Randomized controlled trial of unflued gas heater replacement on respiratory health of asthmatic schoolchildren.


BACKGROUND:Previous studies do not provide a clear picture of the relationship between nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposure and asthma. METHODS:Eighteen schools using unflued gas heating in winter were randomly allocated to either retain their heaters (10 control schools) or to have replacement flued gas or electric heaters installed at the beginning of winter (8 intervention schools). Fortnightly telephone interviews were used to record daily individual asthma symptoms that occurred over 12 weeks (including winter). Lung function and histamine challenge tests were performed at baseline and the end of the study. NO(2) was measured in each school classroom on 9 days and in each household on 3 days spread over the study period. RESULTS:From 199 primary school children that met the eligibility criteria, 45 intervention and 73 control children agreed to participate. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Difficulty breathing during the day (Relative Risk [RR] = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.98) and night (RR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.69), chest tightness during the day (RR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.81), and daytime asthma attacks (RR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.93) were significantly reduced in the intervention group. Percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), the concentration of histamine inducing a 20% fall in FEV(1) (PD(20)), and the dose-response slope (DRS) were similar between groups at follow-up. Mean (standard deviation) NO(2) levels were 15.5 (6.6) parts per billion (ppb) and 47.0 (26.8) ppb in the intervention and control schools respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Asthma symptoms were reduced following a replacement intervention that removed high exposure to NO(2). Such replacement should be considered a public health priority for schools using unflued gas heating during winter.


Int J Epidemiol


Pilotto LS,Nitschke M,Smith BJ,Pisaniello D,Ruffin RE,McElroy HJ,Martin J,Hiller JE





Has Abstract


2004-02-01 00:00:00














  • Bundling, a newly identified risk factor for neonatal tetanus: implications for global control.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Bundling, which consists of wrapping an infant for prolonged periods in a sheepskin cover after dried cow dung is applied, is a common and apparently unique practice limited to the rural, mountainous regions of Northern Pakistan. The practice is initiated at various ages during the neonatal period. Its poten...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bennett J,Schooley M,Traverso H,Agha SB,Boring J

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Iodization and thyroid status in relation to stillbirths and congenital anomalies.

    abstract::Thyroid status is known to have an important bearing on the ability of a woman to conceive, and to bring a normal infant to term. Thyroid status has changed in a number of previously iodine deficient countries as a result of recent iodization programmes. In this study, examination has been made of changes in the rates...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Potter JD,McMichael AJ,Hetzel BS

    更新日期:1979-06-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between neighbourhood-level killed oral cholera vaccine coverage and protective efficacy: evidence for herd immunity.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The effectiveness of vaccines in populations must consider both direct and indirect protection. This study reanalyses data from a large individually randomized oral cholera vaccine trial that was conducted in rural Bangladesh from 1985 to 1990. A recent analysis of the results of that trial showed that the p...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Emch M,Ali M,Park JK,Yunus M,Sack DA,Clemens JD

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • Socioeconomic differences in cardiovascular risk factors in China.

    abstract::Socioeconomic conditions are important in explaining variation in cardiovascular morbidity in advanced societies. To analyse whether cardiovascular risk factors vary according to socioeconomic status in a developing country, and more specifically, in an urban area of China, we compared data from structured interviews ...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Siegrist J,Bernhardt R,Feng ZC,Schettler G

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • Mortality as a function of temperature. A study in Valencia, Spain, 1991-1993.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Increased mortality is associated with both very low and very high ambient temperatures. This study assesses the relationship between daily numbers of deaths and variations in ambient temperature within the city of Valencia. METHODS:The daily number of deaths from all causes (total deaths and only those occ...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ballester F,Corella D,Pérez-Hoyos S,Sáez M,Hervás A

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate, and prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

    abstract:Background:It is known that perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate have the property of inhibiting sodium iodide symporter. Animal studies have suggested that these compounds, especially perchlorate, might also interfere with insulin secretion. However, the association between their exposure and diabetes risk is largely ...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu G,Zong G,Dhana K,Hu Y,Blount BC,Morel-Espinosa M,Sun Q

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Decline of infant and child mortality rates in rural Senegal over a 37-year period (1963-1999).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In spite of an improving trend, childhood mortality in rural sub-Saharan Africa remains high and has recently risen in some countries. The factors associated with the long-term decline in childhood mortality are poorly known, due to a lack of data. METHODS:A Senegalese rural population has been under demogr...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Delaunay V,Etard JF,Préziosi MP,Marra A,Simondon F

