Nicotine and neurodegeneration in ageing.


:Impairment in cholinergic systems is a highly consistent finding in human dementia. Among cholinergic markers, marked decreases in nicotine binding have been most consistently observed in the telencephalic regions of demented patients and are thought to contribute to the cognitive deficits associated with ageing and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. New evidence that the cholinergic system has a specific pathogenic role in the neurodegenerative alterations of aged and, especially, demented patients is fast accumulating. Both in vivo and in culture, nicotine protects striatal, hippocampal and cortical neurons against the neurotoxicity induced by excitotoxic amino acids as well as the toxicity caused by beta-amyloid, the major component of senile plaques. Further support for the implication of nicotinic receptors in brain ageing is come from recent studies on transgenic animals lacking nicotinic receptor subtypes, which shed light on the mechanisms of nicotine neuroprotection and neurotoxicity.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Zanardi A,Leo G,Biagini G,Zoli M





Has Abstract


2002-02-28 00:00:00














  • Benzodiazepines medazepam and midazolam are activators of pregnane X receptor and weak inducers of CYP3A4: investigation in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and hepatocarcinoma cell lines.

    abstract::Benzodiazepines have wide-spread used in pharmacotherapy for their anxiolytic, myorelaxant, hypnotic, amnesic and anticonvulsive properties. Despite benzodiazepines are used in clinics over 50 years, they have not been surprisingly tested for capability to induce major drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450. In the curren...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vrzal R,Kubesova K,Pavek P,Dvorak Z

    更新日期:2010-03-15 00:00:00

  • Activation of the cold-receptor TRPM8 by low levels of menthol in tobacco products.

    abstract::Activation of the cold-receptor TRPM8 by menthol or other tobacco additives can suppress natural defense reactions such as coughing that usually would become effective as involuntary resistance against the inhalation of fumes. In Europe menthol is only regulated as flavor, but can be used as additive as long as no cha...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paschke M,Tkachenko A,Ackermann K,Hutzler C,Henkler F,Luch A

    更新日期:2017-04-05 00:00:00

  • Chromosomal aberrations and in vitro radiosensitivity: intra-individual versus inter-individual variability.

    abstract::In order to assess the applicability of the micronucleus (MN) and G2 assays as biomarkers of in vitro radiosensitivity and cancer susceptibility, we investigated the inter- and intra-individual variation of these endpoints. For the MN assay unstimulated blood cultures from 57 healthy donors were exposed in vitro to 3....

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vral A,Thierens H,Baeyens A,De Ridder L

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • DNA alkylation lesions and their repair in human cells: modification of the comet assay with 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase (AlkD).

    abstract::3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase (AlkD) belongs to a new family of DNA glycosylases; it initiates repair of cytotoxic and promutagenic alkylated bases (its main substrates being 3-methyladenine and 7-methylguanine). The modification of the comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) using AlkD enzyme thus allows asse...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hašplová K,Hudecová A,Magdolénová Z,Bjøras M,Gálová E,Miadoková E,Dušinská M

    更新日期:2012-01-05 00:00:00

  • Potential mechanisms of tumorigenic action of diethanolamine in mice.

    abstract::Diethanolamine (DEA), a secondary amine found in a number of consumer products, reportedly induces liver tumors in mice. In an attempt to define the tumorigenic mechanism of DEA, N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) formation in vivo and development of choline deficiency were examined in mice. DEA was administered with or ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stott WT,Bartels MJ,Brzak KA,Mar M,Markham DA,Thornton CM,Zeisel SH

    更新日期:2000-04-03 00:00:00

  • Application of benchmark dose risk assessment methodology to developmental toxicity: an industrial view.

    abstract::The U.S. EPA first signalled its intention to use benchmark dose risk techniques in 1991. Subsequently, publication of draft Guidelines for the Risk Assessment of Reproductive Toxicity data indicated the Agency's intention for wide use of the technique. In developmental toxicity experiments, a number of factors need t...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Foster PM,Auton TR

