Genome-wide atlas of gene expression in the adult mouse brain.


:Molecular approaches to understanding the functional circuitry of the nervous system promise new insights into the relationship between genes, brain and behaviour. The cellular diversity of the brain necessitates a cellular resolution approach towards understanding the functional genomics of the nervous system. We describe here an anatomically comprehensive digital atlas containing the expression patterns of approximately 20,000 genes in the adult mouse brain. Data were generated using automated high-throughput procedures for in situ hybridization and data acquisition, and are publicly accessible online. Newly developed image-based informatics tools allow global genome-scale structural analysis and cross-correlation, as well as identification of regionally enriched genes. Unbiased fine-resolution analysis has identified highly specific cellular markers as well as extensive evidence of cellular heterogeneity not evident in classical neuroanatomical atlases. This highly standardized atlas provides an open, primary data resource for a wide variety of further studies concerning brain organization and function.






Lein ES,Hawrylycz MJ,Ao N,Ayres M,Bensinger A,Bernard A,Boe AF,Boguski MS,Brockway KS,Byrnes EJ,Chen L,Chen L,Chen TM,Chin MC,Chong J,Crook BE,Czaplinska A,Dang CN,Datta S,Dee NR,Desaki AL,Desta T,Diep E,Dol




Has Abstract


2007-01-11 00:00:00
















  • First dairying in green Saharan Africa in the fifth millennium BC.

    abstract::In the prehistoric green Sahara of Holocene North Africa-in contrast to the Neolithic of Europe and Eurasia-a reliance on cattle, sheep and goats emerged as a stable and widespread way of life, long before the first evidence for domesticated plants or settled village farming communities. The remarkable rock art found ...


    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Dunne J,Evershed RP,Salque M,Cramp L,Bruni S,Ryan K,Biagetti S,di Lernia S

    更新日期:2012-06-20 00:00:00

  • A new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily--CTLA-4.

    abstract::The immunoglobulin superfamily is a group of proteins, each made of one or several domains sharing key structural features with either the variable (V) or the constant (C) immunoglobulin domains. It includes such functionally important members as the immunoglobulins themselves, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brunet JF,Denizot F,Luciani MF,Roux-Dosseto M,Suzan M,Mattei MG,Golstein P

    更新日期:1987-07-16 00:00:00

  • Amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal loss in brains of transgenic mice overexpressing a C-terminal fragment of human amyloid precursor protein.

    abstract::Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects more than 30% of people over 80 years of age. The aetiology and pathogenesis of this progressive dementia is poorly understood, but symptomatic disease is associated histopathologically with amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal loss primarily in the temporal lobe and n...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,收录出版


    authors: Kawabata S,Higgins GA,Gordon JW

    更新日期:1991-12-12 00:00:00

  • Signatures of granular microstructure in dense shear flows

    abstract::Granular materials and ordinary fluids react differently to shear stresses. Rather than deforming uniformly, materials such as dry sand or cohesionless powders develop shear bands--narrow zones of large relative particle motion, with essentially rigid adjacent regions. Because shear bands mark areas of flow, material ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mueth DM,Debregeas GF,Karczmar GS,Eng PJ,Nagel SR,Jaeger HM

    更新日期:2000-07-27 00:00:00

  • Evolution of ageing.

    abstract::An evolutionary view of ageing suggests that mortality may be due to an energy-saving strategy of reduced error regulation in somatic cells. This supports Orgel's 'error catastrophe' hypothesis and offers a new basis for the study of normal and abnormal ageing syndromes and of apparently immortal transformed cell line...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kirkwood TB

    更新日期:1977-11-24 00:00:00

  • The dating of shallow faults in the Earth's crust.

    abstract::Direct dating of ductile shear zones and calculation of uplift/exhumation rates can be done using various radiometric dating techniques. But radiometric dating of shallow crustal faulting, which occurs in the crust's brittle regime, has remained difficult because the low temperatures typical of shallow crusted faults ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van der Pluijm BA,Hall CM,Vrolijk PJ,Pevear DR,Covey MC

