Measurement of a confinement induced neutron phase.


:Particle physicists see neutrons as tiny massive particles with a confinement radius of about 0.7 fm and a distinct internal quark gluon structure. In quantum mechanics, neutrons are described by wave packets whose spatial extent may become ten orders of magnitude larger than the confinement radius, and can even reach macroscopic dimensions, depending on the degree of monochromaticity. For neutrons passing through narrow slits, it has been predicted that quantization of the transverse momentum component changes the longitudinal momentum component, resulting in a phase shift that should be measurable using interferometric methods. Here we use neutron interferometry to measure the phase shift arising from lateral confinement of a neutron beam passing through a narrow slit system. The phase shift arises mainly from neutrons whose classical trajectories do not touch the walls of the slits. In this respect, the non-locality of quantum physics is apparent.






Rauch H,Lemmel H,Baron M,Loidl R





Has Abstract


2002-06-06 00:00:00
















  • Inherited myeloproliferative neoplasm risk affects haematopoietic stem cells.

    abstract::Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood cancers that are characterized by the excessive production of mature myeloid cells and arise from the acquisition of somatic driver mutations in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Epidemiological studies indicate a substantial heritable component of MPNs that is among the h...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bao EL,Nandakumar SK,Liao X,Bick AG,Karjalainen J,Tabaka M,Gan OI,Havulinna AS,Kiiskinen TTJ,Lareau CA,de Lapuente Portilla AL,Li B,Emdin C,Codd V,Nelson CP,Walker CJ,Churchhouse C,de la Chapelle A,Klein DE,Nilsson

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • First-passage times in complex scale-invariant media.

    abstract::How long does it take a random walker to reach a given target point? This quantity, known as a first-passage time (FPT), has led to a growing number of theoretical investigations over the past decade. The importance of FPTs originates from the crucial role played by first encounter properties in various real situation...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Condamin S,Bénichou O,Tejedor V,Voituriez R,Klafter J

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Energetics of running: a new perspective.

    abstract::The amount of energy used to run a mile is nearly the same whether it is run at top speed or at a leisurely pace (although it is used more rapidly at the higher speed). This puzzling independence of energy cost and speed is found generally among running animals, although, on a per gram basis, cost is much higher for s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kram R,Taylor CR

    更新日期:1990-07-19 00:00:00

  • Drosophila wingless generates cell type diversity among engrailed expressing cells.

    abstract::During embryogenesis, body pattern is established in a stepwise process. After specification of the body axis, the embryo is subdivided into smaller units. Within these units, a diverse array of cell types is then generated. The subdivisions of the Drosophila embryo, called parasegments, are defined by the interface b...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dougan S,DiNardo S

    更新日期:1992-11-26 00:00:00

  • Shotgun bisulphite sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome reveals DNA methylation patterning.

    abstract::Cytosine DNA methylation is important in regulating gene expression and in silencing transposons and other repetitive sequences. Recent genomic studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have revealed that many endogenous genes are methylated either within their promoters or within their transcribed regions, and that gene methyl...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cokus SJ,Feng S,Zhang X,Chen Z,Merriman B,Haudenschild CD,Pradhan S,Nelson SF,Pellegrini M,Jacobsen SE

    更新日期:2008-03-13 00:00:00

  • Suppression of CED-3-independent apoptosis by mitochondrial betaNAC in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    abstract::To ensure cell survival, it is essential that the ubiquitous pro-apoptotic machinery is kept quiescent. As death is irreversible, cells must continually integrate developmental information with regulatory inputs to control the switch between repressing and activating apoptosis. Inappropriate activation or suppression ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bloss TA,Witze ES,Rothman JH

    更新日期:2003-08-28 00:00:00

  • Epithelial transformation of metanephric mesenchyme in the developing kidney regulated by Wnt-4.

    abstract::The kidney has been widely exploited as a model system for the study of tissue inductions regulating vertebrate organogenesis. Kidney development is initiated by the ingrowth of the Wolfian duct-derived ureteric bud into the presumptive kidney mesenchyme. In response to a signal from the ureter, mesenchymal cells cond...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stark K,Vainio S,Vassileva G,McMahon AP

    更新日期:1994-12-15 00:00:00

  • Synthesis of growth hormone by bacteria.

    abstract::A hybrid gene was constructed between the beta-lactamase gene of plasmid pBR322 and the cloned coding sequence for rat growth hormone. This gene is expressed in bacteria and growth hormone sequences are detectable by immunological methods. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seeburg PH,Shine J,Martial JA,Ivarie RD,Morris JA,Ullrich A,Baxter JD,Goodman HM

    更新日期:1978-12-21 00:00:00

  • Tunable long-distance spin transport in a crystalline antiferromagnetic iron oxide.

    abstract::Spintronics relies on the transport of spins, the intrinsic angular momentum of electrons, as an alternative to the transport of electron charge as in conventional electronics. The long-term goal of spintronics research is to develop spin-based, low-dissipation computing-technology devices. Recently, long-distance tra...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lebrun R,Ross A,Bender SA,Qaiumzadeh A,Baldrati L,Cramer J,Brataas A,Duine RA,Kläui M

