Diabetes increases the risk of acute hepatic failure.


BACKGROUND & AIMS:It is unclear whether patients with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing acute liver failure (ALF). We performed a large cohort study to examine the occurrence of ALF by using the databases of the Department of Veterans Affairs. METHODS:We identified all patients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of diabetes (ICD-9 codes: 250 [1-9][0-4]) from 1985 to 1990 and randomly assigned patients without diabetes for comparison (3:1 ratio). We excluded patients with concomitant liver disease as far back as 1980. After excluding the first year of follow-up, the remaining patients were observed through 2000 for the occurrence of ALF (ICD-9 570). The cumulative risk and the relative risk of ALF were determined by Kaplan-Meier and Cox Proportional Hazard survival analysis, respectively. RESULTS:We included 173,643 patients with diabetes and 650,620 patients without diabetes. Patients with diabetes were significantly older (62 vs. 54 years) and were less likely to be white (28% vs. 24%). The cumulative risk of ALF was significantly higher among patients with diabetes (incidence rate, 2.31 per 10,000 vs. 1.44 per 10,000 person-years; P < 0.0001). In the Cox proportional hazard model, diabetes was associated with a relative risk of 1.44 (95% CI, 1.26-1.63; P < 0.0001) for ALF while controlling for comorbidity index, age, sex, ethnicity, and period of service. This risk remained significantly increased after excluding patients with liver disease or viral hepatitis recorded during follow-up or those with ALF recorded after the introduction of troglitazone (relative risk = 1.40; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:Diabetes increases the risk of ALF. The increase in ALF is independent of recognized underlying chronic liver disease or viral hepatitis.






El-Serag HB,Everhart JE





Has Abstract


2002-06-01 00:00:00














  • Hepatitis B virus core variants modify natural course of viral infection and hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:We assessed the influence of genetic variants in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core, which is a principal immunologic target, on the progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a cohort of 4841 male HBV carriers followed up for 16 years. METHODS:First, baseline sera from 116 HCC cases and 154 cont...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sung FY,Jung CM,Wu CF,Lin CL,Liu CJ,Liaw YF,Tsai KS,Yu MW

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Na+-dependent bile acid transport in the ileum: the balance between diarrhea and constipation.

    abstract::Ileal Na+-dependent bile acid transport was quantified in vitro as the uptake of 3H-taurocholate into brush-border membrane vesicles. Vesicles were prepared from ileal biopsies of 158 patients placed in 10 diagnostic categories. Active bile acid transport (expressed as picomoles taurocholate uptake per milligram brush...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Tilburg AJ,de Rooij FW,van Blankenstein M,van den Berg JW,Bosman-Jacobs EP

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Crohn's disease and the NOD2 gene: a role for paneth cells.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:The NOD2 gene, which is strongly associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD) of the terminal ileum, interacts with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inducing cellular activation. However, the mechanisms by which NOD2 mutations cause terminal ileitis are unknown, and NOD2 is expressed most...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lala S,Ogura Y,Osborne C,Hor SY,Bromfield A,Davies S,Ogunbiyi O,Nuñez G,Keshav S

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • Impaired clearance of virus-infected hepatocytes in transgenic mice expressing the hepatitis C virus polyprotein.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Multiple molecular mechanisms are likely to contribute to the establishment of persistent infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this work was to study the evasion of cell-mediated antiviral immune responses in transgenic mice with liver-targeted expression of the hepatitis C viral genome. T...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Disson O,Haouzi D,Desagher S,Loesch K,Hahne M,Kremer EJ,Jacquet C,Lemon SM,Hibner U,Lerat H

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic enteric salmonella infection in mice leads to severe and persistent intestinal fibrosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Intestinal fibrosis and stricture formation are serious complications of Crohn's disease, often requiring surgical intervention. Unfortunately, the mechanisms underlying intestinal fibrosis development are poorly understood, in part because of the lack of relevant animal models. Here, we present a nov...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grassl GA,Valdez Y,Bergstrom KS,Vallance BA,Finlay BB