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Protein adduct binding properties of tabun-subtype nerve agents after exposure in vitro and in vivo.

    abstract::Upon entering the body, nerve agents can bind active amino acid residues to form phosphonylated adducts. Tabun derivatives (O-alkyl-N,N-dialkyl phosphoroamidocyanidates) have strikingly different structural features from other G-series nerve agents, such as sarin and soman. Here, we investigate the binding mechanism f...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fu F,Liu H,Gao R,Zhao P,Lu X,Zhang R,Wang L,Wang H,Pei C

    更新日期:2020-03-15 00:00:00

  • Lactulose attenuates METH-induced neurotoxicity by alleviating the impaired autophagy, stabilizing the perturbed antioxidant system and suppressing apoptosis in rat striatum.

    abstract::Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused psychostimulant. Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar, which effectively decreases METH-induced neurotoxicity in rat. However, the exact mechanisms need further investigation. In this study, 5-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats received METH (15 mg/kg, 8 intraperitoneal injectio...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xie XL,He JT,Wang ZT,Xiao HQ,Zhou WT,Du SH,Xue Y,Wang Q

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the effects of pyridine and its metabolites on rat liver and kidney.

    abstract::In order to evaluate the possibility that the metabolism of pyridine may be important for its toxic actions, pyridine was compared with pyridine N-oxide, 2-hydroxypyridine, 3-hydroxypyridine, 4-hydroxypyridine and pyridinium methyliodide in rats given equal molar doses of the chemicals i.p. Hepatoxicity was assessed b...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carlson GP

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00

  • Chemical structure--teratogenicity relationships, toxicokinetics and metabolism in risk assessment of retinoids.

    abstract::Retinoic acid, an oxidative metabolite of vitamin A, is involved in the control of many biological processes including embryonic development and excess as well as deficiency of retinoids has been found to be teratogenic. The effects of retinoids in normal as well as abnormal development may be mediated by two members ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nau H

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • The distribution of manganese-54 in fetal, young and adult rats.

    abstract::The distribution of 54Mn in various organs of pregnant rats and of their 19-day-old fetuses and in non-pregnant female rats of various ages has been studied 18 h after an i.v. injection of 54MnCl2. The results indicate that early neonates are more susceptible to manganese (Mn) than the growing rats. The localization o...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaur G,Hasan SK,Srivastava RC

    更新日期:1980-05-01 00:00:00

  • Convergence of air pollutant-induced redox-sensitive signals in the dendritic cells contributes to asthma pathogenesis.

    abstract::Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a major risk factor for allergic airway inflammation such as asthma. Many of the PM components (i.e., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals) are redox-active and capable of inducing cellular oxidative stress and injuries including inflammation and cell death. Airwa...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Li N,Buglak N

    更新日期:2015-08-19 00:00:00

  • The investigation of the genotoxic effects of fenarimol and propamocarb in mouse bone marrow in vivo.

    abstract::In this study, we aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of fungicides fenarimol and propamocarb which are used to protect crops from fungi. For this reason, bone-marrow micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests were carried out in Swiss albino mice. Mice were injected with four different doses of fenarimol and pr...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aydemir N,Bilaloğlu R

    更新日期:2004-02-28 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of combined toxic effects of GB/GF and efficacy of jielin injection against combined poisoning in mice.

    abstract::A computer program (Q-test) was used to evaluate the combined toxic effects of nerve agent GF and its combined form with sarin (GB/GF) in mice. Efficacy of Jielin Injection, the 2-PAM-containing antidote used successfully in China for the treatment of organophosphate pesticide poisoning, was also evaluated and compare...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Luo C,Liang J

    更新日期:1997-08-22 00:00:00

  • Gene expression of biomarkers of nephrotoxicity in F344 rats co-exposed to melamine and cyanuric acid for seven days.