    更新日期:2001-07-12 00:00:00

  • Defining the functions of trans-SNARE pairs.

    abstract::The homotypic fusion of yeast vacuoles includes a 'docking' step, which we show here to consist of two sequential reactions: a reversible 'tethering' mediated by the GTPase Ypt7, and 'SNARE pairing', in which SNARE proteins from opposite membranes form a complex in trans. The function of this trans-SNARE complex must ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ungermann C,Sato K,Wickner W

    更新日期:1998-12-10 00:00:00

  • The DIX domain targets dishevelled to actin stress fibres and vesicular membranes.

    abstract::Colorectal cancer results from mutations in components of the Wnt pathway that regulate beta-catenin levels. Dishevelled (Dvl or Dsh) signals downstream of Wnt receptors and stabilizes beta-catenin during cell proliferation and embryonic axis formation. Moreover, Dvl contributes to cytoskeletal reorganization during g...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Capelluto DG,Kutateladze TG,Habas R,Finkielstein CV,He X,Overduin M

    更新日期:2002-10-17 00:00:00

  • Effective global conservation strategies.

    abstract::Using data on the global distribution of mammal, bird and amphibian species, Grenyer et al. conclude that planning based on individual taxa does not provide efficient solutions for the conservation of other taxa. They also report that the performance of existing global conservation strategies-endemic bird areas, biodi...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Rodrigues AS

    更新日期:2007-12-06 00:00:00

  • A salmonella protein antagonizes Rac-1 and Cdc42 to mediate host-cell recovery after bacterial invasion.

    abstract::An essential feature of the bacterial pathogen Salmonella spp. is its ability to enter cells that are normally non-phagocytic, such as those of the intestinal epithelium. The bacterium achieves entry by delivering effector proteins into the host-cell cytosol by means of a specialized protein-secretion system (termed t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fu Y,Galán JE

    更新日期:1999-09-16 00:00:00

  • Fluorescent indicators for Ca2+ based on green fluorescent proteins and calmodulin.

    abstract::Important Ca2+ signals in the cytosol and organelles are often extremely localized and hard to measure. To overcome this problem we have constructed new fluorescent indicators for Ca2+ that are genetically encoded without cofactors and are targetable to specific intracellular locations. We have dubbed these fluorescen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miyawaki A,Llopis J,Heim R,McCaffery JM,Adams JA,Ikura M,Tsien RY

    更新日期:1997-08-28 00:00:00

  • Growth hormone receptor and serum binding protein: purification, cloning and expression.

    abstract::A putative growth hormone receptor from rabbit liver and the growth hormone binding protein from rabbit serum have the same amino-terminal amino-acid sequence, indicating that the binding protein corresponds to the extracellular hormone-binding domain of the liver receptor. The complete amino-acid sequences derived fr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leung DW,Spencer SA,Cachianes G,Hammonds RG,Collins C,Henzel WJ,Barnard R,Waters MJ,Wood WI

    更新日期:1987-12-10 00:00:00

  • A parsec-scale optical jet from a massive young star in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    abstract::Highly collimated parsec-scale jets, which are generally linked to the presence of an accretion disk, are commonly observed in low-mass young stellar objects. In the past two decades, a few of these jets have been directly (or indirectly) observed from higher-mass (larger than eight solar masses) young stellar objects...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McLeod AF,Reiter M,Kuiper R,Klaassen PD,Evans CJ

    更新日期:2018-02-15 00:00:00

  • Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management.

    abstract::In the coming decades, a crucial challenge for humanity will be meeting future food demands without undermining further the integrity of the Earth's environmental systems. Agricultural systems are already major forces of global environmental degradation, but population growth and increasing consumption of calorie- and...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mueller ND,Gerber JS,Johnston M,Ray DK,Ramankutty N,Foley JA