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between patterns of bleeding and Hemoccult sensitivity in patients with colorectal cancers or adenomas.

    abstract::Although Hemoccult (Smith Kline Diagnostics, Inc., Sunnyvale, Calif.) screening for colorectal cancer is based on detection of the peroxidase activity of blood, little is known about the relationship between patterns of bleeding from cancers or adenomas and sensitivity of the test slides. 51Cr-labeled blood loss was m...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Macrae FA,St John DJ

    更新日期:1982-05-01 00:00:00

  • Interleukin 12 is expressed and actively released by Crohn's disease intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Cell-mediated immunity is a feature of Crohn's disease (CD). The heterodimer interleukin (IL)-12, produced by phagocytes, induces T-cell cytokines, primarily interferon (IFN)-gamma. This study examined whether CD lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) express and release bioactive IL-12. METHODS:LP...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Monteleone G,Biancone L,Marasco R,Morrone G,Marasco O,Luzza F,Pallone F

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • A new cause of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: non-small cell lung cancer.

    abstract::Numerous epidemiologic studies suggest a relationship between lung cancer and peptic ulcer disease. Furthermore, various lung cancers synthesize and release a number of peptides such as gastrin and gastrin-releasing peptide that could cause acid hypersecretion; however, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES), because of a l...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abou-Saif A,Lei J,McDonald TJ,Chakrabarti S,Waxman IF,Shojamanesh H,Schrump DS,Kleiner DE,Gibril F,Jensen RT

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

  • Alternative Splice Forms of CYLD Mediate Ubiquitination of SMAD7 to Prevent TGFB Signaling and Promote Colitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:The CYLD lysine 63 deubiquitinase gene (CYLD) encodes tumor suppressor protein that is mutated in familial cylindromatosus, and variants have been associated with Crohn disease (CD). Splice forms of CYLD that lack exons 7 and 8 regulate transcription factors and functions of immune cells. We examined ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tang Y,Reissig S,Glasmacher E,Regen T,Wanke F,Nikolaev A,Gerlach K,Popp V,Karram K,Fantini MC,Schattenberg JM,Galle PR,Neurath MF,Weigmann B,Kurschus FC,Hövelmeyer N,Waisman A

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • MicroRNA 375 mediates palmitate-induced enteric neuronal damage and high-fat diet-induced delayed intestinal transit in mice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:A high-fat diet (HFD) can cause serious health problems, including alteration of gastrointestinal transit, the exact mechanism of which is not clear. Several microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in energy homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and HFD-induced weight gain. We investigated the role of miRNAs in HFD-...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nezami BG,Mwangi SM,Lee JE,Jeppsson S,Anitha M,Yarandi SS,Farris AB 3rd,Srinivasan S

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Early mucosal healing with infliximab is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in ulcerative colitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:In the Active Ulcerative Colitis Trial (ACT)-1 and ACT-2, patients with ulcerative colitis treated with infliximab were more likely than those given placebo to have a clinical response, undergo remission, and have mucosal healing. We investigated the association between early improvement (based on end...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Colombel JF,Rutgeerts P,Reinisch W,Esser D,Wang Y,Lang Y,Marano CW,Strauss R,Oddens BJ,Feagan BG,Hanauer SB,Lichtenstein GR,Present D,Sands BE,Sandborn WJ

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Cell proliferation of the duodenal mucosa in patients affected by familial adenomatous polyposis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Patients affected by familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are at increased risk of developing duodenal adenomas. In this study, cell proliferation of duodenal mucosa was analyzed to detect kinetic abnormalities related to cancer risk. METHODS:Duodenal biopsy specimens were collected in three groups o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Santucci R,Volpe L,Zannoni U,Paganelli GM,Poggi B,Calabrese C,Biasco G

    更新日期:1997-10-01 00:00:00

  • Disordered gustatory acuity in liver disease.

