Ras/Raf signalling and emerging pharmacotherapeutic targets.


:The Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway is a ubiquitously expressed signalling module that regulates the proliferation, differentiation and survival of cells. This pathway features several oncogenes and is deregulated in approximately 30% of all human cancers. Thus, it has emerged as a prime target for antitumour therapy. Drugs targeting Ras, Raf or MEK are currently in clinical trials. They comprise vaccines, isoprenylation inhibitors, antisense compounds and kinase inhibitors. Most are remarkably well tolerated and some show promising efficacy. However, it is not clear which components of this pathway should be targeted and how maximum efficacy can be achieved. This paper reviews the current efforts with an emphasis on new mechanistic and conceptual approaches.


Kolch W





Has Abstract


2002-06-01 00:00:00












  • Imiquimod: an immune response modifier in the treatment of precancerous skin lesions and skin cancer.

    abstract::Actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are precancerous and cancerous skin lesions that should be treated especially when multiple or in cosmetically important areas. Apart from 5% 5-fluorouracil topical cream, which some feel is the gold standard topical treatment for AK, several invasive treatment mod...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Papadavid E,Stratigos AJ,Falagas ME

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cost-effectiveness of widespread screening for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    abstract::Screening for sexually transmitted diseases is included in routine health care for several infectious agents in many western European countries. Current considerations on extensions of these programs include widespread screening strategies for Chlamydia trachomatis. In women, C. trachomatis infection may lead to seque...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Postma MJ,Welte R,Morré SA

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • The use of cephalosporins for gonorrhea: the impending problem of resistance.

    abstract::Gonorrhea remains an important clinical and public health problem throughout the world. Gonococcal infections have historically been diagnosed by Gram stain and culture but are increasingly diagnosed through nucleic acid tests, thereby eliminating the opportunity for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Gonococcal in...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Barry PM,Klausner JD

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Recommendations for the management of migraine in paediatric patients.

    abstract::Migraine is a common and disabling condition in children and adolescents. The complexity of migraine on a pathogenetic and clinical level results from the interaction between biological, psychological and environmental factors. Appropriate management requires an individually tailored strategy giving due consideration ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Balottin U,Termine C

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Immunosuppressive therapy of childhood idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

    abstract::Childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a distressing chronic renal disorder with potentially life threatening complications. Over 80% of cases in children are due to minimal change disease and the majority will respond to corticosteroid therapy. Steroid-sensitive NS is considered a relatively benign condition, since pro...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Abeyagunawardena A,Brogan PA,Trompeter RS,Dillon MJ

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of a sequential treatment combining abaloparatide and alendronate for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    abstract::The recently published results of the sequential treatment of postmenopausal osteoporotic women with subcutaneous abaloparatide (80 µg/day) (ABL) for 18 months followed by 6 months of oral alendronate (70 mg/week) (ALN) support the administration of an anti-resorptive agent after completion of a treatment course with ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Reginster JY,Al Daghri N,Kaufman JM,Bruyère O

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison between insulin degludec/liraglutide treatment and insulin glargine/lixisenatide treatment in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract:AIM:To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of IDegLira and IGlarLixi treatment and to perform a comparison between two strategies. METHODS:The registration number is CRD42017053952. Randomized controlled trials of IGlarLixi treatment or IDegLira treatment compared with placebo or active hypoglycemic agents in ty...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Cai X,Gao X,Yang W,Ji L

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Current and emerging drug treatment strategies for peripheral arterial disease.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a prevalent but underdiagnosed manifestation of atherosclerosis that has a worse prognosis than coronary artery disease. Patients with PAD are at heightened risk of both systemic cardiovascular adverse events and limb-related morbidity. There is insufficient awareness of ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Essa H,Torella F,Lip GYH

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor augmentation in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    abstract::Negative symptoms are core features of schizophrenia that respond poorly to first-generation antipsychotics and present a major obstacle in rehabilitation. Patients may be somewhat more responsive to clozapine and second-generation antipsychotics but even then, considerable impairment remains. This paper reviews the u...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Silver H

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Paroxetine mesylate: comparable to paroxetine hydrochloride?

    abstract:IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD:Currently available small case reports clearly propose that existing regulatory procedures to approve generic versions only require essential bioequivalence, have limitations and fail to meet stricter scientific and clinical demands. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW:Data indicate that paroxetine me...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pae CU,Misra A,Ham BJ,Han C,Patkar AA,Masand PS

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic, relapsing, debilitating disorder, associated with markedly impaired social and occupational functioning. Pharmacological treatment is considered standard care and several drug classes are now FDA approved for the treatment of GAD. While there are clear data ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Reinhold JA,Mandos LA,Rickels K,Lohoff FW

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Luseogliflozin and other sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors: no enemy but time?

    abstract::Glycosuria is being increasingly recognised as not only a symptom but also as a novel therapeutic approach in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This is accomplished through sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Consequently, the safety and efficacy of these new agents have been thoroughl...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Pafili K,Papanas N

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment modalities for bacterial rhinosinusitis.

    abstract:IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD:Rhinosinusitis is a common illness that represents a substantial economic burden. The vast majority of cases resolve spontaneously but a small proportion develops a secondary bacterial infection. Accurate diagnosis of rhinosinusitis depends upon clinical assessment. Isolation of the causative ag...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brook I

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Hydrochlorothiazide: is it a wise choice?

