The metabolic syndrome: concepts and controversy.


:The metabolic syndrome is an insulin-resistant state characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, including various combinations of abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and atherogenic dyslipidemia (elevated triglyceride values, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol particles). The current epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity has led to an increased prevalence of this disorder. In this review, we discuss the history and pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, the controversy regarding the appropriateness of considering it a distinct diagnosis, and the importance of lifestyle modification in its prevention and treatment. The need for all cardiovascular risk factors to be treated, whether or not they are components of the metabolic syndrome, is emphasized. Recent discussions in the literature regarding the continued use of the term metabolic syndrome should be considered a healthy academic debate that hopefully will stimulate Ideas and innovative research to improve patient care.


Mayo Clin Proc


Mayo Clinic proceedings


Johnson LW,Weinstock RS




Has Abstract


2006-12-01 00:00:00














  • Computed tomography of the large bowel and appendix.

    abstract::Computed tomography (CT) of the colon is useful in assessment of patients with colonic disease because the entire bowel wall, extraluminal tissues, and adjacent solid organs can be directly visualized. Patients with advanced stage colorectal carcinoma can be reliably identified with CT. This information can assist in ...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Johnson CD,Stephens DH

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • Detection and localization of occult lesions with brainstem auditory responses.

    abstract::Seven vertex-positive potentials--the brainstem auditory response--can be recorded from the human scalp within 10 milliseconds of an appropriate acoustic stimulus. The first of these potentials is generated in the acoustic nerve, the third in the pons, and the fifth in the midbrain. Measurement of the relative latenci...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stockard JJ,Stockard JE,Sharbrough FW

    更新日期:1977-12-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of direct-to-consumer predictive genomic testing on risk perception and worry among patients receiving routine care in a preventive health clinic.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) predictive genomic risk information on perceived risk and worry in the context of routine clinical care. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients attending a preventive medicine clinic between June 1 and December 18, 2009, were randomly assigned to receive either genomic...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: James KM,Cowl CT,Tilburt JC,Sinicrope PS,Robinson ME,Frimannsdottir KR,Tiedje K,Koenig BA

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Left ventricular rupture associated with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    abstract::A 70-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with chest discomfort after quarreling with her neighbors. Electrocardiography revealed ST-segment elevation in leads I, II, III, aVL, aVF, and V2 through V6. Coronary angiography demonstrated normal arteries, but left ventriculography showed apical akinesis and basal h...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Akashi YJ,Tejima T,Sakurada H,Matsuda H,Suzuki K,Kawasaki K,Tsuchiya K,Hashimoto N,Musha H,Sakakibara M,Nakazawa K,Miyake F

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Fluoroscopically Guided vs Landmark-Guided Sacroiliac Joint Injections: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To determine the prevalence of intra- and extra-articular sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain, which injection is more beneficial, and whether fluoroscopy improves outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS:This patient- and evaluator-blinded comparative effectiveness study randomized 125 participants with SIJ pain from April ...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Cohen SP,Bicket MC,Kurihara C,Griffith SR,Fowler IM,Jacobs MB,Liu R,Anderson White M,Verdun AJ,Hari SB,Fisher RL,Pasquina PF,Vorobeychik Y

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutics in pediatric epilepsy, Part 1: The new antiepileptic drugs and the ketogenic diet.

    abstract::Epilepsy is one of the most common and challenging neurologic disorders affecting children. Although various modalities exist to treat pediatric-onset seizures, seizures in 25% of children who are diagnosed as having epilepsy remain refractory to available therapies. Of the 8 new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (felbamate,...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jarrar RG,Buchhalter JR

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    abstract::Since first described In 1961, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a common nosocomial pathogen. Substantial increases in MRSA infections among nonhospitalized patients are being reported. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is the most common isolate from skin and soft tissue infections in selec...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kowalski TJ,Berbari EF,Osmon DR

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

  • Binocular vertical diplopia.

    abstract::The assessment of a patient with binocular vertical diplopia begins with a thorough history and neuro-ophthalmologic examination. The neuro-ophthalmologic examination includes observation for a compensatory head, face, or chin position; ocular ductions and versions in the nine cardinal positions of gaze; the three-ste...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brazis PW,Lee AG

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pertussis outbreak, southeastern Minnesota, 2012.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe clinical and laboratory findings from the 2012 southeastern Minnesota pertussis outbreak. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients were selected for 2 parts of the study. In the first part, nasopharyngeal swabs from a convenience sample of 265 unique patients were used for both the clinician-requested polym...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Theofiles AG,Cunningham SA,Chia N,Jeraldo PR,Quest DJ,Mandrekar JN,Patel R

