Therapeutic monitoring of mycophenolate mofetil in organ transplant recipients: is it necessary?


:Adequate immunosuppression minimising the risk of organ rejection with acceptable tolerability of the used drugs is a crucial step in organ transplantation. The primary goal is to maintain a consistent time-dependent target concentration by tailoring individual dosage leading to the best efficacy and tolerability combination. The use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to optimise immunosuppressive therapy is routinely employed for maintenance drugs such as cyclosporin and tacrolimus. The question whether therapeutic monitoring of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in organ transplant recipients treated with mycophenolate mofetil is necessary is not definitely answered. The correlation of mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetic parameters with efficacy and toxicity makes the therapeutic monitoring of this drug promising. However, further studies are mandatory to draw the best guidelines in order to achieve higher levels of evidence that MPA-TDM may improve patient outcome.


Clin Pharmacokinet


Mourad M,Wallemacq P,König J,de Frahan EH,Eddour DC,De Meyer M,Malaise J,Squifflet JP





Has Abstract


2002-01-01 00:00:00














  • Evaluation and optimisation of current milrinone prescribing for the treatment and prevention of low cardiac output syndrome in paediatric patients after open heart surgery using a physiology-based pharmacokinetic drug-disease model.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Milrinone is the drug of choice for the treatment and prevention of low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) in paediatric patients after open heart surgery across Europe. Discrepancies, however, among prescribing guidance, clinical studies and practice pattern require clarification to ensure safe an...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vogt W

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Renal elimination of amikacin and the aging process.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Although amikacin is primarily eliminated via glomerular filtration, drug concentrations are not consistently predicted in all patients. To better describe the relationship between amikacin clearance and both age and renal function, we used a new heuristic approach involving statistical analysis of dependence...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ducher M,Maire P,Cerutti C,Bourhis Y,Foltz F,Sorensen P,Jelliffe R,Fauvel JP

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Relevance of absorption rate and lag time to the onset of action in migraine.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this analysis was to simulate the performance of oral triptan formulations with varying absorption characteristics and their impact on the onset and magnitude of the antimigraine effect using a Markov model for migraine attacks. ANALYSIS:Sumatriptan pharmacokinetic data were obtained from cl...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maas HJ,Spruit MA,Danhof M,Della Pasqua OE

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • The fentanyl HCl patient-controlled transdermal system (PCTS): an alternative to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia in the postoperative setting.

    abstract::Inadequate pain control in the postoperative period not only contributes to patient discomfort, but also causes physiological changes that may result in increased risk of myocardial ischaemia, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. These events complicate postoperative recovery and may lead to longer hospital st...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sinatra R

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Multiple-dose non-linear regression analysis program. Aminoglycoside dose prediction.

    abstract::The ability of a new multiple-dose non-linear regression analysis program to predict steady-state aminoglycoside peak and trough serum concentrations was evaluated. 30 patients receiving either amikacin (7), gentamicin (10) or tobramycin (13) were studied. A standard method of prediction which requires the collection ...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koup JR,Killen T,Bauer LA

    更新日期:1983-09-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics of taurolidine following repeated intravenous infusions measured by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS of the derivatives taurultame and taurinamide in glioblastoma patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Taurolidine is known to have antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, at lower concentrations, it has been found to exert a selective antineoplastic effect in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of taurolidine in vivo following repeated intravenous infus...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stendel R,Scheurer L,Schlatterer K,Stalder U,Pfirrmann RW,Fiss I,Möhler H,Bigler L

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Maintenance Immunosuppression in Solid Organ Transplantation: Integrating Novel Pharmacodynamic Biomarkers to Inform Calcineurin Inhibitor Dose Selection.

    abstract::Calcineurin inhibitors, the primary immunosuppressive therapy used to prevent alloreactivity of transplanted organs, have a narrow therapeutic index. Currently, treatment is individualized based on clinical assessment of the risk of rejection or toxicity guided by trough concentration monitoring. Advances in immune mo...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Leino AD,Pai MP

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Patient-controlled analgesic therapy. Part I: Pharmacokinetics of pethidine in the per- and postoperative periods.

    abstract::The influence of anaesthesia and surgery on the pharmacokinetics of pethidine (meperidine) was studied in 12 patients. Plasma pethidine concentrations in central venous blood collected during anaesthesia and the ensuing postoperative hours were by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Postoperative analg...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tamsen A,Hartvig P,Fagerlund C,Dahlström B

    更新日期:1982-03-01 00:00:00

  • Achieving an optimal outcome in the treatment of infections. The role of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antimicrobials.