    更新日期:2012-10-11 00:00:00

  • Corrigendum: High-throughput discovery of novel developmental phenotypes.

    abstract::This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature19356. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,已发布勘误


    authors: Dickinson ME,Flenniken AM,Ji X,Teboul L,Wong MD,White JK,Meehan TF,Weninger WJ,Westerberg H,Adissu H,Baker CN,Bower L,Brown JM,Caddle LB,Chiani F,Clary D,Cleak J,Daly MJ,Denegre JM,Doe B,Dolan ME,Edie Helmut Fuc

    更新日期:2017-11-16 00:00:00

  • A GaAs polariton light-emitting diode operating near room temperature.

    abstract::The increasing ability to control light-matter interactions at the nanometre scale has improved the performance of semiconductor lasers in the past decade. The ultimate optimization is realized in semiconductor microcavities, in which strong coupling between quantum-well excitons and cavity photons gives rise to hybri...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsintzos SI,Pelekanos NT,Konstantinidis G,Hatzopoulos Z,Savvidis PG

    更新日期:2008-05-15 00:00:00

  • An enzyme isolated from arteries transforms prostaglandin endoperoxides to an unstable substance that inhibits platelet aggregation.

    abstract::Microsomes prepared from rabbit or pig aortas transformed endoperoxides (PGG2 or PGH2) to an unstable substance (PGX) that inhibited human platelet aggregation. PGX was 30 times more potent in this respect than prostaglandin E1. PGX contracted some gastrointestinal smooth muscle and relaxed certain isolated blood vess...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moncada S,Gryglewski R,Bunting S,Vane JR

    更新日期:1976-10-21 00:00:00

  • The SMAD2/3 interactome reveals that TGFβ controls m6A mRNA methylation in pluripotency.

    abstract::The TGFβ pathway has essential roles in embryonic development, organ homeostasis, tissue repair and disease. These diverse effects are mediated through the intracellular effectors SMAD2 and SMAD3 (hereafter SMAD2/3), whose canonical function is to control the activity of target genes by interacting with transcriptiona...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bertero A,Brown S,Madrigal P,Osnato A,Ortmann D,Yiangou L,Kadiwala J,Hubner NC,de Los Mozos IR,Sadée C,Lenaerts AS,Nakanoh S,Grandy R,Farnell E,Ule J,Stunnenberg HG,Mendjan S,Vallier L

    更新日期:2018-03-08 00:00:00

  • Cranial design and function in a large theropod dinosaur.

    abstract::Finite element analysis (FEA) is used by industrial designers and biomechanicists to estimate the performance of engineered structures or human skeletal and soft tissues subjected to varying regimes of stress and strain. FEA is rarely applied to problems of biomechanical design in animals, despite its potential to inf...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rayfield EJ,Norman DB,Horner CC,Horner JR,Smith PM,Thomason JJ,Upchurch P

    更新日期:2001-02-22 00:00:00

  • Isolation of a cDNA encoding the vascular type-1 angiotensin II receptor.

    abstract::Angiotensin II is an important effector molecule controlling blood pressure and volume in the cardiovascular system. Its importance is manifested by the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. Angiotensin II interacts with two pharmacologicall...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murphy TJ,Alexander RW,Griendling KK,Runge MS,Bernstein KE

    更新日期:1991-05-16 00:00:00

  • Structural basis for recognition of synaptic vesicle protein 2C by botulinum neurotoxin A.

    abstract::Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) belongs to the most dangerous class of bioweapons. Despite this, BoNT/A is used to treat a wide range of common medical conditions such as migraines and a variety of ocular motility and movement disorders. BoNT/A is probably best known for its use as an antiwrinkle agent in cosmetic app...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Benoit RM,Frey D,Hilbert M,Kevenaar JT,Wieser MM,Stirnimann CU,McMillan D,Ceska T,Lebon F,Jaussi R,Steinmetz MO,Schertler GF,Hoogenraad CC,Capitani G,Kammerer RA

