Genomic organization and promoter analysis of mouse follistatin-related gene (FLRG).


:Follistatin (FS) is well characterized as an activin-binding protein. Recently, a novel follistatin-like protein called follistatin-related gene (FLRG) that has a similar domain organization to that of follistatin has been identified. Like follistatins, FLRG binds activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). To study the regulation of FLRG expression, we have analyzed the genomic organization and promoter of the mouse FLRG gene. The mouse FLRG gene consists of five exons, and each encodes discrete functional regions. The overall genomic structure of FLRG is similar to that of FS except that the FLRG gene is missing one exon that codes a third FS domain found in FS. The promoter that covers 2.5 kbp and is linked to a luciferase reporter construct is active in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells as well as in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Deletion analysis of the promoter regions indicates that a proximal 550 base pairs are enough for basal FLRG promoter activity in the cell lines. FLRG promoter activity is significantly augmented by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment, but not by cAMP stimulation. By contrast, FS promoter is activatable either by cAMP or PMA. Thus, although FS and FLRG are structurally and functionally related, their modes of regulation by external stimuli are different.


Mol Cell Endocrinol


Nakatani M,Yamakawa N,Matsuzaki T,Shimasaki S,Sugino H,Tsuchida K





Has Abstract


2002-03-28 00:00:00














  • c-Src/Pyk2/EGFR/PI3K/Akt/CREB-activated pathway contributes to human cardiomyocyte hypertrophy: Role of COX-2 induction.

    abstract::Thrombin and COX-2 regulating cardiac hypertrophy are via various signaling cascades. Several transcriptional factors including CREB involve in COX-2 expression. However, the interplay among thrombin, CREB, and COX-2 in primary human neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes remains unclear. In this study, thrombin-induced ...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chien PT,Lin CC,Hsiao LD,Yang CM

    更新日期:2015-07-05 00:00:00

  • Actions of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors on the epididymis.

    abstract::Testosterone is converted to the more biologically active androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), by steroid 5alpha-reductase. Two isozymes of 5alpha-reductase, types 1 and 2, are abundantly expressed in the epididymis. DHT is the androgen found in the nuclei of epididymal cells and is essential for the maturation of spe...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Robaire B,Henderson NA

    更新日期:2006-05-16 00:00:00

  • An estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 clone that is resistant to antiestrogens and estradiol.

    abstract::The antiestrogen tamoxifen has been successfully used to control estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor positive breast cancer. However, the development of antiestrogen resistance is frequently observed in patients following long term treatment. We have studied the development of antiestrogen resistance in v...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jiang SY,Wolf DM,Yingling JM,Chang C,Jordan VC

    更新日期:1992-12-01 00:00:00

  • Participation of NADPH 4 oxidase in thyroid regulation.

    abstract::Different factors are involved in thyroid function and proliferation such as thyrotropin (TSH), insulin, growth factors, iodide, etc. TSH and IGF1/insulin increase proliferation rate and stimulate genes involved in thyroid differentiation. In the present study, we analyse the physiological regulation of NOX4 expressio...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oglio R,Salvarredi L,Rossich L,Copelli S,Pisarev M,Juvenal G,Thomasz L

    更新日期:2019-01-15 00:00:00

  • A new tool for efficient transfection of dog and human thyrocytes in primary culture.

    abstract::The introduction of exogenous DNA into mammalian cells is commonly used to study the functions of gene products. However cells in primary culture are usually refractory to most transfection systems. Here we investigated the ability of a new lipid formulation, FuGENE 6 transfection reagent, to promote DNA uptake into d...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Uyttersprot N,Costagliola S,Miot F

    更新日期:1998-07-25 00:00:00

  • MAP kinase phosphatase 3 inhibits brown adipocyte differentiation via regulation of Erk phosphorylation.

    abstract::Brown fat has been highlight as a new therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and diabetes. However, molecular mechanism underlying brown adipogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we identified that MAP kinase phosphatase 3 (MKP3) has a novel role as regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation. The expression ...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim WK,Oh KJ,Choi HR,Park A,Han BS,Chi SW,Kim SJ,Bae KH,Lee SC

    更新日期:2015-11-15 00:00:00

  • A genome-wide assessment of adrenocorticotropin action in the Y1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line.

    abstract::This report summarizes the genome-wide effects of ACTH on transcript accumulation in mouse adrenal Y1 cells and the relative contributions of the cAMP-, protein kinase C- and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways to these actions of the hormone. ACTH affected the accumulation of 1386 transcripts, a much larger number th...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Schimmer BP,Cordova M,Cheng H,Tsao A,Morris Q

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Spermatocyte-specific transcription by calmodulin gene II promoter in transgenic mice.

    abstract::Transgenic mice carrying a fused gene of the 294-base upstream and 68-base leader sequences of a rat calmodulin gene, CaMII, and beta-galactosidase gene were made. Only spermatocytes expressed the transgene mRNA in the testes of four independent transgenic lines. The localization of transgene mRNA was consistent with ...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ikeshima H,Shimoda K,Matsuo K,Hata J,Maejima K,Takano T