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) has not been shown to reduce mortality or cardiovascular events when given as a single agent. In fact, HCTZ increased cardiovascular death and coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to placebo and usual care in 2 randomized trials, yet it is the most prescribed diuretic in the Un...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: DiNicolantonio JJ

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Vancomycin for treatment of invasive, multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    abstract::Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial pathogen responsible for a variety of serious infections and is a frequent cause of nosocomial disease. During the last 60 years, S. aureus has developed increasing in vitro resistance to virtually all antimicrobials. In contrast, vancomycin has maintained a high degree of activity...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pope SD,Roecker AM

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment options for paediatric diabetes.

    abstract:IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD:Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disease in childhood. The global incidence of diabetes emphasizes the health, social and financial magnitude of this disease and the importance of optimizing disease management and prevention. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW:This article reviews the t...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Verrotti A,Chiuri RM,Blasetti A,Mohn A,Chiarelli F

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Trospium chloride: an anticholinergic quaternary ammonium compound for the treatment of overactive bladder.

    abstract::The International Continence Society has defined overactive bladder (OAB) as urinary urgency, with or without urge urinary incontinence, usually with urinary frequency and nocturia. Approximately 17% of men and women in the US report OAB symptoms, which can affect quality of life. Trospium chloride, which has recently...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zinner NR

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Developments and current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations for ankylosing spondylitis.

    abstract::The introduction of anti-TNFalpha therapy into the field of rheumatology has led to dramatic improvements in patient care, perhaps the most remarkable being in the management of ankylosing spondylitis. As experience with these compounds grows, their place in therapeutic strategy is becoming clearer, and it has been po...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zochling J,Braun J

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Asthma therapy during pregnancy.

    abstract::Numerous pregnant women suffer from asthma and the use of asthma medications during pregnancy may be a necessity. Although some information is known about the effects of asthma medications during pregnancy, there is still a significant amount of information to learn and particular attention is required when prescribin...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Demoly P,Piette V,Daures JP

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • Stiripentol and vigabatrin current roles in the treatment of epilepsy.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Stiripentol and vigabatrin are the two anticonvulsant drugs currently approved in severe infantile-onset epilepsies, respectively Dravet syndrome and infantile spasms. AREAS COVERED:For both, the indication was discovered by chance thanks to an exploratory study. Both demonstrated indisputable efficacy th...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chiron C

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological treatment for uterine leiomyosarcomas.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Pharmacological treatment plays a major role in the management of advanced, persistent or recurrent uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS), whereas its usefulness in the adjuvant setting is still debated. A thorough literature search was undertaken using the Pubmed databases. Systematic reviews and controlled trials...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gadducci A,Guerrieri ME

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Treating short bowel syndrome with pharmacotherapy.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Short bowel syndrome (SBS) has traditionally been regarded as a rapidly fatal medical catastrophe. The advent of pharmacological options directly targeting disease pathophysiology justified this review. AREAS COVERED:Since the 1970s, home parenteral nutrition has reduced mortality, converting SBS into a c...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hollanda Martins Da Rocha M,Lee ADW,Marin MLM,Faintuch S,Mishaly A,Faintuch J

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Moxonidine: some controversy.

    abstract::Initially it was considered that moxonidine, like clonidine, acted at central (2)-adrenoceptors to reduce blood pressure. With the characterisation of imidazoline binding sites distinct from (2)-adrenoceptors, the consensus became that moxonidine was acting predominantly at imidazoline I(1) receptors in the rostral ve...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Doggrell SA

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacotherapy of large B-cell lymphoma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Constituting approximately 30% of lymphoid malignancies, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common aggressive lymphoma in adults worldwide. The clinical and biologic heterogeneity that exists in DLBCL suggests that this entity might actually be comprised of several distinct neoplasms that coul...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Escalón MP,Lossos IS

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Clopidogrel in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    abstract::Clopidogrel has become a mainstay in the management of acute coronary syndrome patients over the past decade, as well as an essential component of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) pharmacotherapy. Until recently, no prospective study has evaluated the effectiveness of clopidogrel in the setting of an ST-segmen...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hamdalla H,Moliterno DJ

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • The impact of daily sildenafil on levels of soluble molecular markers of endothelial function in plasma in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the impact of daily sildenafil on levels of soluble molecular markers of endothelial function in men with erectile dysfunction. METHODS:Patients aged >18 years with erectile dysfunction of vascular etiology for >6 months, either alone or in combination with disease states strongly associated w...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Konstantinopoulos A,Giannitsas K,Athanasopoulos A,Spathas D,Perimenis P

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Alprazolam extended-release in panic disorder.

    abstract::Alprazolam-XR is an extended-release formulation of alprazolam designed to deliver sustained therapeutic concentrations for 24 h after once-daily dosing. Plasma concentrations gradually decline as the time for the next dose approaches, but still remain above therapeutic minimum levels. The anti-panic efficacy of alpra...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Rickels K

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • The efficacy and safety of teneligliptin added to ongoing metformin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized study with open label extension.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of teneligliptin co-administered to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were inadequately controlled by stable metformin monotherapy ≥ 1000 mg/day. METHODS:A total of 447 patients from 55 European centers who completed a 14-day screening and ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Bryson A,Jennings PE,Deak L,Paveliu FS,Lawson M

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment options for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: can we apply "precision medicine" to antimicrobial chemotherapy?

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:For the past three decades, carbapenems played a central role in our antibiotic armamentarium, trusted to effectively treat infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria. The utility of this class of antibiotics has been compromised by the emergence of resistance especially among Enterobacteriaceae. AREAS ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Perez F,El Chakhtoura NG,Papp-Wallace KM,Wilson BM,Bonomo RA

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Management of insomnia in alcohol use disorder.

    abstract::Introduction: Insomnia has been implicated in the development, maintenance, worsening, and relapse of alcohol use disorder (AUD).Areas covered: The authors review the possible pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options of insomnia for patients with alcohol-use disorder and provide their expert opinion.E...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Geoffroy PA,Lejoyeux M,Rolland B

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00