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Progressive incision of the Channeled Scablands by outburst floods.

    abstract::The surfaces of Earth and Mars contain large bedrock canyons that were carved by catastrophic outburst floods. Reconstructing the magnitude of these canyon-forming floods is essential for understanding the ways in which floods modify planetary surfaces, the hydrology of early Mars and abrupt changes in climate. Flood ...


    pub_type: 信件


    authors: Larsen IJ,Lamb MP

    更新日期:2016-10-13 00:00:00

  • Cell lineage-specific undermethylation of mouse repetitive DNA.

    abstract::Several distinct cell lineages are established during mouse embryogenesis. The trophectoderm and primitive endoderm give rise to extraembryonic structures alone, while the primitive ectoderm becomes the fetus proper. Recent studies suggest that the levels of DNA modification are lower in inactive X chromosomes from ex...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chapman V,Forrester L,Sanford J,Hastie N,Rossant J

    更新日期:1984-01-19 00:00:00

  • Generation of an antibody with enhanced affinity and specificity for its antigen by protein engineering.

    abstract::A detailed description of the interactions between an antibody and its epitope is necessary to allow an understanding of the way in which antibodies bind to antigenic surfaces presented by foreign molecules. Ideally this should be done by analysis of crystal structures of antibody-antigen complexes, but so far only tw...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roberts S,Cheetham JC,Rees AR

    更新日期:1987-08-20 00:00:00

  • A new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily--CTLA-4.

    abstract::The immunoglobulin superfamily is a group of proteins, each made of one or several domains sharing key structural features with either the variable (V) or the constant (C) immunoglobulin domains. It includes such functionally important members as the immunoglobulins themselves, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brunet JF,Denizot F,Luciani MF,Roux-Dosseto M,Suzan M,Mattei MG,Golstein P

    更新日期:1987-07-16 00:00:00

  • Identification of the transforming EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    abstract::Improvement in the clinical outcome of lung cancer is likely to be achieved by identification of the molecular events that underlie its pathogenesis. Here we show that a small inversion within chromosome 2p results in the formation of a fusion gene comprising portions of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-l...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Soda M,Choi YL,Enomoto M,Takada S,Yamashita Y,Ishikawa S,Fujiwara S,Watanabe H,Kurashina K,Hatanaka H,Bando M,Ohno S,Ishikawa Y,Aburatani H,Niki T,Sohara Y,Sugiyama Y,Mano H

    更新日期:2007-08-02 00:00:00

  • Migratory neural crest-like cells form body pigmentation in a urochordate embryo.

    abstract::The neural crest, a source of many different cell types in vertebrate embryos, has not been identified in other chordates. Current opinion therefore holds that neural crest cells were a vertebrate innovation. Here we describe a migratory cell population resembling neural crest cells in the ascidian urochordate Ecteina...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jeffery WR,Strickler AG,Yamamoto Y

    更新日期:2004-10-07 00:00:00

  • Early Pleistocene human occupation at the edge of the boreal zone in northwest Europe.

    abstract::The dispersal of early humans from Africa by 1.75 Myr ago led to a marked expansion of their range, from the island of Flores in the east to the Iberian peninsula in the west. This range encompassed tropical forest, savannah and Mediterranean habitats, but has hitherto not been demonstrated beyond 45 degrees N. Until ...


    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Parfitt SA,Ashton NM,Lewis SG,Abel RL,Coope GR,Field MH,Gale R,Hoare PG,Larkin NR,Lewis MD,Karloukovski V,Maher BA,Peglar SM,Preece RC,Whittaker JE,Stringer CB

    更新日期:2010-07-08 00:00:00

  • Peptide growth factors are multifunctional.

    abstract::The actions of many peptide growth factors include both stimulation and inhibition of cell proliferation, as well as effects unrelated to the control of cell growth. One peptide can have both stimulatory and inhibitory activity in a single cell, depending on the context of the other signal molecules present. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sporn MB,Roberts AB

    更新日期:1988-03-17 00:00:00

  • Antibody-based protection against HIV infection by vectored immunoprophylaxis.

    abstract::Despite tremendous efforts, development of an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has proved an elusive goal. Recently, however, numerous antibodies have been identified that are capable of neutralizing most circulating HIV strains. These antibodies all exhibit an unusually high level of somat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Balazs AB,Chen J,Hong CM,Rao DS,Yang L,Baltimore D

    更新日期:2011-11-30 00:00:00

  • Specific interaction of the murine transcription termination factor TTF I with class-I RNA polymerases.

    abstract::The 18-base-pair sequence element AGGTCGACCAGTACTCCG (the Sal box) signals termination of mouse ribosomal gene transcription. This sequence is recognized by a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, TTF I, which mediates the termination of transcription by RNA polymerase I (pol I). Subsequently, the ends of the primary...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuhn A,Bartsch I,Grummt I