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Diagnostic role of serum CA 19-9 for cholangiocarcinoma in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    abstract::Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) predisposes to the development of cholangiocarcinoma, a usually fatal complication that is difficult to diagnose. Serum concentrations of CA 19-9, a tumor-associated antigen, are frequently increased in patients with only cholangiocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to assess the ...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nichols JC,Gores GJ,LaRusso NF,Wiesner RH,Nagorney DM,Ritts RE Jr

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • Causes of death in patients with tuberous sclerosis.

    abstract::Of the 355 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) examined at the Mayo Clinic, 49 had died (9 of causes other than TSC). We attempted to determine what pattern of organ involvement occurred most often in the 40 patients who died of TSC. One baby died of cardiac failure due to cardiac rhabdomyomas, and one chil...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shepherd CW,Gomez MR,Lie JT,Crowson CS

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • Focal sclerosing glomerulonephropathy: a clinicopathologic study.

    abstract::Forty cases of focal sclerosing glomerulonephropathy with nephrotic syndrome or proteinuria were studied retrospectively in regard to clinical presentation, response to steroid therapy and clinical course, and histopathology of the lesion. Morphologically there was a focal segmental and global sclerosis with subendot...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Velosa JA,Donadio JV Jr,Holley KE

    更新日期:1975-03-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of Parkinson's disease with pergolide: a double-blind study.

    abstract::Pergolide is a potent dopamine agonist and is known to have anti-Parkinson properties. We administered pergolide to patients with suboptimal control of Parkinson's disease who had a short-duration response to carbidopa-levodopa in a 6-month, double-blind study. Pergolide added to the carbidopa-levodopa regimen resulte...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Ahlskog JE,Muenter MD

    更新日期:1988-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of antihypertensive agents on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::People with hypertension have a high prevalence of insulin resistance and are at relatively high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is becoming increasingly evident that antihypertensive agents have disparate metabolic effects. For example, recent clinical trials indicate that agents that interrupt the re...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stump CS,Hamilton MT,Sowers JR

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of a medical intensivist on patient care in a community teaching hospital.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the effect of adding a trained intensivist on patient care and educational outcomes in a community teaching hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed outcomes for patients admitted to the medical intensive-care unit (MICU) of a 270-bed community teaching hospital between July 19...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Manthous CA,Amoateng-Adjepong Y,al-Kharrat T,Jacob B,Alnuaimat HM,Chatila W,Hall JB

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • Locally recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer after complete surgical resection.

    abstract::Between Jan. 1, 1976, and Dec. 31, 1985, at our institution, 37 patients who had undergone prior complete surgical resection of non-small-cell lung cancer received definitive thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) for locally recurrent disease. Of the 37 recurrences, 33 were in the pulmonary parenchyma or the hilar, mediast...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shaw EG,Brindle JS,Creagan ET,Foote RL,Trastek VF,Buskirk SJ

    更新日期:1992-12-01 00:00:00

  • Results after hemiarthroplasty of the hip using a cemented femoral prosthesis. A review of 109 cases with an average follow-up of 36 months.

    abstract::Hip arthroplasty using the Thompson femoral prosthesis with methyl methacrylate fixation was performed on 109 hips in 106 patients. During an average follow-up period of 36 months, 26 patients died. Fifty-one procedures were performed for fresh fractures of the femoral neck and results were satisfactory in this group ...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beckenbaugh RD,Tressler HA,Johnson EW Jr

    更新日期:1977-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effectiveness of sumatriptan in reducing productivity loss due to migraine: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the effect of sumatriptan on migraine-related workplace productivity loss. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, adult migraineurs self-injected 6 mg of sumatriptan or matching placebo to treat a moderate or severe migraine within the fi...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Schulman EA,Cady RK,Henry D,Batenhorst AS,Putnam DG,Watson CB,O'Quinn SO

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Body Mass Index Variability and Long-term Risk of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in the General Population: A Korean Nationwide Cohort Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the effects of body mass index (BMI) variability on the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), stroke, cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, and CV outcomes in a general Asian population. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Data from the National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening cohort in Korea wer...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Lim YM,Yang PS,Jang E,Yu HT,Kim TH,Uhm JS,Kim JY,Pak HN,Lee MH,Joung B,Lip GYH

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy in hypoadrenal women: protein anabolism and skeletal muscle function.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement therapy in hypoadrenal women improves performance, muscle protein accretion, and mitochondrial functions. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS:Thirty-three hypoadrenal women were enrolled in the study from May 1, 2002, through May 31, 2003. Twenty-eight comp...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Dhatariya KK,Greenlund LJ,Bigelow ML,Thapa P,Oberg AL,Ford GC,Schimke JM,Nair KS