    更新日期:2014-01-02 00:00:00

  • Is health reform dead?

    abstract::Mr Clinton appears ready to compromise on health care reform despite previous denials. ...


    pub_type: 社论



    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacology of GABA receptor Cl- channels in rat retinal bipolar cells.

    abstract::gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system, is known to operate bicuculline-sensitive Cl- channels through GABAA receptors and bicuculline-insensitive cation channels through GABAB receptors. Recent observations indicate that the retina may contain GABA receptor...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Feigenspan A,Wässle H,Bormann J

    更新日期:1993-01-14 00:00:00

  • Direct modulation of Aplysia S-K+ channels by a 12-lipoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid.

    abstract::Lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid have recently been shown to modulate the activity of ion channels in nerve and muscle cells. The mechanism of action of these metabolites is, however, unknown. In sensory neurons of Aplysia, the S-K- channel is under the dual modulatory control of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buttner N,Siegelbaum SA,Volterra A

    更新日期:1989-11-30 00:00:00

  • Ant navigation: priming of visual route memories.

    abstract::Ants travelling to and fro between their nest and a foraging area may follow stereotyped foodward and homeward routes that are guided by different visual and directional memory sequences. Honeybees are known to fly a feeder-to-hive or hive-to-feeder vector according to whether or not they have recently fed--their feed...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harris RA,Hempel de Ibarra N,Graham P,Collett TS

    更新日期:2005-11-17 00:00:00

  • Restoration by a 35K membrane protein of peroxisome assembly in a peroxisome-deficient mammalian cell mutant.

    abstract::Peroxisomes are among the intracellular organelles of eukaryotic cells that contain specialized sets of enzymes with specific functions. Little is known of membranous components involved in assembly of the intracellular compartments. We isolated two peroxisome-deficient and mutually complementary, Chinese hamster ovar...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsukamoto T,Miura S,Fujiki Y

    更新日期:1991-03-07 00:00:00

  • Sensitization of silicon by singlet exciton fission in tetracene.

    abstract::Silicon dominates contemporary solar cell technologies1. But when absorbing photons, silicon (like other semiconductors) wastes energy in excess of its bandgap2. Reducing these thermalization losses and enabling better sensitivity to light is possible by sensitizing the silicon solar cell using singlet exciton fission...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Einzinger M,Wu T,Kompalla JF,Smith HL,Perkinson CF,Nienhaus L,Wieghold S,Congreve DN,Kahn A,Bawendi MG,Baldo MA

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Corrigendum: Rare cell variability and drug-induced reprogramming as a mode of cancer drug resistance.

    abstract::This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature22794. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,已发布勘误


    authors: Shaffer SM,Dunagin MC,Torborg SR,Torre EA,Emert B,Krepler C,Beqiri M,Sproesser K,Brafford PA,Xiao M,Eggan E,Anastopoulos IN,Vargas-Garcia CA,Singh A,Nathanson KL,Herlyn M,Raj A

    更新日期:2018-03-08 00:00:00

  • Retinotopic order in the absence of axon competition.

    abstract::The retinotectal projection has long been studied experimentally and theoretically, as a model for the formation of topographic brain maps. Neighbouring retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) project their axons to neighbouring positions in the optic tectum, thus re-establishing a continuous neural representation of visual spa...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gosse NJ,Nevin LM,Baier H

    更新日期:2008-04-17 00:00:00

  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids activate the Drosophila light-sensitive channels TRP and TRPL.

    abstract::Phototransduction in invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors is thought to be mediated by the activation of phospholipase C (PLC), but how this leads to gating of the light-sensitive channels is unknown. Most attention has focused on inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate, a second messenger produced by PLC from phosphatidylino...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chyb S,Raghu P,Hardie RC

    更新日期:1999-01-21 00:00:00