Perinatal and maternal outcome following abruptio placentae.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE:To characterize the maternal and fetal presentation of abruptio placentae and associated maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality by mode of delivery and fetal status on admission. STUDY DESIGN:Perinatal data (gestational age > 24 weeks) from women with abruptio placentae at a tertiary referral center were analyzed. For the purpose of evaluating fetal morbidity and mortality, group 1 included women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (preeclampsia or chronic hypertension), PROM, cocaine abuse, and > 20% abruptio placentae without regard to fetal status on admission (reassuring, nonreassuring, or stillborn). In group 1, either umbilical artery pH < 7.0, Apgar < 3(5), or base excess > 12 mmol/L represented perinatal hypoxia for this evaluation. Group 2 included women with stillborn fetuses on admission without regard to etiology or size of abruptio placentae. Comparisons between groups were made with one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, or chi2 tests; p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS:Group 1 was comprised of 342 women; 58.4% of fetuses had abnormal fetal heart rate tracings. Overall, the sensitivity of an abnormal fetal heart rate tracing to predict perinatal hypoxia was 87.2%, specificity was 33.9%, positive predictive value was 22.2%, and negative predictive value was 92.5%. Of parameters suggestive for perinatal hypoxia, 17.3% of neonates had Apgar < 3(5), 13.0% had umbilical artery pH < 7.0, and 9.9% had base excess > 12 mmol/L. Overall, neonatal survival was 84.7%; 12.0% of fetuses were stillborn. For those fetuses alive on admission, cesarean delivery was associated with a significant reduction in neonatal mortality: odds ratio of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.20) and p = 0.0001. Group 2 was comprised of 61 women. Women presenting with a stillborn infant on admission were more likely to require transfusions and suffer the complications (disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, acute renal failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome) than women presenting with a live fetus. CONCLUSION:Cesarean delivery appeared to reduce neonatal mortality. Whether emergent cesarean delivery resulted in the birth of compromised fetus cannot be evaluated from this study. Composite maternal morbidity is increased when a stillborn fetus is present on admission.

journal_name

Hypertens Pregnancy

authors

Witlin AG,Sibai BM

doi

10.1081/PRG-100106969

keywords:

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2001-01-01 00:00:00

pages

195-203

issue

2

eissn

1064-1955

issn

1525-6065

pii

100106969

journal_volume

20

pub_type

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