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Laparoscopy for the definitive diagnosis of intra-abdominal lymphoma.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the efficacy of laparoscopy in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS:The medical records of patients with suspected primary or recurrent lymphoma who underwent laparoscopy between March 1991 and March 2003 were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, operative, and pathologic dat...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asoglu O,Porter L,Donohue JH,Cha SS

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Protective effect of lidocaine during regional myocardial ischemia: an altered pathophysiologic response assessed by NADH fluorescence.

    abstract::Studies were undertaken to determine the effects of lidocaine on ischemic myocardium, which was induced by coronary artery constriction in open-chested dogs. A real-time epicardial fluorescent technique to detect in vivo-reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) during 60 seconds of ischemia was used. Blood flo...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baron DW,Walls JT,Anderson RE,Harrison CE Jr

    更新日期:1982-07-01 00:00:00

  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia in adults: a retrospective study and analysis of current management options.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine current therapeutic modalities for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in adults, analyze prognostic variables, and offer treatment recommendations. DESIGN:We reviewed our experience with 90 adult patients with ALL examined at the Mayo Clinic between 1982 and 1992 and used it as a background for disc...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ho TC,Tefferi A,Su JQ,Litzow MR,Hoagland HC,Noël P

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00

  • A multidisciplinary approach to the management of breast cancer, part 1: prevention and diagnosis.

    abstract::Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the United States, with an estimated 200,000 new cases diagnosed annually. A multidisciplinary focus that entails prevention, diagnosis, and treatment has led to significant strides in the reduction of breast cancer incidence and mortality. Additionally, breast ca...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pruthi S,Brandt KR,Degnim AC,Goetz MP,Perez EA,Reynolds CA,Schomberg PJ,Dy GK,Ingle JN

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Integrated Care Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Risk of Cardiovascular Events: The ABC (Atrial fibrillation Better Care) Pathway in the ATHERO-AF Study Cohort.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the impact on cardiovascular events (CVEs) in a real-world population of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by implementing the Atrial fibrillation Better Care (ABC: A, Avoid stroke with anticoagulation; B, better symptom management; C, Cardiovascular and comorbidity risk management) pathwa...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pastori D,Pignatelli P,Menichelli D,Violi F,Lip GYH

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Prognostic Significance of Holter Monitor Findings in Patients With Light Chain Amyloidosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the prognostic impact of Holter findings in patients with light chain amyloidosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We evaluated 239 patients in whom light chain amyloidosis was diagnosed from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2015, who underwent 24-hour Holter monitoring. RESULTS:Holter testing was don...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sidana S,Tandon N,Brady PA,Grogan M,Gertz MA,Dispenzieri A,Lin G,Dingli D,Buadi FK,Lacy MQ,Kapoor P,Gonsalves WI,Muchtar E,Warsame R,Kumar SK,Kourelis TV

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Omega-3 fatty acids for cardioprotection.

    abstract::The most compelling evidence for the cardiovascular benefit provided by omega-3 fatty acids comes from 3 large controlled trials of 32,000 participants randomized to receive omega-3 fatty acid supplements containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or to act as controls. These trials showed r...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lee JH,O'Keefe JH,Lavie CJ,Marchioli R,Harris WS

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Safety, diagnostic yield, and therapeutic implications of flexible bronchoscopy in patients with febrile neutropenia and pulmonary infiltrates.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the safety, diagnostic yield, and therapeutic implications of flexible bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsy in patients with febrile neutropenia and pulmonary infiltrates. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients with...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peikert T,Rana S,Edell ES

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Screening Women at High Risk for Cervical Cancer: Special Groups of Women Who Require More Frequent Screening.

    abstract::The updated cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend that women at average risk who have negative screening results undergo cervical cytological testing every 3 to 5 years. These recommendations do not pertain to women at high risk for cervical cancer. This article reviews recommendations for cervical cancer scr...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vegunta S,Files JA,Wasson MN

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Percutaneous transcatheter embolization of coronary arteriovenous fistulas.

    abstract::Coronary artery fistulas are infrequently encountered vascular communications that are either congenital or due to cardiac trauma. Most patients with these anomalies are asymptomatic, but late complications can occur and include congestive heart failure, myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias, and endocarditis. Therefore, m...

    journal_title:Mayo Clinic proceedings

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harris WO,Andrews JC,Nichols DA,Holmes DR Jr

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00