing opioid use or facilitating abstinence. Previous studies using small opioid use disorder samples suggest that cognitive impairments including impulsivity and executive functions may partially improve on MMT, but a range of deficits may persist. ...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li J,Weidacker K,Mandali A,Zhang Y,Whiteford S,Ren Q,Zhou Z,Zhou H,Jiang H,Du J,Zhang C,Sun B,Voon V

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • Patterns of drug use amongst Malaysian secondary schoolchildren.

    abstract::A representative sampling of the secondary school population of two states of Malaysia (sample size 16166) indicated that 11% of students had had experience of drug use. Use of a single drug was the common pattern, with cannabis reported most often by older students, and sedatives most often by younger students. A qua...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spencer C,Navaratnam V

    更新日期:1980-05-01 00:00:00

  • Brain macrostructural and microstructural abnormalities in cocaine dependence.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Two previous studies have utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine microstructural integrity in cocaine abuse and found evidence of brain abnormalities in white matter. OBJECTIVE:Using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), DTI, and clinical evaluation, the macrostructural and microstructural...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lim KO,Wozniak JR,Mueller BA,Franc DT,Specker SM,Rodriguez CP,Silverman AB,Rotrosen JP

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Estimates of opioid use disorder prevalence from a regression-based multi-sample stratified capture-recapture analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:An epidemic of opioid overdose has spread across North America, with illicit drug-related overdose emerging as a leading cause of death in recent years. Estimates of opioid use disorder (OUD) prevalence at the level of the public health service delivery area are needed to project resource needs and identify ...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Min JE,Pearce LA,Homayra F,Dale LM,Barocas JA,Irvine MA,Slaunwhite AK,McGowan G,Torban M,Nosyk B

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Blood levels do not predict behavioral or physiological effects of Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol in rhesus monkeys with different patterns of exposure.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recent changes in the legality of cannabis have prompted evaluation of whether blood levels of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or its metabolites could be used to substantiate impairment, particularly related to behavioral tasks such as driving. However, because marked tolerance develops to behavioral effect...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ginsburg BC,Hruba L,Zaki A,Javors MA,McMahon LR

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Understanding the trends in HIV and hepatitis C prevalence amongst injecting drug users in different settings--implications for intervention impact.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A recent systematic review observed that HIV prevalence amongst injectors is negligible (<1%) below a threshold HCV prevalence of 30%, but thereafter increases with HCV prevalence. We explore whether a model can reproduce these trends, what determines different epidemiological profiles and how this affects i...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vickerman P,Martin NK,Hickman M

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Is ecstasy perceived to be safe? A critical survey.

    abstract::Recent publications claim that the recreational drug ecstasy is considered to be safe by many or most ecstasy users, or by young people or the general public. Unfortunately, there are no references that provide any support for this claim. Previous studies of various populations, including drug users and adolescents in...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gamma A,Jerome L,Liechti ME,Sumnall HR

    更新日期:2005-02-14 00:00:00

  • Adapting judicial supervision to the risk level of drug offenders: discharge and 6-month outcomes from a prospective matching study.

    abstract::This article reports recent findings from a program of experimental research examining the effects of adapting judicial supervision to the risk level of drug-abusing offenders. Prior studies revealed that high-risk participants with (1) antisocial personality disorder or (2) a history of drug abuse treatment performed...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Marlowe DB,Festinger DS,Dugosh KL,Lee PA,Benasutti KM

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Distribution of deaths by unintentional illicit drug overdose in Italy based on periodicity over time, 1984-2000.

    abstract:AIM:To assess whether substance-abusing people have a higher risk of dying from unintentional acute intoxication in specific periods of the year. METHODS:A total of 15,792 deaths (males=14,259; females=1533) were ascertained to be due to unintentional acute intoxication by illicit drugs in Italy in the study period (1...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rocchi MB,Miotto P,Preti A

    更新日期:2003-10-24 00:00:00

  • Long-term recall of social relationships related to addiction and HIV risk behaviors.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Social relationships have been demonstrated as a key predictor of relapse among addicted persons and are likely to be important determinants of HIV risk behaviors also. However, the degree to which this population can reliably and consistently identify important people (IPs) in retrospect has been understudi...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stout RL,Janssen T,Braciszewski JM,Vose-O'Neal A

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Generalised inhibitory impairment to appetitive cues: From alcoholic to non-alcoholic visual stimuli.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prior research demonstrates that individuals who consume alcohol show diminished inhibitory control towards alcohol-related cues. However, such research contrasts predominantly alcoholic appetitive cues with non-alcoholic, non-appetitive cues (e.g., stationary items). As such, it is not clear whether it is s...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Monk RL,Qureshi A,Pennington CR,Hamlin I

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical efficacy of buprenorphine: comparisons to methadone and placebo.

    abstract::Buprenorphine has been studied extensively since 1978 when it was initially proposed as an alternative to methadone for treatment of opioid dependence. Early work by Jasinski et al., 1978; Mello and Mendelson, 1980; Mello et al., 1982; Mello et al., 1983 and Mendelson et al., 1984 and their colleagues demonstrated bup...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ling W,Wesson DR

    更新日期:2003-05-21 00:00:00

  • A systematic literature review of tobacco use among adults 15 years and older in sub-Saharan Africa.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Given that developing countries (and particularly women in these countries) are at increasing risk for tobacco use, the need for hard data to accurately monitor tobacco use in developing countries is needed. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the available prevalence data on current tobacco use amon...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Townsend L,Flisher AJ,Gilreath T,King G

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of repeated withdrawal episodes on subsequent withdrawal severity in ethanol-treated rats.

    abstract::Male rats were given ethanol via an intragastric catheter (8.0-11.0 g/kg per day) for either 8 weeks daily or for four 2-week periods with a 2-week period of no drug treatment intervening between each period of ethanol administration (binge). Older rats were administered ethanol for 2 weeks, to assess the effects of a...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maier DM,Pohorecky LA

    更新日期:1989-04-01 00:00:00

  • Exposure to trauma: a comparison of cocaine-dependent cases and a community-matched sample.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to examine rates of traumatic events and PTSD in cocaine-dependent cases and a community comparison sample. METHODS:Participants were interviewed as part of the Family Study of Cocaine Dependence. A cross-sectional case-cohort design assessed a total of 918 participants: 459 co...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Afful SE,Strickland JR,Cottler L,Bierut LJ

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use amongst nurses: a Scottish study.

    abstract::This paper examines patterns of self-reported alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use amongst a representative sample of 600 qualified nurses in the Lothian Region of Scotland. General levels of alcohol use were not exceptional. Even so, levels of tobacco smoking and the use of illicit drugs were higher than for the gen...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Plant ML,Plant MA,Foster J

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • Needle sharing in opioid-dependent outpatients: psychological processes underlying risk.

    abstract::Needle sharing contributes to the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus and other health concerns and remains a persistent problem among injection drug users. We determined whether needle sharing may be related to the discounting of the value of delayed outcomes. Outpatients in treatment for heroin dependence ind...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Odum AL,Madden GJ,Badger GJ,Bickel WK

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00

  • 'Diagnostic orphans' among young adult cannabis users: persons who report dependence symptoms but do not meet diagnostic criteria.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the characteristics of 'diagnostic orphans' among cannabis users-those who report one or two symptoms of DSM-IV dependence but do not meet diagnostic criteria for DSM-IV abuse or dependence. METHOD:Data were collected from a representative population cohort of 1601 young adults aged 20-21 years. T...

    journal_title:Drug and alcohol dependence

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Degenhardt L,Lynskey M,Coffey C,Patton G

    更新日期:2002-07-01 00:00:00