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • Vasculoprotective effects of somatostatin receptor subtypes.

    abstract::We have shown that somatostatin agonist peptide CH275, selective to somatostatin receptor (sst) subtypes 1,4, was more effective in preventing intimal hyperplasia than the sst2,3,5-selective octreotide, raising the question what are the separate roles of the sst1- and 4-subtypes. Here, we dissect this observation furt...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tigerstedt NM,Aavik E,Aavik S,Savolainen-Peltonen H,Hayry P

    更新日期:2007-12-15 00:00:00

  • Paracrine action of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) during ruminant mammogenesis.

    abstract::Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a stroma-derived mitogen mediating epithelial-stromal interactions. We investigated the role of KGF during epithelial-stromal interactions accompanying ruminant mammogenesis. Target-specificity of KGF was demonstrated in that KGF-stimulated proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hovey RC,Davey HW,Vonderhaar BK,Mackenzie DD,McFadden TB

    更新日期:2001-07-05 00:00:00

  • Melatonin-and serotonin-stimulated release of vasopressin from rat neurohypophysis in vitro.

    abstract::In order to study the control of vasopressin-release, the effect of a series of potential agents was studied in an in vitro perifusion system of rat neurohypophysis after in vivo treatment with nialamide, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. In this system, metlatonin stimulated vasopressin-release in a dose-dependent manne...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lemay A,Brouillette A,Denizeau F,Lavoie M

    更新日期:1979-05-01 00:00:00

  • Dual action of arachidonic acid on calcium mobilization in avian granulosa cells.

    abstract::The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) on calcium mobilization from intracellular compartments in digitonin-permeabilized granulosa cells isolated from the largest preovulatory follicles of laying hens. At low concentrations (ED50 0.2 microM) AA released 35% 45Ca from the en...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hertelendy F,Molnár M,Jamaluddin M

    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00

  • Estrogen receptor beta signals to inhibition of cardiac fibrosis.

    abstract::Cardiac fibrosis evolves from the cardiac hypertrophic state. In this respect, estrogen and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) inhibit the effects of cardiac hypertrophic peptides that also stimulate fibrosis. Here we determine details of the anti-fibrotic functions of ERβ. In acutely isolated rat cardiac fibroblasts. E2 or...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pedram A,Razandi M,Narayanan R,Levin ER

    更新日期:2016-10-15 00:00:00

  • The role of acid-labile subunit (ALS) in the modulation of GH-IGF-I action.

    abstract::Acid-labile subunit (ALS) deficiency (ACLSD) constitutes the first monogenic defect involving a member of the Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) binding protein system. The lack of ALS completely disrupts the circulating IGF system. Autocrine/paracrine action of local produced IGF-I could explain the mild effect on grow...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Domené S,Domené HM

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Association of Ad4BP/SF-1 transcription factor with steroidogenic activity in oncogene-transformed granulosa cells.

    abstract::Adrenal binding protein 4 (Ad4BP) known also as steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a cell specific transcription factor regulating all steroidogenic P450 genes and is present exclusively in steroidogenic tissues. In this study, we examined whether Ad4BP expression is affected by oncogene-induced cell transformation. Usi...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keren-Tal I,Dantes A,Plehn-Dujowich D,Amsterdam A

    更新日期:1997-03-14 00:00:00

  • The IGF system during fetal-placental development of the mouse.

    abstract::Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and -II) promote cellular mitosis and differentiation and have been implicated in fetal and placental growth. Together with the IGF receptors and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) they form a complex network, with tissue specific activity. This review will discuss the data generated to e...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van Kleffens M,Groffen C,Lindenbergh-Kortleve DJ,van Neck JW,González-Parra S,Dits N,Zwarthoff EC,Drop SL

    更新日期:1998-05-25 00:00:00

  • The sexual dimorphism of obesity.

    abstract::The NIH has recently highlighted the importance of sexual dimorphisms and has mandated inclusion of both sexes in clinical trials and basic research. In this review we highlight new and novel ways sex hormones influence body adiposity and the metabolic syndrome. Understanding how and why metabolic processes differ by ...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Palmer BF,Clegg DJ

    更新日期:2015-02-15 00:00:00

  • Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate induces oxidative stress in human endometrial stromal cells in vitro.

    abstract::Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) accumulates in the environment, and its exposure is possibly associated with endocrine-related disease in women of reproductive age. The effects of DEHP on human endometrial cells are unknown. We treated human endometrial stromal cells with 10, 100, and 1000 pmol of DEHP and measured...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cho YJ,Park SB,Han M

    更新日期:2015-05-15 00:00:00

  • Morphine alters the levels of growth hormone receptor mRNA and [125I]growth hormone binding in human IM-9 lymphoblasts via a naloxone-reversible mechanism.

    abstract::The immune system and the neuroendocrine system are functionally interactive. Lymphocytes possess opioid receptors as well as growth hormone receptors (GHR) by which opioids and growth hormone (GH) may modulate immune functions. In this study, we have investigated the effects of morphine on [125I]hGH binding and GHR g...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Henrohn D,Le Grevés P,Nyberg F