    更新日期:1990-04-05 00:00:00

  • Distinct aspects of neuronal differentiation encoded by frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ transients.

    abstract::Stimulation of transient increases in intracellular calcium (Cai2+) activates protein kinases, regulates transcription and influences motility and morphology. Developing neurons generate spontaneous Cai2+ transients, but their role in directing neuronal differentiation and the way in which they encode information are ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gu X,Spitzer NC

    更新日期:1995-06-29 00:00:00

  • Strontium isotopic resolution of magma dynamics in a layered intrusion.

    abstract::Kalka is one of about 14 major layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions forming the Giles Complex in central Australia1. The stratigraphical section of the Kalka Intrusion passes from a basal pyroxenite zone (450 + m) through norite and olivine gabbro zones (3,500 m) to an uppermost anorthosite zone (800 + m)2. Further res...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gray CM,Goode ADT

    更新日期:1981-11-12 00:00:00

  • Single amino acid substitutions in influenza haemagglutinin change receptor binding specificity.

    abstract::The haemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins of influenza virus membranes are responsible for binding viruses to cells by interacting with membrane receptor molecules which contain sialic acid (for review see ref. 1). This interaction is known to vary in detailed specificity for different influenza viruses (see, for example,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rogers GN,Paulson JC,Daniels RS,Skehel JJ,Wilson IA,Wiley DC

    更新日期:1983-07-07 00:00:00

  • West Nile virus emergence and large-scale declines of North American bird populations.

    abstract::Emerging infectious diseases present a formidable challenge to the conservation of native species in the twenty-first century. Diseases caused by introduced pathogens have had large impacts on species abundances, including the American chestnut, Hawaiian bird species and many amphibians. Changes in host population siz...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: LaDeau SL,Kilpatrick AM,Marra PP

    更新日期:2007-06-07 00:00:00

  • Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation.

    abstract::Melanocytes are phenotypically prominent but histologically inconspicuous skin cells. They are responsible for the pigmentation of skin and hair, and thereby contribute to the appearance of skin and provide protection from damage by ultraviolet radiation. Pigmentation mutants in various species are highly informative ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lin JY,Fisher DE

    更新日期:2007-02-22 00:00:00

  • Correlative genetic variation in natural populations of cats, mice and men.

    abstract::The study of the extent and basis of gene-enzyme variation has long been a principal concern of population genetics. Numerous surveys have indicated considerable amounts of genetic variation detectable in natural populations, with few exceptions. The variances of average heterozygosities (H) between species and among ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Brien SJ,Gail MH,Levin DL

    更新日期:1980-12-11 00:00:00

  • Structure of a C-type mannose-binding protein complexed with an oligosaccharide.

    abstract::C-type (Ca(2+)-dependent) animal lectins such as mannose-binding proteins mediate many cell-surface carbohydrate-recognition events. The crystal structure at 1.7 A resolution of the carbohydrate-recognition domain of rat mannose-binding protein complexed with an oligomannose asparaginyl-oligosaccharide reveals that Ca...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weis WI,Drickamer K,Hendrickson WA

    更新日期:1992-11-12 00:00:00

  • Simple mathematical models with very complicated dynamics.

    abstract::First-order difference equations arise in many contexts in the biological, economic and social sciences. Such equations, even though simple and deterministic, can exhibit a surprising array of dynamical behaviour, from stable points, to a bifurcating hiearchy of stable cycles, to apparently random fluctuations. There ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: May RM

    更新日期:1976-06-10 00:00:00

  • Defining brain wiring patterns and mechanisms through gene trapping in mice.

    abstract::The search to understand the mechanisms regulating brain wiring has relied on biochemical purification approaches in vertebrates and genetic approaches in invertebrates to identify molecular cues and receptors for axon guidance. Here we describe a phenotype-based gene-trap screen in mice designed for the large-scale i...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leighton PA,Mitchell KJ,Goodrich LV,Lu X,Pinson K,Scherz P,Skarnes WC,Tessier-Lavigne M

    更新日期:2001-03-08 00:00:00

  • Origin of a 'Southern Hemisphere' geochemical signature in the Arctic upper mantle.

    abstract::The Gakkel ridge, which extends under the Arctic ice cap for approximately 1,800 km, is the slowest spreading ocean ridge on Earth. Its spreading created the Eurasian basin, which is isolated from the rest of the oceanic mantle by North America, Eurasia and the Lomonosov ridge. The Gakkel ridge thus provides unique op...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goldstein SL,Soffer G,Langmuir CH,Lehnert KA,Graham DW,Michael PJ

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • A factor discriminating between the wild-type and a mutant polyomavirus enhancer.

    abstract::Enhancers increase the frequency of transcription initiation from linked promoter elements, most probably as a result of the binding of specific proteins to the enhancer. The polyomavirus early region is expressed in differentiated mouse cells but not in undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. This host range...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kovesdi I,Satake M,Furukawa K,Reichel R,Ito Y,Nevins JR

    更新日期:1987-07-02 00:00:00