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cultural concepts of distress and psychiatric disorders: literature review and research recommendations for global mental health epidemiology.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Burgeoning global mental health endeavors have renewed debates about cultural applicability of psychiatric categories. This study's goal is to review strengths and limitations of literature comparing psychiatric categories with cultural concepts of distress (CCD) such as cultural syndromes, culture-bound syn...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Kohrt BA,Rasmussen A,Kaiser BN,Haroz EE,Maharjan SM,Mutamba BB,de Jong JT,Hinton DE

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV): a meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Maternal co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been implicated as a potentially important co-factor for enhanced vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV). In previous reports, however, methodological issues (notably small sample sizes) have limited accurate evaluation of the contri...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Pappalardo BL

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Chlorination of drinking water and cancer incidence in Norway.

    abstract::To examine whether chlorination of drinking water was associated with cancer of the digestive or other organs, an ecological epidemiological study using nationwide incidence data from the Cancer Registry of Norway was carried out. On two geographical levels (counties and municipalities), both for men and women, chlori...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Flaten TP

    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of sisterhood information on causes of maternal death with the registration causes of maternal death in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:To explore whether causes of maternal death can be investigated using the sisterhood method, an indirect method for providing a community-based estimate of the level of maternal mortality, this study compares the sisterhood causes of maternal death with the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System's (DSS) caus...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shahidullah M

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Paediatric, invasive pneumococcal disease in Switzerland, 1985-1994. Swiss Pneumococcal Study Group.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cost effective use of new vaccines against pneumococcal disease in children requires detailed information about the local epidemiology of pneumococcal infections. METHODS:Data on 393 culture-confirmed cases of invasive pneumococcal infection in children (<17 years) hospitalized in Swiss paediatric clinics w...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Venetz I,Schopfer K,Mühlemann K

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • 50-year trends in US socioeconomic inequalities in health: US-born Black and White Americans, 1959-2008.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Debates exist over whether health inequities are bound to rise as population health improves, due to health improving more quickly among the better off, with most analyses focused on mortality data. METHODS:We analysed 50 years of socioeconomic inequities in measured health status among US-born Black and Wh...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Krieger N,Kosheleva A,Waterman PD,Chen JT,Beckfield J,Kiang MV

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • No improvement in weight-for-age of young children in southern Senegal, 1969-1992, despite a drastic reduction in mortality. Evidence from a growth monitoring programme.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Undernutrition is associated with an increased risk of death among young children in developing countries. Infant and child nutritional status and mortality were monitored in a rural area of Casamance, Senegal. METHODS:Analysis of weight measurements taken at 3-24 months of age during routine growth monitor...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pinchinat S,Enel C,Pison G,Duthé G,Lagarde E,Simondon F,Simondon KB

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    abstract::Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic disea...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmidt MI,Duncan BB,Mill JG,Lotufo PA,Chor D,Barreto SM,Aquino EM,Passos VM,Matos SM,Molina Mdel C,Carvalho MS,Bensenor IM

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Resting heart rate on the decline: the Tromsø Study 1986-2007.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We examined secular changes in resting heart rate (RHR) and their relationship with changes in other cardiovascular risk factors in adult men and women over a 22-year period. METHODS:A single-centre population-based longitudinal study comprised 30,699 men and women aged 30-89 years who participated in at le...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharashova E,Wilsgaard T,Brenn T

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Sibship size, Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis: a population-based study among 9444 older adults from Germany.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Early-life social environment has been suggested to play an important role during the development of Helicobacter pylori-related gastric diseases. We aimed to assess the association of sibship size with H. pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) in a population-based study from Germany. METHOD...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gao L,Weck MN,Raum E,Stegmaier C,Rothenbacher D,Brenner H

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Natural background radiation and cancer mortality in the Republic of Ireland.

    abstract::An extensive area of rural Ireland was monitored in detail for natural background radiation (NBR); average background radiation values were derived for all District Electoral Divisions (DEDs) in this area. Cancer mortality rates were calculated for the DEDs aggregated according to average NBR. No association was appar...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allwright SP,Colgan PA,McAulay IR,Mullins E

    更新日期:1983-12-01 00:00:00

  • What is the difference between missing completely at random and missing at random?

    abstract::The terminology describing missingness mechanisms is confusing. In particular the meaning of 'missing at random' is often misunderstood, leading researchers faced with missing data problems away from multiple imputation, a method with considerable advantages. The purpose of this article is to clarify how 'missing at r...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bhaskaran K,Smeeth L

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • Low plasma triglyceride levels in lake dwelling East African tribesmen--a fishy story?

    abstract::Samples of East African tribesmen from two separate locations were compared with respect to a number of anthropometric, cardiovascular and biochemical variables. The major finding was a large, significant difference in mean triglyceride levels between the groups (0.97 vs. 0.67 mmol/l; p less than 0.001), the mean plas...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Robinson D,Day J

    更新日期:1986-06-01 00:00:00

  • Social ties and survival among the elderly in Tampere, Finland.