    abstract::A number of studies have demonstrated that co-exposure to low levels of melamine and cyanuric acid elicits renal toxicity due to the formation of melamine cyanurate crystals in the kidney nephrons. In this work, we investigated if co-exposure of rats to these compounds leads to alterations in the expression of the gen...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Camacho L,Kelly KP,Beland FA,Gamboa da Costa G

    更新日期:2011-10-10 00:00:00

  • Nitrogen mustard prevents transport of Fra-1 into the nucleus to promote c-Fos- and FosB-dependent IL-8 induction in injured mouse epidermis.

    abstract::Transcription factor activator protein (AP)-1 can be activated in nitrogen-mustard-injured mouse skin, and is thought to participate in the inflammatory response. AP-1 consists of homo- or heterodimers of Fos [c-Fos, Fos-B, fos-related antigen (Fra)-1 and Fra-2] and Jun (c-Jun, JunB and JunD) family members, and infor...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ye F,Zeng Q,Dan G,Dong X,Chen M,Sai Y,Lin H,Zou Z

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • A mixture of routinely encountered xenobiotics induces both redox adaptations and perturbations in blood and tissues of rats after a long-term low-dose exposure regimen: The time and dose issue.

    abstract::Exposure of humans to xenobiotic mixtures is a continuous state during their everyday routine. However, the majority of toxicological studies assess the in vivo effects of individual substances rather than mixtures. Therefore, our main objective was to evaluate the impact of the 12- and 18-month exposure of rats to a ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fountoucidou P,Veskoukis AS,Kerasioti E,Docea AO,Taitzoglou IA,Liesivuori J,Tsatsakis A,Kouretas D

    更新日期:2019-12-15 00:00:00

  • Effect of vitamin C on plasma total antioxidant status in patients with paraquat intoxication.

    abstract::This study was conducted to evaluate whether vitamin C (VC) was associated with total antioxidant status (TAS) in human plasma and to determine the usefulness of VC on TAS in the treatment of patients with paraquat poisoning. VC and TAS were measured in 56 healthy subjects. Then, various concentrations (1-100 mg/dl) o...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Hong SY,Hwang KY,Lee EY,Eun SW,Cho SR,Han CS,Park YH,Chang SK

    更新日期:2002-01-05 00:00:00

  • Biotransformation of the insecticide parathion by mouse brain.

    abstract::The acute toxicity of organothiophosphate insecticides like parathion results from their metabolic activation by cytochromes P450. The present study is directed towards the characterization of cytochrome-P450-dependent metabolism of parathion by various mouse brain regions. Intraperitoneal administration of [35S]parat...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Soranno TM,Sultatos LG

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Methylmercury impairs motor function in early development and induces oxidative stress in cerebellar granule cells.

    abstract::Environmental toxicants such as methylmercury play a critical role in the pathogenesis of many neurodevelopmental disorders. Environmental exposure to methylmercury frequently occurs at low doses, most frequently through fish consumption. Although the general population is at risk for exposure, pregnant women and youn...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Patel E,Reynolds M

    更新日期:2013-10-09 00:00:00

  • Influence of methylglyoxal on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage.

    abstract::The effect of different doses of methylglyoxal (50-400 mg/kg body wt.) were examined using enzymes involved in the antioxidant function, glutathione (GSH) content and lipid peroxidation in the liver and spleen of Swiss albino mice (7-8 week old) after 6, 12 and 24 h. Significant changes were observed predominantly in ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Choudhary D,Chandra D,Kale RK

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of iron poisoning.

    abstract::Iron is a unique poison because it is not a xenobiotic. It is an essential element and highly reactive. Because of the critical dependence upon iron and its potential to damage tissues, elaborate mechanisms have evolved for its efficient absorption, transport, cellular uptake, storage and conservation. These are incom...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tenenbein M

