Hyposmotic stimulation-induced nitric oxide production in outer hair cells of the guinea pig cochlea.


:Nitric oxide (NO) production during hyposmotic stimulation in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the guinea pig cochlea was investigated using the NO sensitive dye DAF-2. Simultaneous measurement of the cell length and NO production showed rapid hyposmotic-induced cell swelling to precede NO production in OHCs. Hyposmotic stimulation failed to induce NO production in the Ca(2+)-free solution. L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor and gadolinium, a stretch-activated channel blocker inhibited the hyposmotic stimulation-induced NO production whereas suramin, a P2 receptor antagonist did not. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a NO donor inhibited the hyposmotic stimulation-induced increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) while L-NAME enhanced it. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3a]quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase and KT5823, an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) mimicked effects of L-NAME on the Ca(2+) response. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an osmo- and mechanosensitive channel was expressed in the OHCs by means of immunohistochemistry. 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, a TRPV4 synthetic activator, induced NO production in OHCs. These results suggest that hyposmotic stimulation can induce NO production by the [Ca(2+)](i) increase, which is presumably mediated by the activation of TRPV4 in OHCs. NO conversely inhibits the Ca(2+) response via the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway by a feedback mechanism.


Hear Res


Hearing research


Takeda-Nakazawa H,Harada N,Shen J,Kubo N,Zenner HP,Yamashita T




Has Abstract


2007-05-01 00:00:00














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