    更新日期:1997-12-12 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of FSH action on granulosa cells by low molecular weight components of follicular fluid.

    abstract::Immature female rats were injected with a single dose (10 IU) of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin to induce growth and maturation of ovarian follicles. Using such ovaries as a model, we tested the effects of low molecular weight subfractions of charcoal-absorbed bovine follicular fluid (FF-c) on (a) radioiodinated hum...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fletcher PW,Dias JA,Sanzo MA,Reichert LE Jr

    更新日期:1982-03-01 00:00:00

  • Adrenal zonation: clues from 11beta-hydroxylase and aldosterone synthase.

    abstract::Aldosterone and cortisol are the major mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid produced by the human adrenal. Circulating levels of angiotensin II and potassium control the adrenal production of aldosterone, while the production of cortisol is controlled mainly by adrenocorticotropin. The capacity of the adrenal cortex t...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rainey WE

    更新日期:1999-05-25 00:00:00

  • LHR splicing variants and gene expression in the marmoset monkey.

    abstract::In the marmoset monkey, the LHR type II, lacking exon 10, is the native receptor type. We characterised the LHR splicing pattern in marmoset testes and the adrenals during puberty and in pre- and postpubertal ovaries and quantified mRNA LHR expression in the testis. We detected 11 LHR splicing variants expressed at si...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Michel C,Gromoll J,Chandolia R,Luetjens CM,Wistuba J,Simoni M

    更新日期:2007-12-15 00:00:00

  • Mitochondrial signals drive insulin secretion in the pancreatic β-cell.

    abstract::β-Cell nutrient sensing depends on mitochondrial function. Oxidation of nutrient-derived metabolites in the mitochondria leads to plasma membrane depolarization, Ca(2+) influx and insulin granule exocytosis. Subsequent mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake further accelerates metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Nutrient a...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wiederkehr A,Wollheim CB

    更新日期:2012-04-28 00:00:00

  • Localization of the heparin binding site of follistatin.

    abstract::To define the heparin-binding site of follistatin, the reduced and S-carboxymethylated recombinant human follistatin containing 288 amino acids was digested by Staphylococcus aureus V8. The digested product was subjected to sulfate cellufine column chromatography and the adsorbed peptide fragments eluted with a stepwi...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Inouye S,Ling N,Shimasaki S

    更新日期:1992-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of ACTH administration on zonation of the guinea pig adrenal cortex.

    abstract::Experiments were done to determine the actions of ACTH on the morphologic and functional characteristics of the zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR) in the guinea pig adrenal cortex. In control guinea pigs, a number of morphologic differences distinguished the ZF from the ZR, including the presence of far m...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yuan BB,Tchao R,Funae Y,Voigt JM,Colby HD

    更新日期:1998-11-25 00:00:00

  • Binding kinetics of ligands acting at GPCRs.

    abstract::The influence of drug-receptor binding kinetics has often been overlooked during the development of new therapeutics that target G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Over the last decade there has been a growing understanding that an in-depth knowledge of binding kinetics at GPCRs is required to successfully target th...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sykes DA,Stoddart LA,Kilpatrick LE,Hill SJ

    更新日期:2019-04-05 00:00:00

  • 5'Deiodinase in two breast cancer cell lines: effect of triiodothyronine, isoproterenol and retinoids.

    abstract::Thyroid hormones participate in the regulation of growth, development and energy expenditure of vertebrates. Type I (D1) and type II 5'deiodinases catalyze the peripheral conversion of the thyroid prohormone thyroxine to the active form triiodothyronine (T3). D1 is expressed in organs like liver, thyroid, and lactatin...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: García-Solís P,Aceves C

    更新日期:2003-03-28 00:00:00

  • Lactocrine programming of female reproductive tract development: environmental connections to the reproductive continuum.

    abstract::For eutherian mammals a continuum of maternal support insures that development of progeny follows an optimal program. Beginning in utero, such support extends into the early neonatal period when bioactive factors are communicated from mother to offspring in colostrum/milk. Defined as lactocrine signaling, communicatio...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bartol FF,Bagnell CA

    更新日期:2012-05-06 00:00:00

  • TRESK: the lone ranger of two-pore domain potassium channels.

    abstract::TRESK (TWIK-related spinal cord K(+) channel, KCNK18) belongs to the two-pore domain (K2P) background (leak) potassium channel family. Unlike other K2P channels, TRESK is activated by the calcium signal in heterologous expression systems. The activation is mediated by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphata...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Enyedi P,Braun G,Czirják G

    更新日期:2012-04-28 00:00:00

  • Endocannabinoids, sperm functions and energy metabolism.

    abstract::Cannabinoids, the main active components of marijuana, have been shown to exert different adverse effects on male reproduction both in vertebrates and invertebrates. The main effects of endocannabinoids, a particular group of endogenously produced cannabinoids, in sperm are the inhibition of motility, capacitation and...

    journal_title:Molecular and cellular endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rossato M

    更新日期:2008-04-16 00:00:00