    abstract::Over the past few decades, the importance of applying pharmacokinetic principles to the design of drug regimens has been increasingly recognised by clinicians. From the perspective of antimicrobial chemotherapy, an improvement in clinical outcome and/or a reduction in toxicity are of primary interest. Before applicati...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Li RC,Zhu M,Schentag JJ

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • Target-Mediated Drug Disposition Population Pharmacokinetics Model of Alirocumab in Healthy Volunteers and Patients: Pooled Analysis of Randomized Phase I/II/III Studies.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibition with monoclonal antibodies such as alirocumab significantly reduces low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels ± other lipid-lowering therapies. We aimed to develop and qualify a population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) model for alirocumab in...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Djebli N,Martinez JM,Lohan L,Khier S,Brunet A,Hurbin F,Fabre D

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Dose-Dependent Bioavailability and CYP3A Inhibition Contribute to Non-Linear Pharmacokinetics of Voriconazole.

    abstract::Voriconazole is both a substrate and a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. It has a high bioavailability and non-linear pharmacokinetics. We investigated the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of 50 mg and 400 mg doses of intravenous and oral voriconazole in 14 healthy volunteers. Concurrently, we determined sy...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Hohmann N,Kocheise F,Carls A,Burhenne J,Weiss J,Haefeli WE,Mikus G

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • The efficiency concept in pharmacodynamics.

    abstract::The classic approach to describe the pharmacological response to a drug is to analyse its concentration-effect relationship, using a variety of possible models such as maximum effect (Emax) models or sigmoid Emax models. The aim of this review is to discuss an alternative way of describing the pharmacological effect i...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Alván G,Paintaud G,Wakelkamp M

    更新日期:1999-05-01 00:00:00

  • Disposition of antipyrine and phenytoin correlated with age and liver volume in man.

    abstract::The half-life and metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of antipyrine and phenytoin were determined in 14 young (mean age: 28.8 +/- 8.3 (SD) years] and in 14 elderly [mean age: 83.5 +/- 7.1 (SD) years] subjects and correlated with liver volume, which was determined by ultrasonic scanning, to see if an age-dependent differenc...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bach B,Hansen JM,Kampmann JP,Rasmussen SN,Skovsted L

    更新日期:1981-09-01 00:00:00

  • Fluvoxamine. A review of global drug-drug interaction data.

    abstract::The overall reporting rate of drug-drug interactions with fluvoxamine is very low: only 73 cases have been identified from an estimated exposure of over 8 million patients worldwide. The reporting rate is similar in men and women, and most events relate to the use of fluvoxamine in conjunction with psychotropic compou...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wagner W,Vause EW

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Population Pharmacokinetics and Exploratory Pharmacodynamics of Lorazepam in Pediatric Status Epilepticus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Lorazepam is one of the preferred agents used for intravenous treatment of status epilepticus (SE). We combined data from two pediatric clinical trials to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of intravenous lorazepam in infants and children aged 3 months to 17 years with active SE or a history of SE....

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Gonzalez D,Chamberlain JM,Guptill JT,Cohen-Wolkowiez M,Harper B,Zhao J,Capparelli EV,Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act – Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee.

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Covariance analysis of laboratory variance in steady-state serum phenytoin concentrations.

    abstract::Inpatients (n = 57) on long term prophylaxis with 2 oral phenytoin preparations were followed up via monthly checks of serum drug concentrations. Duplicate serum aliquots were submitted to 2 laboratories, and covariance analysis was used to estimate laboratory error. The laboratory-associated variance of examinations ...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Costeff H,Groswasser Z,Soroker N,van Belle G

    更新日期:1991-04-01 00:00:00

  • Drug-Drug Interactions with Direct Oral Anticoagulants.

    abstract::A large body of evidence suggests that not only direct anticoagulant effects but also major bleeding events and stroke prevention depend on plasma concentrations of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Concomitant drugs that cause drug-drug interactions (DDIs) alter DOAC exposure by increasing or decreasing DOAC bioava...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Foerster KI,Hermann S,Mikus G,Haefeli WE

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Routine plasma anti-Xa monitoring is required for low-molecular-weight heparins.

    abstract::Low-molecular-weight heparins are anticoagulants used in the treatment of thrombosis. They have effectiveness and safety profiles similar to those of unfractionated heparin but are considered an attractive alternative because of their predictable pharmacokinetic characteristics. In this article, we demonstrate the nee...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Al-Sallami HS,Barras MA,Green B,Duffull SB

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical pharmacokinetics of nabumetone. The dawn of selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibition?

    abstract::Nabumetone is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the 2,6-disubstituted naphthyl-alkanone class. Nabumetone is metabolised to an active metabolite 6-methoxy-2-napthylacetic acid (6-MNA) which is a relatively selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor that has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Nabumet...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Davies NM