    abstract::Disordered gustatory acuity was demonstrated in 22 patients with acute viral hepatitis and in 16 patients with chronic liver disease utilizing subjective responses and objective measurements of detection and recognition thresholds and scaling for NaCl, sucrose, HCl, and urea. In patients with early hepatitis and those...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith FR,Henkin RI,Dell RB

    更新日期:1976-04-01 00:00:00

  • Compositional and functional features of the gastrointestinal microbiome and their effects on human health.

    abstract::The human gastrointestinal tract contains distinct microbial communities that differ in composition and function based on their location, as well as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and diet of their host. We describe the bacterial taxa present in different locations of the GI tract, and their specific metabolic features. Th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hollister EB,Gao C,Versalovic J

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Trophic effects of pentagastrin on gastrointestinal tract in fed and fasted rats.

    abstract::In rats injected with pentagastrin (2-500 micrograms/kg subcutaneously) in saline, peak gastric acid responses occurred after 31 (30-min output) or 63 micrograms/kg (60-min output). Rats were fed or fasted for 48 h and injected every 8 h with 63, 250, or 1000 micrograms/kg pentagastrin. Fasting decreased body weight (...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Solomon TE

    更新日期:1986-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of thyroidectomy and triiodothyronine administration on rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    abstract::The effect of thyroidectomy on the activity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase and on the rate of ethanol elimination was determined in the rat. Thyroidectomy resulted in a marked increase in liver alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Three isoenzymes of alcohol dehydrogenase activity were demonstrated in thyroidectomized anim...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mezey E,Potter JJ

    更新日期:1981-03-01 00:00:00

  • The Wnt antagonist Dkk1 regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis and wound repair.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Dkk1 is a secreted antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. It is induced by inflammatory cytokines during colitis and exacerbates tissue damage by promoting apoptosis of epithelial cells. However, little is known about the physiologic role of Dkk1 in normal intestinal homeostasis and during...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koch S,Nava P,Addis C,Kim W,Denning TL,Li L,Parkos CA,Nusrat A

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Rab27b localizes to the tubulovesicle membranes of gastric parietal cells and regulates acid secretion.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Rabs are monomeric guanosine triphosphatases that regulate membrane trafficking and acid secretion in gastric parietal cells. Using a proteomics approach, we identified a new Rab, Rab27b, in tubulovesicle membranes and determined its role in parietal cell activation. METHODS:We used mass spectrometry...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suda J,Zhu L,Okamoto CT,Karvar S

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of bile salts on energy metabolism and acid secretion by the isolated toad gastric mucosa.

    abstract::The effects of bile salts on energy metabolism and acid secretion were investigated in the amphibian gastric mucosa in vitro. Serosal exposure to deoxycholate (0.2-2 mM), cholate (2-8 mM), or taurocholate (4-80 mM), at pH 7.4, decreased acid secretion depending on the concentration and time of exposure. Mucosal applic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Núñez D,Chacín J

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Mucosal microvascular architecture of the fundus and body of human stomach.

    abstract::Vascular casts of human oxyntic mucosa, examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealed that (a) arterial breakup occurs only at the submucosal aspect of the mucosa, there being no arterial vessels further into the mucosa and (b) mucosal capillaries drain into the infrequent mucosal venules only in the most luminal...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gannon B,Browning J,O'Brien P,Rogers P

    更新日期:1984-05-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic variants in cyclooxygenase-2: Expression and risk of gastric cancer and its precursors in a Chinese population.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:To screen the genetic variants in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and evaluate their effects on COX-2 expression and risk of gastric cancer (GC) and its precursors, a population-based study was conducted in Linqu County, Shangdong Province, an area of China, a high-risk area of GC. METHODS:Genotypes were d...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu F,Pan K,Zhang X,Zhang Y,Zhang L,Ma J,Dong C,Shen L,Li J,Deng D,Lin D,You W