    更新日期:1998-12-28 00:00:00

  • Involvement of dysregulated Wip1 in manganese-induced p53 signaling and neuronal apoptosis.

    abstract::Overexposure to manganese (Mn) has been known to induce neuronal death and neurodegenerative symptoms. However, the precise mechanisms underlying Mn neurotoxicity remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we established a Mn-exposed rat model and found that downregulation of wild type p53-induced phosphata...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ma X,Han J,Wu Q,Liu H,Shi S,Wang C,Wang Y,Xiao J,Zhao J,Jiang J,Wan C

    更新日期:2015-05-19 00:00:00

  • MPP+-induces PUMA- and p53-dependent, but ATF3-independent cell death.

    abstract::Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and depletion of striatal dopamine (DA), leading to a range of motor symptoms, including resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural abnormalities. The neurotoxin (MPTP) and its active metabol...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bernstein AI,O'Malley KL

    更新日期:2013-05-23 00:00:00

  • Extrapolation from rat studies with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to humans: comparison of particle mass deposition and of clearance behavior of ETS compounds.

    abstract::The relative deposition of inhaled heterodisperse particles of the size of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, mass median aerodynamic diameter 0.2 micron, geometric standard deviation 1.5) is about the same in the tracheobronchial tree and is lower in the pulmonary region of the rat than in the same regions of humans. ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oberdörster G,Pott F

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • Determination of mercury in hair of children.

    abstract::Although high or repeated exposure to different forms of Hg can have serious health consequences, the most important toxicity risk for humans is as methylmercury (MeHg) which exposure is mainly through consumption of fish. Generally, more than the 80% of Hg in hair is as MeHg, which is taken up by hair follicles as Me...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pino A,Bocca B,Forte G,Majorani C,Petrucci F,Senofonte O,Alimonti A

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Ga(III) complexes--the effect of metal coordination on potential systemic absorption after topical exposure.

    abstract::The handling of elemental gallium is not thought to be harmful, but this assumption does not consider metal coordination which readily occurs in physiological fluids. The aim of this work was to determine Ga(III) coordination behaviour in simple solutions and assess the effects of complex formation upon skin permeatio...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Staff K,Brown MB,Chilcott RP,Hider RC,Jones SA,Kong XL

    更新日期:2011-05-10 00:00:00

  • Effects of pretreatment with SKF-525A on triphenyltin metabolism and toxicity in mice.

    abstract::The effects of cytochrome P-450 inhibition by alpha-phenyl-alpha-propylbenzeneacetic acid 2-[diethylamino]-ethyl ester hydrochloride (SKF-525A), which inhibits the activity of a number of cytochrome P-450s, on triphenyltin metabolism and toxicity in mice were studied. At 24 h after triphenyltin administration, the tri...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ohhira S,Matsui H,Watanabe K

    更新日期:2000-11-20 00:00:00

  • Delayed neurochemical effects of prenatal exposure to MeHg in the cerebellum of developing rats.

    abstract::Human fetuses and neonates are particularly vulnerable to methylmercury (MeHg)-induced brain damage and are sensitive even to low exposure levels. Previous work of our group evidence that prenatal exposure to MeHg causes cognitive and behavioral alterations and disrupt hippocampus signaling. The current study aimed to...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heimfarth L,Delgado J,Mingori MR,Moresco KS,Pureur RP,Gelain DP,Moreira JCF

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Glycochenodeoxycholic acid impairs transcription factor E3 -dependent autophagy-lysosome machinery by disrupting reactive oxygen species homeostasis in L02 cells.

    abstract::Cholestasis represents pathophysiologic syndromes defined as impaired bile flow from the liver. As an outcome, bile acids accumulate and promote hepatocyte injury, followed by liver cirrhosis and liver failure. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) is relatively toxic and highly concentrated in bile and serum after chole...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lan W,Chen Z,Chen Y,Tan M,Chen Y,Chen J,Chi X,Chen Y

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00