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • Ethnic or racial differences revisited: impact of dosage regimen and dosage form on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

    abstract::Ethnic or racial differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have been attributed to the distinctions in the genetic, physiological and pathological factors between ethnic/racial groups. These pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic differences are also known to be influenced by several extrinsic factors such as soci...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chen ML

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Concentration-effect analysis of antihypertensive drug response. Focus on calcium antagonists.

    abstract::Although individualised antihypertensive therapy is widely recommended, prospective methods for optimising treatment are hampered by the paucity of basic information about dose-plasma concentration-response relationships for commonly used drugs. Concentration-effect analysis has been applied to a number of therapeutic...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Donnelly R,Elliott HL,Meredith PA

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Renal insufficiency has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of vicriviroc in a ritonavir-containing regimen.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Vicriviroc is a small-molecule CCR5 antagonist currently in development for the treatment of HIV in patients on a regimen containing a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor. As renal disease and renal dysfunction are prevalent in the HIV-infected population, patients with varying degrees of rena...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kasserra C,Sansone-Parsons A,Keung A,Tetteh E,Assaf M,O'Mara E,Marbury T

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics of deferiprone in patients with β-thalassaemia: impact of splenectomy and iron status.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Iron-rich transfusions and/or a compensatory increase in iron absorption ultimately result in iron loading in patients with β-thalassaemia. Hence, without iron chelation, iron accumulates relentlessly. Deferiprone has been shown to be capable of reducing the iron burden in patients with β-thala...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Limenta LM,Jirasomprasert T,Jittangprasert P,Wilairat P,Yamanont P,Chantharaksri U,Fucharoen S,Morales NP

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Models for placental transfer studies of drugs.

    abstract::Pregnancy is a specific dynamic state, and the potential usefulness of caring for a disorder in the fetus or the mother is now well established. Previously, pregnant women have been excluded from clinical trials, therefore only a few studies concerning evaluation of the pregestational metabolism or transplacental tran...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bourget P,Roulot C,Fernandez H

    更新日期:1995-02-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical pharmacokinetics of alpha 1-antitrypsin in homozygous PiZ deficient patients.

    abstract::A pharmacokinetic study of alpha 1-antitrypsin (ATT) was performed in 2 groups of homozygous PiZ-deficient patients (treated and untreated) and 1 group of healthy volunteers. The distribution of the 131I-labelled protein corresponds to a 3-compartment model. The intravenously administered protein diffused quickly to t...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Constans J,Carles P,Boneu A,Arnaud J,Tufenkji AE,Pujazon MC,Tavera C

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Optimization of Antibiotic Therapy in Cystic Fibrosis Patients: Current Evidences, Gaps in Knowledge and Future Directions.

    abstract::Antibiotic therapy is one of the main treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF). It aims to eradicate bacteria during early infection, calms down the inflammatory process, and leads to symptom resolution of pulmonary exacerbations. CF can modify both the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of antibiotics,...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Magréault S,Roy C,Launay M,Sermet-Gaudelus I,Jullien V

    更新日期:2021-01-24 00:00:00

  • A Review of the Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Immunogenicity of Vedolizumab.

    abstract::Vedolizumab is a humanized anti-α4β7 integrin monoclonal antibody that selectively blocks trafficking of memory T cells to inflamed gut tissue by inhibiting the α4β7-mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) interaction. Approved for treating patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rosario M,Dirks NL,Milch C,Parikh A,Bargfrede M,Wyant T,Fedyk E,Fox I

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • Cellular Uptake of Glucocerebrosidase in Gaucher Patients Receiving Enzyme Replacement Treatment.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is currently the standard treatment for patients with Gaucher disease type I (GD1), but the pharmacokinetics have hardly been studied. This study aimed to quantify in vivo enzyme activity in peripheral leukocytes from patients receiving long-term treatment with imiglucerase o...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gras-Colomer E,Martínez-Gómez MA,Moya-Gil A,Fernandez-Zarzoso M,Merino-Sanjuan M,Climente-Martí M

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • A Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Abemaciclib in a Phase I Clinical Trial in Cancer Patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Abemaciclib, a dual inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6, has demonstrated clinical activity in a number of different cancer types. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics of abemaciclib in cancer patients using population pharmacokinetic (popPK) modelin...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Tate SC,Sykes AK,Kulanthaivel P,Chan EM,Turner PK,Cronier DM

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • What is the evidence for once-daily aminoglycoside therapy?

    abstract::Aminoglycosides are important antibacterial agents for the treatment of serious infection. Evidence suggests that high peak plasma concentrations must be achieved early in the course of treatment if these agents are to be effective, but prolonged high concentrations may cause ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Peak plasm...

    journal_title:Clinical pharmacokinetics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Barclay ML,Begg EJ,Hickling KG

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00