    abstract::The association between social ties and survival was assessed using a stratified sample of 1060 elderly aged 60-89 years in the city of Tampere, Finland. During the 6.5-year follow-up, 240 men and 153 women died. Compared with married men, the death rate ratio among unmarried men was 1.7 and among widowers 1.2. The re...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jylhä M,Aro S

    更新日期:1989-03-01 00:00:00

  • Usefulness of overnight pulse oximeter as the sleep assessment tool to assess the 6-year risk of road traffic collision: evidence from the Taiwan Bus Driver Cohort Study.

    abstract:Background:In order to support health service organizations in arranging a system for prevention of road traffic collisions (RTC), it is important to study the usefulness of sleep assessment tools. A cohort study was used to evaluate the effectiveness of subjective and objective sleep assessment tools to assess for the...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu WT,Tsai SS,Liao HY,Lin YJ,Lin MH,Wu TN,Shih TS,Liou SH

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Smoking and human papillomavirus infection: pooled analysis of the International Agency for Research on Cancer HPV Prevalence Surveys.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Smoking increases the risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the cervix, but it is not clear whether smoking increases the risk of acquisition or persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS:Information on smoking was collected from 10 areas in four continents among population-based, age-stratif...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vaccarella S,Herrero R,Snijders PJ,Dai M,Thomas JO,Hieu NT,Ferreccio C,Matos E,Posso H,de Sanjosé S,Shin HR,Sukvirach S,Lazcano-Ponce E,Muñoz N,Meijer CJ,Franceschi S,IARC HPV Prevalence Surveys (IHPS) Study Group.

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Dairy, soy, and risk of breast cancer: those confounded milks.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Associations between soy, dairy intakes and breast cancer risk are inconsistent. No studies exist with large numbers of dairy consumers and soy consumers to assess mutual confounding. METHODS:The study cohort contains 52 795 North American women, initially free of cancer, followed for 7.9 years (29.7% were ...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fraser GE,Jaceldo-Siegl K,Orlich M,Mashchak A,Sirirat R,Knutsen S

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Methodological issues in case-control studies: validity and power of various design/analysis strategies.

    abstract::Computer stimulations have been used to estimate the efficiency, as measured by the statistical power, of various combinations of design and analysis strategies for case-control studies. Conditions under which the various forms of analysis yield consistent relative risk estimators are derived for the general model. Th...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Howe GR,Choi BC

    更新日期:1983-06-01 00:00:00

  • Association between serum sialic acid concentration and carotid atherosclerosis measured by B-mode ultrasound. The ARIC Investigators. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have shown that the serum level of sialic acid is associated positively with mortality from coronary disease and stroke. In this study its relation with carotid atherosclerosis was evaluated. METHODS:From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, 323 cases with carotid intima-me...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Råstam L,Lindberg G,Folsom AR,Burke GL,Nilsson-Ehle P,Lundblad A

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • The evaluation of new services: possibilities for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis.

    abstract::We examine the resource implications of two potential health services aimed at preventing congenital toxoplasmosis: a screening service involving serological surveillance for toxoplasma infection in pregnant women and its prophylactic treatment; and a health education campaign to help pregnant women avoid acquiring to...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Henderson JB,Beattie CP,Hale EG,Wright T

    更新日期:1984-03-01 00:00:00

  • Hospital admissions and mortality in the 15 years after a first-time hospital contact with an alcohol problem: a prospective cohort study using the entire Danish population.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Potential benefits of preventing continued alcohol intake in individuals presenting at the hospital with an alcohol problem can be highlighted by studying their excess risk of subsequent morbidity and mortality. METHODS:All Danish residents with a first-time hospital contact with alcohol problems (intoxicat...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Askgaard G,Leon DA,Deleuran T,Tolstrup JS

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Heat wave characteristics, mortality and effect modification by temperature zones: a time-series study in 130 counties of China.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The substantial disease burden attributed to heat waves, and their increasing frequency and intensity due to climate change, highlight the importance of understanding the health consequences of heat waves. We explore the mortality risk due to heat wave characteristics, including the timing in the seasons, th...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sun Z,Chen C,Yan M,Shi W,Wang J,Ban J,Sun Q,He MZ,Li T

    更新日期:2021-01-23 00:00:00

  • End-stage renal disease projections for Canada to 2005 using Poisson and Markov models.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:End-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence and prevalence are increasing in many countries worldwide. Due to the high cost of therapy, predicting future numbers of patients requiring dialysis and transplantation is necessary for health care planners. Projecting therapy-specific chronic disease prevalence is in...

    journal_title:International journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schaubel DE,Morrison HI,Desmeules M,Parsons D,Fenton SS

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00