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Independent influences of body mass and gastric volumes on satiation in humans.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:We assessed the association of body mass and gastric volumes (fasting and postprandial) with satiation and postprandial symptoms. METHODS:Healthy obese and nonobese subjects underwent measurement of caloric intake at maximum satiation; postprandial symptoms were measured with visual analogue scales 3...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Delgado-Aros S,Cremonini F,Castillo JE,Chial HJ,Burton DD,Ferber I,Camilleri M

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Recovery of sexual function in abstinent alcoholic men.

    abstract::Sixty chronically alcoholic men who were impotent and known to have abstained from alcohol were followed prospectively to determine (a) the frequency of spontaneous recovery of normal sexual functioning, (b) indicators of spontaneous recovery, and (c) the response of those who did not achieve a spontaneous recovery to...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van Thiel DH,Gavaler JS,Sanghvi A

    更新日期:1983-04-01 00:00:00

  • Intestinal B-cell isotype response in relation to local bacterial load: evidence for immunoglobulin A subclass adaptation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:In experimental animals, the indigenous microbiota modulates mucosal immunity. In humans, such direct evidence is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of intestinal bacteria on the local immunoglobulin (Ig) response. METHODS:The numbers of IgA-, IgM-, and IgG-producing immunocytes ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kett K,Baklien K,Bakken A,Kral JG,Fausa O,Brandtzaeg P

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Twin study indicates loss of interaction between microbiota and mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Interactions between genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in onset and initiation of inflammatory bowel disease. We analyzed the interaction between gastrointestinal mucosal microbiota and host genes in twin pairs discordant for ulcerative colitis (UC) to study the functional ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Lepage P,Häsler R,Spehlmann ME,Rehman A,Zvirbliene A,Begun A,Ott S,Kupcinskas L,Doré J,Raedler A,Schreiber S

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiology, Presentation, and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease.

    abstract::The incidence of celiac disease is increasing, partly because of improved recognition of, and testing for, the disease. The rise in incidence is also due to a real increase of this immune-based disorder, independent of disease detection. The reasons for this true rise in recent decades are unknown but may be related t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lebwohl B,Rubio-Tapia A

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Lipase and pepsin activity in the gastric mucosa of infants, children, and adults.

    abstract::The range of activity and the location of lipase and pepsin were determined in the stomach and duodenum of infants, children, and adults. The range of lipase activity in biopsy specimens from the gastric body, in 29 subjects aged from 3 months to 26 years, was 1.8-5.3 U/mg protein (1 U is 1 mumol [3H]oleic acid releas...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: DiPalma J,Kirk CL,Hamosh M,Colon AR,Benjamin SB,Hamosh P

    更新日期:1991-07-01 00:00:00

  • Functional expression of the canalicular bile salt export pump of human liver.

    abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatic bile salt secretion is an essential function of vertebrate liver. Rat and mouse bile salt export pump (Bsep) are adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent bile salt transporters. Mutations in human BSEP were identified as the cause of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2. BSEP pro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Noé J,Stieger B,Meier PJ

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Risk of colorectal cancer in patients prescribed statins, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: nested case-control study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Several studies suggest that statins prevent some cancers, with one study finding a 47% reduction in colorectal cancer risk after >or=5 years of regular use. METHODS:A nested case-control study was conducted within 454 general practices in the United Kingdom using the QRESEARCH database. Cases with...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Vinogradova Y,Hippisley-Cox J,Coupland C,Logan RF

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Ingestion of corrosive acids. Spectrum of injury to upper gastrointestinal tract and natural history.

    abstract::We have prospectively evaluated 41 patients who ingested acid for location, extent, severity, and outcome of the injury to the upper gastrointestinal tract. The injury was assessed within 36 h of acid intake by endoscopy or surgery, or at autopsy. Symptoms and signs were unreliable in predicting the extent and severit...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zargar SA,Kochhar R,Nagi B,Mehta S,Mehta SK

    更新日期:1989-09-01 00:00:00